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Full text of "The Institutio oratoria of Quintilian"

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I3 2..0 




This book belongs to 

THE LIBRARY 

VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

Toronto 5, Canada 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

fE. CAPPS, ph.d., ll.d. tW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, l.h.d. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., F.RjnsT.soc. 



QUINTILIAN 
III 



THE INSTITUTIO ORATORIA OF 

QUINTILIAN 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
H. E. BUTLER, M.A., 

PROFESSOR Or LATIN IN LONDON UNIVKRSITT 



IN FOUR VOLUMES 
III 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMUX 






First printed 1921 
Reprinted 1943, 1953, 1959 






ocs 1 



Printed in Great Britain 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Tkr.-g. 
ROOK VII 3 

Preface. — Ch. 1: Arrangement. — Ch. 2: Con- 
jecture. — Ch. 3: Definition. — Ch. 4: Quality. — 
Ch. 5 : Points of law.— Ch. 6 : The letter of the 
law and intention. — Ch. 7: Contradictory laws.— 
Ch. 8 : Syllogism.— Ch. 9: Ambiguity. —Ch. 10: 
Relation of various status or bases. Each case 
must be considered on its merits. Rules not 
possible for every case. 

book viii 177 

Preface —Ch. 1: Style.— Ch. 2: Propriety of 
words. — Ch. 3 : Stylistic ornament ; merits and 
faults. — Ch. 4 : Amplification and diminution. — 
Ch. 5 : General reflexions and their value in 
oratory. — Ch. 6 : Tropes. 

BOOK IX 340 

Ch. 1 : Figures of thought and of speech. — Ch. 2: 
Figures of thought considered in detail. — Ch. 3 : 
Figures of speech considered in detail. — Ch 4 : 
Artistic structure and rhythm ; metrical feet and 
their appropriate employment. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

A considerable portion of the three books con- 
tained in this volume is of a highly technical 
character and of interest only to professed students 
of the technique of the ancient schools of rhetoric 
and the minuter points of Latin prose style. Even 
these portions contain not a little that is of general 
interest, but those which are likely to be most 
attractive to the general reader are VII. i and vi, 
the whole of VIII., and IX. i, 1-21, and iv, 1-57. 
Wherever discussion of bases occurs, the reader is 
referred back to III. vi, as the subject is too com- 
plicated to be dealt with in notes. Similarly for the 
Syllogism, Enthymeme or Epichaereme reference 
will be necessary to the passages indicated in the 
footnotes. 

H. E. B. 



vii 



SIGLA 

A = Codex Ambrosianus, 11th century. 

B = Agreement of Codices Bernensis, Bambergensis and 
Nostradamensis, 10th century. 

G = Codex Bambergensis where gaps in B have been 
supplied by an 11th-century hand. 



QUINTILIAN 
BOOK VII 



vol ru. 



M. FABII QUINTILIANI 
INSTITUTIONS ORATORIAE 

LIBER VII 

Prooemium 

De inventione, ut arbitror, satis dictum est. 
Neque enim ea demura, quae ad docendum perti- 
nent, exsecuti sumus, verum etiam motus animorum 
tractavimus. Sed ut opera exstruentibus satis non 
est saxa atque materiam et cetera aedificanti utilia 
congerere, nisi disponendis eis collocandisque arti- 
ficium manus adhibeatur, sic in dicendo quamlibet 
abundans rerum copia cumulum tantum habeat 
atque congestum, nisi illas eadem dispositio in 
ordinem digestas atque inter se commissas de- 
2 vinxerit. Nee immerito secunda quinque partium 
posita est, cum sine ea prior nihil valeat. Neque 
enim quanquam fusis omnibus membris statua sit, 
nisi collocetur, et si quam in corporibus nostris 
aliorumve animalium partem permutes et transferase 

1 cp. vi. iv. 1. Invention, arrangement, style, memory, 
delivery. 



THE INSTITUTIO ORATORIA 
OF QUINTILIAN 

BOOK VII 

Preface 

I think that enough has been said on the subject 
of invention. For I have dealt not merely with the 
methods by which we may instruct the judge, but 
also with the means of appealing to his emotions. 
But just as it is not sufficient for those who are 
erecting a building merely to collect stone and timber 
and other building materials, but skilled masons are 
required to arrange and place them, so in speaking, 
however abundant the matter may be, it will merely 
form a confused heap unless arrangement be em- 
ployed to reduce it to order and to give it connexion 
and firmness of structure. Nor is it without good 
reason that arrangement is treated as the second of 
the five departments of oratory, 1 since without it the 
first is useless. For the fact that all the limbs of a 
statue have been cast does not make it a statue : they 
must be put together ; and if you were to inter- 
change some one portion of our bodies or of those 
of other animals with another, although the body 
would be in possession of all the same members 



QUINTILIAN 

licet habeat eadem omnia, prodigium sit tamen. 
Et artus etiam leviter loco moti perdunt quo 
viguerunt usum, et turbati exercitus sibi ipsi sunt 

3 impedimento. Nee mihi videntur errare qui ipsam 
rerum naturam stare ordine putant, quo confuso 
peritura sint omnia. Sic oratio carens hac virtute 
tumultuetur necesse est et sine rectore fluitet nee 
cohaereat sibi, multa repetat, multa transeat, velut 
nocte in ignotis locis errans, nee initio nee fine 
proposito casum potius quam consilium sequatur. 

4 Quapropter totus hie liber serviatdispositioni^quae 
quidem, si certa aliqua via tradi in oranes materias 
ullo modo posset, non tarn paucis contigisset. Sed 
cum infinitae litium formae fuerint futuraeque sint 
et tot saeculis nulla reperta sit causa, quae esset 
tota alteri similis, sapiat oportet actor et vigilet et 
inveniat et iudicet et consilium a se ipso petat. 
Neque infitias eo quaedam esse quae demonstrari 
possint, eaque non omittam. 

I. Sit igitur, ut supra significavi, divisio rerum 
plurium in singulas, partitio singularum in partes 
discretio, ordo recta quaedam collocatio prioribus 

1 dispositioni, early editors : diviaioni, MSS. 
1 v. x. 63. 



BOOK VII. Pr. 2-1. i 

as before, you would none the less have produced 
a monster. Again even a slight dislocation will 
deprive a limb of its previous use and vigour, and 
disorder in the ranks will impede the move- 
ments of an army. Nor can I regard as an error 
the assertion that order is essential to the existence 
of nature itself, for without order everything would 
go to wrack and ruin. Similarly if oratory lack this 
virtue, it cannot fail to be confused, but will be 
like a ship drifting without a helmsman, will lack 
cohesion, will fall into countless repetitions and 
omissions, and, like a traveller who has lost his way 
in unfamiliar country, will be guided solely by chance 
without fixed purpose or the least idea either of 
starting-point or goal. 

The whole of this book, therefore, will be devoted 
to arrangement, an art the acquisition of which would 
never have been such a rarity, had it been possible to 
lay down general rules which would suit all subjects. 
But since cases in the courts have always presented 
an infinite variety, and will continue to do so, and 
since through all the centuries there has never been 
found one single case which was exactly like any 
other, the pleader must rely upon his sagacity, keep 
his eyes open, exercise his powers of invention and 
judgment and look to himself for advice. On the 
other hand, I do not deny that there are some points 
which are capable of demonstration and which 
accordingly I shall be careful not to pass by. 

I. Division, as I have already stated, 1 means the 
division of a group of things into its component 
parts, partition is the separation of an individual 
whole into its elements, order the correct disposition 



QUINTILIAN 

sequentia adnectens, dispositio utilis rerum ac 

2 partium in locos distributio. Sed meminerimus 
ipsam dispositionem plerumque utilitate mutari nee 
eandem semper primam quaestionem ex utraque 
parte tractandam. Cuius rei, ut cetera exempla 
praeteream, Demosthenes quoque atque Aeschines 
possunt esse documento in iudicio Ctesiphontis 
diversum secuti ordinem, cum accusator a iure, quo 
videbatur potentior, coeperit, patronus omnia paene 
ante ius posuerit, quibus iudicem quaestioni legum 

3 praepararet. Aliud enim alii docere prius expedit, 
alioqui semper petitoris arbitrio diceretur ; denique 
in accusatione mutua, cum se uterque defendat, 
priusquam adversarium arguat, omnium rerum ne- 
cesse est ordinem esse diversum. Igitur, quid ipse 
sim secutus, quod partim praeceptis partim usur- 
patum ratione cognoveraim promam nee unquam 
dissimulavi. 

4 Erat mihi curae in controversiis forensibus nosse 
omnia, quae in causa versarentur. Nam in schola 
certa sunt et pauca et ante declamationem expo- 
nuntur, quae themata Graeci vocant, Cicero pro- 

1 cp. in. x. 4. 

2 cp vi. iv. 8; IV. ii. 28. 
8 Top., 21. 



BOOK VII. j. 1-4 

of tilings in such a way that what follows coheres 
with what precedes, while arrangement is the distri- 
bution of things and parts to the places which it is 
expedient that they should occupy. But we must 2 
remember that arrangement is generally dependent 
on expediency, and that the same question will not 
always be discussed first by both parties. An 
example of what I mean, to quote no others, is 
provided by Demosthenes and Aeschines, who adopt 
a different order in the trial of Ctesiphon, since the 
accuser begins by dealing with the legal question 
involved, in which he thought he had the advantage, 
whereas the advocate for the defence treats practi- 
cally every other topic before coming to the question 
of law, with a view to preparing the judges for a 
consideration of the legal aspect of the case. For 3 
it will often be expedient for the parties to place 
different points first ; otherwise the pleading would 
always be determined by the good pleasure of the 
prosecution. Finally, in a case of mutual accusation, 1 
where both parties have to defend themselves before 
accusing their antagonist, the order of everything 
must necessarily be different. I shall therefore set 
forth the method adopted by myself, about which I 
have never made any mystery : it is the result in 
part of instruction received from others, in part of 
my own reasoning. 

When engaged in forensic disputes I made it a 4 
point to make myself familiar with every circum- 
stance connected with the case. 2 (In the schools, 
of course, the facts of the case are definite and 
limited in number and are moreover set out before 
we begin to declaim : the Greeks call them themes, 
which Cicero 3 translates by propositions.) When I 



QUINTILIAN 

posita. Cum haec in conspectu quodammodo collo- 
caveram, non minus pro adversa parte quam pro 

5 mea cogitabam. Et primum (quod non difficile 
dictu est sed tamen ante omnia intuendum) con- 
stituebam, quid utraque pars vellet efficere, turn 
per quid, hoc modo. Cogitabam, quid primum 
petitor diceret. Id aut confessum erat aut contro- 

6 versum. Si confessum, non poterat ibi esse quaestio. 
Transibam ergo ad responsum partis alterius, idem 
intuebar ; nonnunquam etiam quod inde obtinebatur 
confessum erat. Ubi primum coeperat non con- 
venire, quaestio oriebatur. Id tale est : Occidisli 

7 kominem ; Occidi. Convenit ; transeo. Rationem 
reddere debet reus, quare occiderit. Adulterum, 
inquit, cum adultera occidere licet. Legem esse 
certum est. Tertium iam aliquid videndum est, in 
quo pugna consistat. Non fuerunt adulteri ; Fuerunt : 

8 quaestio ; de facto ambigitur, coniectura est. In- 
terim et hoc tertium confessum est adulteros fuisse 
Sed tibi, inquit accusator, illos non licuit occidere ; 
exul enim eras, aut ignominiosus. De iure quaeritur. 
At si protinus dicenti Occidisti respondeatur Non 
occidi, statim pugna est. 

1 I.e. a question as to facts, cv. vn. ii. 



BOOK VII. i. 4-8 

had formed a general idea of these circumstances, I 
proceeded to consider them quite as much from my 
opponent's point of view as from my own. The 5 
first point which I set myself to determine (it is 
easy enough to state, but is still all-important) was 
what each party desired to establish and then what 
means he was likely to adopt to that end. My 
method was as follows. I considered what the 
prosecutor would say first : his point must either be 
admitted or controversial : if admitted, no question 
could arise in this connexion. I therefore passed to 6 
the answer of the defence and considered it from the 
same standpoint : even there the point was some- 
times one that was admitted. It was not until the 
parties ceased to agree that any question arose. 
Take for example the following case. " You killed 
a man." "Yes, I killed him." Agreed, I pass to 
the defence, which has to produce the motive for 7 
the homicide. " It is lawful," he urges, "to kill an 
adulterer with his paramour." Another admitted 
point, for there is no doubt about the law. We 
must look for a third point where the two parties are 
at variance. "They were not adulterers," say the 
prosecution; "They were," say the defence. Here 
then is the question at issue : there is a doubt as to 
the facts, and it is therefore a question of conjecture. 1 
Sometimes even the third point may be admitted ; 8 
it is granted that they were adulterers. " But," says 
the accuser, "you had no right to kill them, for you 
were an exile " or "had forfeited your civil rights." 
The question is now one of law. On the other 
hand, if when the prosecution says, " You killed 
them," the defence at once replies, " I did not," the 
issue is raised without more delay. 



QUINTILIAN 

Si explorandum est, ubi controversia incipiat, et 
considerari debet, quid primam quaestionem faciat. 1 
9 Intentio simplex, Occidit Saturninum Rabirius ; con- 
iuncta, Lege de sicariis commisit L. Varenus. Nayn 
C. Varenum occidendum et Cn. Varenum vulnerandum 
et Solarium item occidendum curavit. 2 Nam sic di- 
versae propositiones erunt ; quod idem de petitio- 
nibus dictum sit. Verum in coniuncta propositione 
plures esse quaestiones ac status possunt, si aliud 
negat reus, aliud defendit, aliud a iure actionis 
excludit. In quo genere agenti est dispiciendum, 
quid quoque loco diluat. 

10 Quod pertinet ad actorem, non plane dissentio a 
Celso, qui sine dubio Ciceronem secutus instat 
tamen huic parti vebementius, ut putet primo 
firnium aliquid esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, 
imbecilliora medio, quia et initio movendus sit iudex 

11 et summo impellendus. At pro reo plerumque 
gravissimum quidque primum movendum est, ne 
illud spectans iudex reliquorum defensioni sit aver- 
sior. Interim tamen et hoc mutabitur, si leviora 
ilia palam falsa erunt, gravissimi defensio difficilior, 

1 quid . . . faciat, Happel: quae . . . facit, AG. 

2 curavit, Gesner : ca . . . A. : cadit, G. : cavit, SndhandA. 



1 cp. v. xi. 6. 2 cp. v. xiii. 38. 

* cp. in. vi. 1 sq. * cp. in. vi. 23 and 52. 



io 






BOOK VII. i. 8-1 1 

If it requires some search to discover where the 
dispute really begins, we must consider what consti- 
tutes the first question. The charge may be simple, 9 
as for example " Rabirius killed Saturninus," l or 
complex like the following : " The offence committed 
by Lucius Varenus falls under the law of assassination . 
for he procured the murder of Gaius Varenus, the 
wounding of Gnaeus Varenus and also the murder 
of Salarius." 2 In the latter case there will be a 
number of propositions, a statement which also 
applies to civil suits as well. But in a complex case 
there may be a number of questions and bases : 3 for 
instance the accused may deny one fact, justify 
another and plead technical grounds to show 4 that 
a third fact is not actionable. In such cases the 
pleader will have to consider what requires refutation 
and where that refutation should be placed. 

As regards the prosecutor, I do not altogether 10 
disagree with Celsus, who, though no doubt in so 
doing he is following the practice of Cicero, insists 
with some vehemence on the view that the first 
place should be given to some strong argument, 
but that the strongest should be reserved to the end, 
while the weaker arguments should be placed in the 
middle, since the judge has to be moved at the be- 
ginning and forcibly impelled to a decision at the end. 
But with the defence it is different : the strongest 1 1 
arguments as a rule require to be disposed of first, 
for fear that the judge through having his thoughts 
fixed on those arguments should regard the defence 
of other points with disfavour. Sometimes, however, 
this order is subject to alteration ; for example if the 
minor arguments are obviously false and the refu- 
tation of the most serious argument a matter of some 



QUINTILIAN 

ut detracta prius accusatoribus fide aggrediamur 
ultimum, iam iudicibus omnia vana esse credentibus. 
Opus erit tamen praefatione, qua et ratio reddatur 
dilati criminis et promittatur defensio, ne id quod 

12 non statim diluemus timere videamur. Anteactae 
vitae crimina plerumque prima purganda sunt, ut 
id, de quo laturus est sententiam iudex, audire 
propitius incipiat. Sed hoc quoque pro Vareno 
Cicero in ultimum distulit, non quid frequentissime 
sed quid turn expediret intuitus. 

13 Cum simplex intentio erit, videndum est, unum 
aliquid respondeamus an plura. Si unum, in re 
quaestionem instituamus an in scripto ; si in re, 1 
negandum sit quod obiicitur an tuendum ; si in 
scripto, in qua specie iuris pugna sit, et in ea, 

14 de verbis an de voluntate quaeratur. Id ita con- 
sequemur, si intuiti fuerimus, quae sit lex quae 
litem faciat, hoc est, qua iudicium sit constitutum. 
Nam quaedam in scholasticis ponuntur ad coniun- 
gendam modo actae rei seriem, ut puta : Exposition 
qui agnoverit, solutis alimentis recipiat. Minus dido 

1 in re, Regius : iure, MSS. 
12 



BOOK VII. i. 11-14 

difficulty, we should attack it last of all, after discre- 
diting the prosecution by demonstrating the falsity 
of the former, thereby disposing the judges to be- 
lieve that all their arguments are equally unreliable. 
We shall, however, require to preface our remarks by 
explaining why we postpone dealing with the most 
serious charge, and by promising that we will deal 
with it at a later stage : otherwise the fact that we do 
not dispose of it at once may give the impression that 
we are afraid of it. Charges brought against the 12 
past life of the accused should generally be dealt 
with first in order that the judge may be well-dis- 
posed to listen to our defence on that point on which 
he has to give his verdict. But Cicero in the pro 
J'areno postpones his treatment of such charges to 
the conclusion, being guided not by the general rule, 
but by the special circumstances of the case. 

When the accusation is simple, we must consider 13 
whether to give a single answer to the charge or 
several. In the former case, we must decide 
whether the question is one of fact or of law : if it is 
one of fact, we must deny the fact or justify it : if, on 
the other hand, it is a question of law, we must decide 
on what special point the dispute arises and whether 
the question turns on the letter or the intention of 
the law. We shall do this by considering what the 14 
law is which gives rise to the dispute, that is to say 
under what law the court has been constituted. In 
scholastic themes, for example, the laws are some- 
times stated merely with a view to connecting the 
arguments of the cases. Take the following case : 
" A father who recognises a son whom he has ex- 
posed in infancy, shall only take him back after paying 
for his keep. A disobedient son may be disinherited. 

*3 



QUINTILIAN 

audientcm ft Hum liceat abdicate. Qui expositum recepit, 
imperat ei nuptias locupletis propinquae ; tile dcducere 

15 vult Jiliam pauperis educatoris. Lex de expositis ad 
adfectum pertinet ; Judicium pendet ex lege abdi- 
cationis. Nee tamen semper ex una lege quaestio 
est, ut in antinomia. His spectatis apparebit circa 
quod pugna sit. 

16 Coniuncta defensio est, qualis pro Rabirio : Si 
occidisset, recte Jecisset ; sed non occidit. Ubi vero 
multa contra unam propositionem dicimus, cogi- 
tandum est primum quidquid dici potest, turn ex 
his quo quidque loco dici expediat aestimandum. 
In quo non idem sentio, quod de propositionibus 
paulo ante, quodque de argumentis probationum loco 
concessi, posse aliquando nos incipere a firmioribus. 

17 Nam vis quaestionum semper crescere debet et ad 
potentissima ab infirmissimis pervenire, sive sunt 

18 eiusdem generis sive diversi. Iuris autem quaesti- 
ones solent esse nonnunquam ex aliis atque aliis 
conrlictionibus, facti semper idem spectant ; in 

1 The first law is strictly irrelevant to the case, but can 
be employed by the son to stir the jury's emotions. He owes 
a deep debt of gratitude to his poor foster-father, and his 
love for his foster-sister is based on life-long acquaintance. 
The father, on the other hand, will urge that his payment 
for his son's nurture has discharged the debt due to the poor 
man and that his son is once more under the patria potestas. 
The introduction of the first law thus enables the pleader to 
introduce fresh arguments and is thus said to link up the 
arguments. 

2 cp. in. vi. 46. and vii. 

8 § 10. * v. xii. 14. 

6 This statement amounts to no more than that there may 
be infinite complication where questions of law are con- 

H 



BOOK VII. i. 14-18 

A man who took back a son whom he had exposed 
orders him to marry a wealthy neighbour. The son 
desires to marrv the daughter of the poor man who 
brought him up." The law about children who have 15 
been exposed affords scope for emotional treatment, 
while the decision of the court turns on the law of 
disinheritance. 1 On the other hand, a question may 
turn on more laws than one, as in cases of avrivofua 
or contradictory laws. 2 It is by consideration of such 
points as these that we shall be able to determine 
the point of law out of which the dispute arises. 

As an example of complex defence I may quote 16 
the pro Rabirio : " If he had killed him, he would 
have been justified in so doing : but he did not kill 
him." But when we advance a number of points in 
answer to a single proposition, we must first of all 
consider everything that can be said on the subject, 
and then decide which out of these points it is ex- 
pedient to select and where to put them forward. 
My views on this subject are not identical with 
those which I admitted a little while ago 3 on the 
subject of propositions and on that of arguments in 
the section which I devoted to proofs,' 1 to the effect 
that we may sometimes begin with the strongest. 17 
For when we are defending, there should always be an 
increase of force in the treatment of questions and we 
should proceed from the weaker to the stronger, 
whether the points we raise are of the same or of a 
different character. Questions of law will often arise 18 
from one ground of dispute after another, whereas 
questions of factare always concerned with one point ; 5 

cerned, but questions of fact are simple and there is but one 
point to be considered, " was such and such an act 
committed ? " 



QUINTILIAN 

utroque genere similis ordo est. Sed prius de dis- 
similibus, ex quibus infirmissimum quidque primum 
tractari oportet, ideo quod quasdam quaestiones 
exsecuti donare solemus et concedere ; neque enim 
transire ad alias possumus nisi omissis prioribus. 

19 Quod ipsum ita fieri oportet, non ut damnasse eas 
videamur, sed omisisse, quia possimus etiam sine 
eis vincere. Procurator alicuius pecuniam petit ex 
fenore hereditario : potest incidere quaestio, an 

20 huic esse procuratori liceat. Finge nos, postquam 
tractavimus earn, remittere vel etiam convinci : 
quaeretur, an ei, cuius nomine litigatur, procura- 
torem habendi sit ius. Discedamus hinc quoque : 
recipit materia quaestionem, an ille, cuius nomine 
agitur, heres sit feneratoris an ex asse heres. 

21 Haec quoque concessa sint : quaeretur an debeatur. 
Contra nemo tam demens fuerit, ut cum id quod 
firmissimum duxerit se habere protulerit, 1 remittat 
illud et ad leviora transcendat. Huic in schola simile 
est : Non abdicabis adoptatum ; ut hunc quoque, non 
virion fortem ; ut el for tern, non qui cuicunque 2 volunlati 
tunc non paruerit ; ut in alia omnia subiectus sit, non 

1 protulerit, Halm : omitted by MSS. 

* qui euicunque, W. Meyer: quicunque, MSS. 



16 



1 See iv. iv. 6. * cp. in. 6, 8. 



BOOK VII. i. 18-21 

but the order to be followed is the same in both 
eases. We must, however, deal first with points that 
differ in character. In such cases the weakest 
should always be handled first, for the reason that 
there are occasions when after discussing a question 
we make a concession or present of it to our op- 
ponents : for we cannot pass on to others without 
dropping those which come first. This should be 19 
done in such a way as to give the impression not 
that we regard the points as desperate, but that we 
have deliberately dropped them because we can 
prove our case without them. Suppose that the 
agent for a certain person claims the interest on a 
loan as due under an inheritance. The question may 
here arise whether such a claim can be made by an 
agent. 1 Assume that, after discussing the question, 20 
we drop it or that the argument is refuted. We 
then raise the question whether the person in whose 
name the action is brought has the right to employ 
an agent. Let us yield this point also. 2 The case 
will still admit of our raising the question whether 
the person in whose name the suit is brought is 
heir to the person to whom the interest was due 
and again whether he is sole heir. Grant these 21 
points also and we can still raise the question whether 
the sum is due at all ? On the other hand, no one 
will be so insane as to drop what he considers his 
strongest point and pass to others of minor import- 
ance. The following case from a scholastic theme 
is of a similar character. " You may not disinherit 
your adopted son. And if you may disinherit him 
qua adopted son, you may not disinherit one who is 
so brave. And if you may disinherit one who is so 
brave, you may not disinherit him because he has 

*7 



QUINTILIAN 

propter optionem ; ut propter optionem, non propter 
talem optionem. 1 Haec iuris quaestionum differentia 

22 est. In factis autem ad idem tendentia sunt plura, 
ex quibus aliqua citra summam quaestionem remitti 
solent ; ut si is, cum quo furti agitur, dicat : Proba 
te habuisse, proba perdidisse, proba furto perdidisse, 
proba mea fraude. Priora enim remitti possunt, 
ultimum non potest. 

23 Solebam et hoc facere, 2 ut vel ab ultima specie 
(nam ea fere est, quae continet causam) retrorsum 
quaererem usque ad primam generalem quaestionem, 
vel a genere ad extremam speciem descenderem, 

24 etiam in suasoriis. Ut deliberat Numa, an regnum 
offerentibus Romanis recipiat. Primum, id est genus, 
an regnandum, turn 3 an in civitate aliena, an Romae, 
an laturi sint Romani talem regem. Similiter in 
controversiis. Optet enim vir fortis alienam uxorem. 
Ultima species est, an optare possit alienam uxorem. 
Generale est, an quidquid optarit, accipere debeat. 
Inde, an ex privato, an nuptias, an maritum ha- 

1 optionem . . . optionem, Obrccht : opinionem . . . 
opinionem, MSS. : ut propter optionem omitted by MSS. 

2 facere is followed by praecipere, which is expunged by 
Meister as a gloss. 

3 turn added by Christ. 

1 The adopted son has done some heroic deed, bringing 
him under the scholastic law vir fortis optet quod uolet, " Let 
a hero choose what reward he will" (cp. v. x. 97). A 
scandalous choice might give ground for disinheriting him 
(cp. § 24 below), but the choice in question is not 
scandalous. 

2 cp. v. x. 5, 6. The statement "man is an animal" is 
insufficient as a definition, "animal " being the genus. "Man 
is mortal " introduce a species, but one common to other 
animals. " Man is rational" introduces the ultima species. 

18 



BOOK VII. i. 21-24 

not obeyed your every command ; and if he was 
bound to obey you in all else, you may not disinherit 
him on the ground of his choice of a reward ; and 
even if the choice of a reward may give just ground 
for disinheriting, that is not true of such a choice 
as he actually made." x Such is the nature of 22 
dissimilarity where points of law are concerned. 
Where, however, the question is one of fact, there 
may be several points all tending to the same result, 
of which some may be dropped as not essential to 
the main issue, as for instance if a man accused of 
theft should say to his accuser, " Prove that you had 
the property, prove that you lost it, prove that it 
was stolen, prove that it was stolen by me." The 
first three can be dropped, but not the last. 

I used also to employ the following method. I 23 
went back from the ultimate species (which generally 
contains the vital point of the case) to the first 
general question or descended from the genus to the 
ultimate species, 2 applying this method even to de- 
liberative themes. For example, Numa is deliberating 24 
whether to accept the crown offered him by the 
Romans. First he considers the general question, 
"Ought I to be a king?" Then, "Ought I to be 
king in a foreign state ? Ought I to be king at 
Rome? Are the Romans likely to put up with such 
a king as myself? " So too in controversial themes. 
Suppose a brave man to choose another man's wife 
as his reward. The ultimate species is found in the 
question whether he is allowed to choose another 
man's wife. The general question is whether he 
should be given whatever he chooses. Next come 
questions such as whether he can choose his reward 
from the property of private individuals, whether he 

19 



QUINTILIAN 

25 bentis. Sed hoc non, quemadmodum dicitur, ita 
et quaeritur. Primum enim occurrit fere, quod est 
ultimum dicendum, ut hoc, Non debes alienam vxorem 
optare, ideoque divisionem perdit festinatio. Non 
oportet igitur offerentibus se contentum esse, sed 
quaerere aliquid quod ultra est, 1 ne viduam quidem. 
Adhuc plus est, 2 nihil ex privato. Ultimum retror- 
sum, quod idem a capite primum est, nihil iniquum. 

26 Itaque propositione visa, quod est facillimum, co- 
gitemus, si fieri potest, quid naturale sit primum 
responderi. Id si, tanquam res agatur et nobis 
ipsis respondendi necessitas sit, intueri voluerimus, 

27 occurret. Si id non contigerit, seponamus id quod 
primum se obtulerit, et ipsi nobiscum sic loquamur : 
Quid si hoc non esset ? id iterum et tertium et dum 
nihil sit reliqui. Itaque inferiora quoque scruta- 
bimur, quae tractata faciliorem nobis iudicem in 

28 summa quaestione facient. Non dissimile huic est 
et illud praeceptum, ut a communibus ad propria 

1 ease . . . ultra est, Spalding : esse quaere aliquidem 
ultra sit, AG. 

1 est, Halm : si, A : se G. 

1 cp. in. ix. 6. 
20 



BOOK VII. i. 24-28 

can choose a bride as his reward, and if so, whether 
he can choose one who is already married. But in 25 
our search for such questions we follow an order 
quite different from that which we employ in actual 
speaking. 1 For that which as a rule occurs to us first, 
is just that which ought to come last in our speech : 
as for instance the conclusion, " You have no right 
to choose another man's wife." Consequently undue 
haste will spoil our division of the subject. We 
must not therefore be content with the thoughts 
that first offer themselves, but should press our 
inquiry further till we reach conclusions such as 
that he ought not even to choose a widow : a further 
advance is made when we reach the conclusion that 
he should choose nothing that is private property, or 
last of all we may go back to the question next in 
order to the general question, and conclude that he 
should choose nothing inequitable. Consequently 26 
after surveying our opponent's proposition, an easy 
task, we should consider, if possible, what it is most 
natural to answer first. And, if we imagine the case 
as being actually pleaded and ourselves as under the 
necessity of making a reply, that answer will pro- 
bably suggest itself. On the other hand, if this is 27 
impossible, we should put aside whatever first occurs 
to us and reason with ourselves as follows : " What 
if this were not the case ? " We must then repeat 
the process a second and a third time and so on, 
until nothing is left for consideration. Thus we 
shall examine even minor points, by our treatment 
of which we may perhaps make the judge all the 
better disposed to us when we come to the main 
issue. The rule that we should descend from the 28 
comiTwn to the particular is much the same, since 

21 



QUINTILIAN 

veniamus. Fere enim communia generalia sunt. 
Commune est, Tyrannum occidit ; proprium, patrem 1 
tyrannum occidit; mulier occidit, uxor occidit. 

29 Solebam et excerpere, quid mihi cum adversario 
conveniret, si modo id pro me erat, nee solum pre- 
mere eonfessionem, sed partiendo multiplicare, ut 
in ilia controversial Dux, qui competitorem patrem in 
stiff ragiis vicerat, captus est ; eunles ad redemptionem 
eius legati obvium habuerunt patrem reverlentem ab 

30 hoslibus. Is legatis dixit : Sero itis. Excusserunt Mi 
patrem et aurum in sinu eius invenerunt ; ipsi perse- 
verarunt ire quo intenderant ; invenerunt ducem cruci 
Jixum, cuius vox J'uit : Cavete proditorem. Reus est 
pater. Quid convenit ? Prodiiio nobis praedicla est 
et praedicla a duce ; quaerimus proditorem. Te isse 
ad hostes fateris el isse clam et 2 ab his incolumem 
redisse, aurum relulisse et atirum occultum habuisse. 

31 Nam, quod fecit, id nonnunquam potentius fit pro- 
positione ; quae si animos occupavit, prope aures 
ipsae defensioni praecluduntur. In totum autem 
congregatio criminum accusantem adiuvat, separatio 
defendentem. 

Solebam id, quod fieri et in argumentis dixi, in 

1 patrem, added by Halm. 

2 clam et, Regius: claret, AG. 

1 v. x. G6. 



BOOK VII. i. 28-31 

what is common is usually general. For example, 
" He killed a tyrant " is common, while " A tyrant 
was killed by his son, by a woman or by his wife " 
are all particular. 

I used also to note down separately whatever was 29 
admitted both by my opponent and myself, provided 
it suited my purpose, and not merely to press any 
admissions that he might make, but to multiply 
them by partition, as for example in the following 
controversial theme : — " A general, who had stood 
against his father as a candidate and defeated him, 
was captured : the envoys who went to ransom him 
met his father returning from the enemy. He said 
to the envoys, ' You are too late.' They searched 30 
the father and found gold in his pockets. They 
pursued their journey and found the general cruci- 
fied. He cried to them, ' Beware of the traitor.' 
The father is accused." What points are admitted 
by both parties? "We were told that there had 
been treason and told it by the general." We try 
to find the traitor. " You admit that you went to the 
enemy, that you did so by stealth, that you returned 
unscathed, that you brought back gold and had it 
concealed about your person." For an act of the 31 
accused may sometimes be stated in such a way as 
to tell heavily against him, and if our statement 
makes a real impression on the mind of the judge, 
it may serve to close his ears to all that is urged by 
the defence. For as a general rule it is of advantage 
to the accuser to mass his facts together and to the 
defence to separate them. 

I used also, with reference to the whole material 
of the case, to do what I have already mentioned 1 
as being done with arguments, namely, after first . 

23 



QUINTILIAN 

tota facere materia, ut propositis extra quae nihil 
esset omnibus, deinde ceteris remotis, solum id 

32 superesset quod credi volebam, ut in praevari- 
eationum criminibus : Ut absolvatur reus, aid innocentia 
ipsius Jit aid inlerveniente aliqua potestate aut vi aut 
corruplo iudicio aid difficultate probationis aut praevari- 
catione. Kocentem fuisse con/ileris, nulla potestas ob- 
stitit, nulla vis, corruption iudicium non quereris, nulla 
probandi difficultas fuit : quid superest, nisi ut prae- 

33 varicatio fuerit ? Si omnia amoliri non poteram, 
plura amoliebar. Hominem occisum esse constat, 
non in solitudine, ut a latronibus suspicer ; non 
praedae gratia, quia inspoliatus est; non hereditatis 
spe, quia pauper fuit : odium igitur in causa, cum sis 

34 inimicus. Quae res autem faciliorem divisioni viam 
praestat, eadem inventioni quoque, excutere quid- 
quid dici potest, et velut reiectione facta ad op- 
timum pervenire. Accusatur Milo, quod Clodium 
Occident. Aut fecit aut non. Optimum erat 
negare ; sed non potest : occidit ergo aut iure aut 
iniuria utique. lure : aut voluntate aut necessitate, 
24 



BOOK VII. i. 31-34 

setting forth all the facts without exception, I then 
disposed of all of them with the one exception 
of the fact which I wished to be believed. For 
example, in charges of collusion it may be argued 
as follows. "The means for securing the acquittal 32 
of an accused person are strictly limited. His in- 
nocence may be established, some superior authority 
may intervene, force or bribery may be emploved, 
his guilt may be difficult to prove, or there may be 
collusion between the advocates. You admit that 
he was guilty ; no superior authority intervened, no 
violence was used and you make no complaint that 
the jury was bribed, while there was no difficulty 
about proving his guilt. What conclusion is left to 
us save that there was collusion ? " If I could not 33 
dispose of all the points against me, I disposed of 
the majority. " It is acknowledged that a man was 
killed : but he was not killed in a solitary place, 
such as might lead me to suspect that he was the 
victim of robbers ; he was not killed for the sake of 
plunder, for nothing was taken from him ; he was 
not killed in the hope of inheriting his property, for 
he was poor : the motive must therefore have been 
hatred, since you are his enemy." The task not 34 
merely of division, but of invention as well, is ren- 
dered materially easier by this method of examining 
all possible arguments and arriving at the best by a 
process of elimination. Milo is accused of killing 
Clodius. Either he did or did not do the deed. 
The best policy would be to deny the fact, but that 
is impossible. It is admitted then that he killed 
him. The act must then have been either right or 
wrong. We urge that it was right. If so, the act 
must have either been deliberate or under com- 

25 



QUINTILIAN 

35 nam ignorantia praetendi non potest. Voluntas 
anceps est, sed, quia ita homines putant, attingenda 
defensio, ut id pro re publica fuerit. Necessitate ? 
subita igitur pugna, non praeparata; alter igitur 
insidiatus est. Uter? Profecto Clodius. Videsne, 
ut ipsa rerum necessitas deducat ad defensionem ? 

36 Adhuc, aut utique voluit occidere insidiatorem 
Clodium aut non. Tutius, si noluit. Fecerunt 
ergo servi Milonis neque iubente neque sciente 
Milone. At haec tain timida defensio detrahit 
auctoritatem ill i ^ qua recte dicebamus occisum. 

37 Adiicietur : Quod suos quisque servos in tali re facere 
voluisset. Hoc eo est utilius, quod saepe nihil placet 
et aliquid dicendum est. Intueamur ergo omnia : 
ita apparebit aut id quod optimum est aut id 
quod minime malum. Propositione aliquando ad- 
versarii utendum et esse nonnunquam communem 
earn, suo loco dictum est. 

Multis milibus versuum scio apud quosdam esse 
quaesitum, quomodo inveniremus, utra pars deberet 

1 pro Mil. x. 29. 2 v. iv. 8. 

26 



BOOK VII. i. 34-37 

pulsion of necessity, for it is impossible to plead 
ignorance. The intention is doubtful, but as it is 35 
generally supposed to have existed, some attempt 
must be made to defend it and to show that it was 
for the good of the state. On the other hand, if we 
plead necessity, we shall argue that the fight was 
accidental and unpremeditated. One of the two 
parties then must have lain in wait for the other. 
Which was it ? Clodius without doubt. Do you 
see how inevitably we are led to the right method 
of defence by the logical necessity of the facts ? We 36 
may carry the process further : either he wished to 
kill Clodius, who lay in wait for him, or he did not. 
The safer course is to argue that he did not wish 
to kill him. It was then the slaves of Milo who did 
the deed without Milo's orders or knowledge. But 
this line of defence shows a lack of courage and 
lessens the weight of our argument that Clodius 
was rightly killed. We shall therefore add the 37 
words, " As every man would have wished his slaves 
to do under similar circumstances." 1 This method is 
all the more useful from the fact that often we can 
find nothing to say that really pleases us and yet 
have got to say something. Let us therefore con- 
sider every possible point ; for thus we shall dis- 
cover what is the best line for us to pursue, or at 
any rate what is least bad. Sometimes, as I have 
already said in the appropriate context, 2 we may 
make good use of the statement of our opponent, 
since occasionally it is equally to the purpose of 
both parties. 

I am aware that some authors have written 
thousands of lines to show how we may discover 
which party ought to speak first. But in the actual 

27 



QUINTILIAN 

prior dicere ; quod in foro vel atrocitate formularum 
vel modo petitionum vel novissime sorte diiudicatur. 

38 In schola quaeri nihil attinet, cum in declamationibus 
iisdem narrare et contradictiones solvere tarn ab 
actore quam a possessore concessum sit. Sed in 
plurimis controversiis ne inveniri quidem potest : ut 
in ilia, Qui Ires liberos habebat, oratorem, philosophum, 
medicum, testamento qualtuor partes fecit et singutas 
singulis dedit, unam eius esse voluit, qui essct utilissimus 

39 civilati. Contendunt ; quis primus dicat, incertum 
est, propositio tamen certa ; ab eo enim, cuius perso- 
nam tuebimur, incipiendum erit. Et haec quidem 
de dividendo in universum praecipi possunt. 

40 At quomodo inveniemus etiam illas occultiores 
quaestiones? scilicet, quomodo sententias, verba, figu- 
ras, colores : ingenio, cura, exercitatione. Non tamen 
fere unquam nisi imprudentem fugerint, si, ut dixi, na- 

41 turam sequi ducem velit. Sed plerique eloquentiae 
famam adfectantes contenti sunt locis speciosis modo 
vel nihil ad probationem conferentibus. Alii nihil 
ultra ea quae x in oculos incurrunt exquirendum 
putant. 

Quod quo facilius appareat, unam de schola con- 

1 ultra ea quae, M. Haupt, Madvig : vitare quae, A : vitare 
aquae, G. 

1 Or perhaps "glosses," i. e. the giving of a special aspect 
to the case by skilful representation of facte. 

■ § 26. 
28 



BOOK VII. i. 37-41 

practice of the courts this is decided either by some 
brutally rigid formula, or by the character of the 
suit, or finally by lot. In the schools, on the other 38 
hand, such an enquiry is mere waste of time, since 
the prosecution and the defence are indifferently 
permitted to state a case and refute it in the same 
declamation. But in the majority of controversial 
themes it is not even possible to discover who 
should speak first, as for instance in the following : 
"A certain man had three sons, an orator, a 
philosopher and a physician. In his will he divided 
his property into four portions, three of which he 
distributed equally among his sons, while the fourth 
was to go to the son who rendered the greatest 
service to his country." The sons dispute the point. 39 
It is uncertain who should speak first, but our 
course is clear enough. For we shall begin with the 
son whose role we assume. So much for the general 
rules by which we should be guided in making our 
division. 

But how shall we discover those questions which 40 
present abnormal difficulty? Just as we discover 
reflexions, words, figures or the appropriate nuances 
of style, 1 namely by native wit, by study and by 
practice. None the less it will be rare for anyone 
who is not a fool to fail to discover them, so long as 
he is content, as I have said, 2 to accept nature for a 
guide. Many, however, in their passionate desire to 41 
win a reputation for eloquence are content to produce 
showy passages which contribute nothing to the 
proof of their case, while others think that their 
enquiry need not proceed further than that which 
meets the eve. 

To make my meaning clearer, I will cite a 

29 



QUINTILIAN 

troversiam, non ita sane difficillimam aut novam, 

42 proponam in exemplum. Qui reo proditionis palri non 
adfuerit, exheres sit. Proditionis damnatus cum advocate 
exulefi Reo proditionis patri disertus Jilius adfuil, 
rasticus non adfuit : damnatus abiit cum advocato in 
exilium. Rusticus cum fortiter fecisset, praemii nomine 
impetravit restilutionem patris et fratris. Pater reversus 
intestatus decessit : petit rusticus partem bonorum, orator 

43 lolum vindicat sibi. Hie illi eloquentes quibusque nos 
eirca lites raras sollicitiores ridiculi videmur, invadent 
personas favorabiles. Actio pro rustico contra di- 
sertum, pro viro forti contra imbellem, pro restitutore 
contra ingratum, pro eo, qui parte contentus sit, 
contra eum, qui fratri nihil dare ex paternis velit. 

44 Quae omnia sunt in materia et multum iuvant, 
victoriam tamen non trahunt. In hac quaerentur 
sententiae, si fieri poterit, praecipites vel obscurae 
(nam ea nunc virtus est), et pulchre fuerit cum 
materia tumultu et clamore transactum. Illi vero, 
quibus propositum quidem melius, sed cura in 
3° 



BOOK VII. i. 41-44 

solitary example from the controversial themes of 
the schools ; it is neither novel nor complicated. 
" The man who refuses to appear in defence 42 
of his father when accused of treason shall be 
disinherited : the man who is condemned for treason 
shall be banished together with his advocate. A 
father accused of treason was defended by one 
son who was a fluent speaker, while another son, 
who was uneducated, refused to appear for him. 
The father was condemned and banished with his 
advocate. The uneducated son performed some 
heroic act and demanded as a reward the restoration 
of his father and brother. The father returned and 
died intestate. The uneducated son claims a portion 
of his estate, the orator claims the whole for him- 
self." In this case those paragons of eloquence, 43 
who laugh at us because we trouble our heads about 
cases that rarely occur, will always assume the 
popular role. They will defend the uneducated 
against the eloquent son, the brave against the 
coward, the son who secured the recall of his kin 
against the ungrateful son, the son who is content 
with a portion of the inheritance against the son 
who would refuse his brother a share in their 
patrimony. All these points are actually to be 44 
found in the case and are of considerable import- 
ance, but they are not such as to render victory 
a certainty. In such a case they will, as far as 
possible, search for daring or obscure reflexions (for 
to-day obscurity is accounted a virtue), and they 
will think they have given the theme a brilliant 
treatment by ranting and raving over it. Those, on 
the other hand, whose ideals are higher, but who 
restrict themselves merely to the obvious, will note 

3* 



QUINTILIAN 

45 proximo est, haec velut innatantia videbunt : ex- 
cusatum esse rusticum, quod non interfuerit iudicio 
nihil collaturus patri ; sed ne disertum quidem 
habere, quod imputet reo, cum is damnatus sit ; 
dignum esse hereditate restitutorem ; avarum, im- 
pium, ingratum, qui dividere nolit cum fratre eoque 
sic merito ; quaestionem quoque illam primam scripti 
et voluntatis, qua non expugnata non sit sequentibus 

46 locus. At qui naturam sequetur ilia cogitabit pro- 
fecto, primo hoc dicturum rusticum : Pater intestatus 
duos nos filios reliquil, partem iure gentium peto. Quis 
tam imperitus, quis tam procul a litteris, quin sic 

47 incipiat, etiamsi nescierit, quid sit propositio ? Hanc 
communem omnium legem leviter adornabit ut 
iustam. Nempe sequetur, ut quaeramus, quid huic 
tam aequae postulationi respondeatur ? At id mani- 
festum est. Lex est, quae iubet exheredem esse eum 
qui patri prodilionis reo non adfuerit ; tu autem non 
adfuisti. Hanc propositionem necessaria sequitur legis 
laudatio et eius, qui non adfuerit, vituperatio. 

48 Adhuc versamur in confessis ; redeat animus ad 



1 Sc. in spite of his own eloquence. 

2 See iv. iv. 



32 



BOOK VII. i. 44-48 

the following points, which are, however, purely 
superficial. The uneducated son may be excused 45 
for not appearing at the trial on the ground that he 
could contribute nothing to his father's defence : but 
even the orator has no claim on the gratitude of 
the accused, since the latter was condemned : 1 the 
man who secured the recall of his kin deserves 
to receive the inheritance, while the man who 
refuses to divide it with his brother, more especi- 
ally with a brother who has deserved so well 
of him, is avaricious, unnatural and ungrateful : 
they will further note that the first and essential 
question is that which turns on the letter and in- 
tention of the law ; unless this is first disposed of, 
all subsequent arguments must fall to the ground. 46 
He, however, who follows the guidance of nature 
will assuredly reflect as follows : the first argument 
of the uneducated son will be, " My father died 
intestate and left two sons, my brother and myself; 
I claim a share in his estate by the law of nations." 
Who is so ignorant or so lacking in education as 
not to make this his opening, even though he 
does not know what is meant by a proposition ? 2 47 
He will then proceed to extol, though with due 
moderation, the justice of this common law of 
nations. The next point for our consideration is 
what reply can be made to so equitable a demand ? 
The answer is clear: — "There is a law which disin- 
herits the man who fails to appear in his father's 
defence when the latter is accused of treason, and 
you failed to appear.'' This statement will be 
followed by the necessary praise of the law and 
denunciation of the man who failed to appear. 

So far we have been dealing entirely with 48 

33 

VOL. III. C 



QU1NTILIAN 
petitorem ; numquid non hoc cogitet necesse est, 
nisi qui sit plane hebes ? Si lex obstat, nulla lis est, 
inane indicium est. Atqui et legem esse et hoc, quod 
ea puniat, a rustico factum extra dubitationem est. 

49 Quid ergo dicimus ? Ruslicus eram. Si lex l omnes 
complectitur, nihil proderit. Quaeramus ergo num 
infirmari in aliquam partem lex possit. Quid aliud 
(saepius dicam) natura permittit quam ut, cum verba 
contra sint, de voluntate quaeratur ? Generalis igitur 
quaestio, verbis an voluntate sit standum. Sed hoc 
in commune de iure omni disputandum semper nee 
unquam satis iudicatum est. Quaerendum igitur in 
hac ipsa, qua consistimus, an aliquid inveniri possit 

60 quod scripto adversetur. Ergo, quisquis non adfuerit, 
exheres erit ? quisquis sine exceptione ? Iain se ilia 
vel ultro offerent argumenta : Et infans ? filius 
enim est et non adfuit ; et qui aberat et qui mili- 
labat et qui in legatione erat ? lam multum acti 

1 lex, Halm : lexeram, AG. 
34 



BOOK VII. i. 48-50 

admitted facts. Let us now return to the claimant. 
Unless he is hopelessly unintelligent, surely the 
following argument will suggest itself: — " If the law 
bars the way, there is no ground for action and the 
trial becomes a farce. But it is beyond question that 
the law exists and that the uneducated son did 
commit the offence for which it enacts a punish- 
ment." What then shall we say? "I had no 
education." But if the law applies to all men, it 49 
will be of no avail to plead lack of education. We 
must therefore try to discover whether there be not 
some point on which the law can be invalidated. 
We turn for guidance to nature (a point on which 
I cannot insist- too often) ; what does she suggest 
save that when the letter of the law is against us, 
we should discuss its intention ? This introduces 
the general question whether we are to stand by the 
letter or the spirit. But if we argue this question 
on general grounds with reference to law in the 
abstract, we shall go on for ever ; it is a question 
that has never been decided. We must therefore 
restrict our enquiry to the particular law on which 
our case turns and try to find some argument 
against adhesion to the strict letter. Well, then, is 50 
everyone who fails to appear in defence of his father 
to be disinherited ? Are there no exceptions to the 
rule ? At this point the following arguments will 
spontaneously suggest themselves. " Is an infant 
liable to the law ? " For we may imagine a case 
where the son is an infant and has failed to appear 
in his father's support. Again " does the law apply 
to a man who was away from home or absent on 
military service or on an embassy?" We have 
gained a considerable amount of ground ; for we 



I 



35 



QUINTILIAN 

est : potest aliquis non adfuisse et heres esse. 

51 Transeat nunc idem ille, qui hoc 1 cogitavit, ut 
ait Cicero, tibicinis Latini modo ad disertum. Ut 
ista concedam, tu nee infans es nee ahfuisti nee militasti. 
Num aliud occurrit quam illud, Sed ruslicus sum ? 

52 Contra, quod palam est dici : 2 Ut agere non potueris, 
adsidere potuisti ; et verum est. Quare redeundum 
rustico ad animum legumlatoris : lmpietatem punire 

53 voluit, ego autem impius non sum. Contra quod diser- 
tus, Tu impie Jecisti, inquit, cum exheredationem meritisti, 
licet te posted vel paenitentia vel ambitus ad hoc genus 
optionis adduxerit. Praeterea propter te damnatus est 
pater, videbaris enim de causa pronuntiasse. Ad haec 
rusticus : Tu vero in causa damnationis fuisti, multos 
offenderas, inhnicitias domui contraxeras. Haec coniec- 
turalia ; illud quoque, quod coloris loco rusticus 
dicit, patris fuisse tale consilium, ne universam 
domum periculo subiiceret. Haec prima quaestione 

54 scripti et voluntatis continentur. Intendamus ultra 
animum videamusque, an aliquid inveniri praeterea 
possit. Quo id modo net ? Sedulo imitor quae- 

1 hoc, added by Christ. 2 dici, Christ : dicit, MSS. 

1 Pro Mur. xii. 26. The flule-pla3 r er went from one actor 
to another, according as each required accompaniment. 

36 



BOOK VII. i. 50-54 

have established the fact that a man may fail to 
appear for his father and still inherit. Our declaimer, 51 
who has thought out this line of argument, must now- 
pass over like a Latin flute-player, as Cicero says, 1 
to the side of the eloquent son and reply, " Granted, 
but you are not an infant, you were not away from 
home nor absent on military service." Is there any 
answer to this except the previous reply, " I am an 
uneducated man " ? But to this there is the obvious 52 
retort, " Even if you could not actually plead, 
you might have supported him by your presence," 
which is no more than the simple truth. The un- 
educated son must therefore return to the intention 
of the legislator. " He wished to punish unfilial 
conduct, but I am not unfilial." To this the 53 
eloquent son will reply, "The action whereby you 
deserved disinheritance was unfilial, although peni- 
tence or desire for display may have subsequently 
led you to choose this as your reward. Further, 
it was owing to you that our father was condemned, 
since by absenting yourself you appeared to imply 
that you thought him guilty." The uneducated son 
replies, " Nay, you contributed to his condemna- 
tion, for you had given offence to many and made 
our family unpopular." These arguments are based 
on conjecture, as also will be the excuse put forward 
by the uneducated son to the effect that his father 
advised his absence, as he did not wish to emperil 
his whole family. All these arguments are involved 
in the preliminary question as to the letter and the 
intention of the law. Let us pursue the matter 54 
further and see if we can discover any additional 
arguments. How is that to be done? I am deliber- 
ately imitating the actual train of thought of one 

37 



QUINTILIAN 

rentem, ut quaerere doceam, et omisso speciosiore 
stili genere ad utilitatem me summitto discentium. 

Omnes adhuc quaestiones ex persona petitoris 
ipsius duximus ; cur non aliquid circa patrem quae- 
rimus ? dictum non est, Quiquis x non adfuerit, exhcrcs 

55 erit. Cur non conamur et sic quaerere, Num, cuicanquc 
quis non adfuerit ? Facimus hoc saepe in iis con- 
troversiis, in quibus petuntur in vincula qui parentes 
suos non alunt, ut earn quae testimonium in filium 
peregrinitatis reum dixit, eum, qui filium lenoni 
vendidit. In hoc, de quo loquimur, patre quid 

56 apprehendi potest ? Damnatus est. Numquid igitur 
lex ad absolutos tantum patres pertinet? Dura 
prima fronte quaestio. Non desperemus ; credibile 
est hoc voluisse legumlatorem, ne auxilia liberorum 
innocentibus deessent. Sed hoc dicere rustico vere- 
cundum est, quia innocentem fuisse patrem fatetur. 

57 Dat aliud argumentum coritroversiae Damnatus pro- 

m 

ditionis cum advocato exulet. Vix videtur posse fieri, 
ut poena filio in eodem patre, et si adfuerit et si non 

1 quisquis, Spalding: cui quia, AG. 
38 



BOOK VII. i. 54-57 

who is engaged in such an enquiry with a view to 
showing how such enquiry should be conducted. I 
shall therefore put aside the more showy kind of 
composition, and concern myself solely with such as 
may be of real profit to the student. 

So far we have derived all our questions from the 
character of the claimant. But why should we not 
make some enquiries into the character of the father ? 
Does not the law say that whoever fails to appear 
for his father is to be disinherited ? Why should we 55 
not try asking whether this means that he is to be 
disinherited, whatever the character of the father 
for whom he failed to appear? Such a course is 
often adopted in those controversial themes in 
which we demand that sons who fail to maintain 
their parents should be cast into prison : take for 
example the case of the mother who gave evidence 
against her son when accused of being an alien, or 
of the father who sold his son to a procurer. What, 
then, is there in the present case that we lay hold of 
as regards the character of the father? He was 56 
condemned. But does the law apply only to those 
cases where the father is acquitted ? At first sight 
the question is difficult. But let us not despair. It 
is probable that the intention of the legislator was 
that innocent parents should secure the support of 
their children. But the uneducated son will be 
ashamed to produce this argument, since he acknow- 
ledges that his father was innocent. There is, how- 57 
ever, another line of argument which may be drawn 
from the enactment that the person condemned for 
treason should be banished together with his 
advocate. It seems almost impossible that in one 
and the same case a son should incur a penalty, 

39 



QU1NTILIAN 

adfuerit, constituta sit. Praeterea lex ad exules 
nulla pertinet. Non ergo credibile est de advocato 
damnati scriptum ; an possunt enim bona esse ulla 
58exulis? Rusticus 1 in utramque partem dubium 
facit ; disertus et verbis inhaerebit, in quibus nulla 
exceptio est, et propter hoc ipsum poenam esse 
constitutam eis qui non adfuerint, ne periculo exilii 
deterreantur advocatione, et rusticum innocenti non 
adfuisse dicet. Ulud protinus non indignum quod 
adnotetur, posse ex uno statu duas generales fieri 
quaestiones, an quisquis ? an cuicunque ? 

59 Haec ex duabus personis quaesita sunt. Ex tertia 
autem, quae est adversarii, nulla oriri quaestio potest, 
quia nulla fit ei de sua parte controversia. Nondum 
tamen cura deficiat. Ista enim omnia dici possent 
etiam non restituto patre. Nee statim eo tendamus, 
quod occurrit ultro, a rustico restitutum. Qui sub- 
tiliter quaeret, aliquid spectabit ultra ; nam, ut 
genus species sequitur, ita speciem genus praecedit. 

60 Fingamus ergo ab alio restitutum : ratiocinativa seu 

1 rusticus, Begius : scolastica, AG. 

1 in. vi. 1 sqq. The basis or main point on which the case 
turns is that of the intention of the law (voluntas). 
* i. «. the father and the uneducated sou. 

40 



BOOK VII. i. 57-60 

both if he appeared in his father's defence and if 
he did not appear. Further, exiles are outlaws. 
Therefore the letter of the law cannot con- 
ceivably apply to the advocate of the condemned 
man. For how can an exile hold any property ? 58 
The uneducated son raises a doubt as to the inter- 
pretation both of the letter and the spirit of the law. 
The eloquent son will cling to the strict letter of 
the law, which makes no exception, and will argue 
that the reason for enacting a penalty against those 
who fail to appear for their fathers was to prevent 
their being deterred from the defence of their 
fathers by the risk of banishment, and he will assert 
that his brother failed to appear in defence of 
his innocent father. It may therefore be worth 
while pointing out that two general questions may 
arise out of one basis — x for we may ask, " Is every- 
one who fails to appear liable to disinheritance ? " 
or " Is he bound to appear irrespective of the 
character of his father? " 

So far all our questions have been derived from 59 
two of the persons involved. 2 With regard to the 
third, this can give rise to no question, as there is 
no dispute about his portion of the inheritance. 
Still the time is not yet come to relax our 
efforts : for so far all the arguments might have 
been used even if the father had not been recalled 
from exile. But we must not betake ourselves 
at once to the obvious point that he was recalled 
by the agency of the uneducated son. A little 
ingenuity will lead us to look further afield : 
for as species comes after genus, so genus precedes 
species. Let us therefore assume that the father 60 
was recalled by someone else. This will give rise 

4i 



QUINTILIAN 

collectiva quaestio orietur, an restitutio pro sublatione 
iudicii sit et proinde valeat, ac si iudicium non 
fuisset. Ubi temptabit rusticus dicere ne impetrare 
quidem aliter potuisse suorum restitutionem uno 
praemio nisi patre proinde ac si accusatus non 
esset revocato, quae res advocati quoque poenam, 

61 tanquam is non adfuisset, remiserit. Turn venimus 
ad id, quod primum occurrebat, a rustico esse resti- 
tutum patrem. Ubi rursus ratiocinamur, an restitutor 
aceipi debeat pro advocato, quando id praestiterit 
quod advocatus petiit, nee improbum sit pro simili 

62 aceipi quod plus est. Reliqua iam aequitatis, utrius 
iustius sit desiderium. Id ipsum adhuc dividitur ; 
etiamsi uterque sibi totum vindicaret, nunc utique, 
cum alter semissem, alter universa fratre excluso. 
Sed his tractatis etiam habet magnum momentum 
apud iudices patris memoria, cum praesertim de 
bonis eius quaeratur. Erit ergo coniectura, qua 



1 ep. in. vi. 15, 43, 46, 51 ; vn. viii. 1. 

1 The reward to be chosen, it is argued, covered the 
recall of one person only. The only means by which both 
father and son could be recalled was by the restoration of 
the father, whot>e amnesty would ipso facto extend to the son 
as welL 

42 



BOOK VII. i. 60-62 

to a question of the ratiocinative or syllogistic type, 1 
namely whether recall from exile cancels the sen- 
tence of the court and is tantamount to the trial 
never having taken place at all. The uneducated 
son will therefore attempt to argue that, being 
entitled to not more than one reward, there was no 
means by which he could have secured the recall of 
his kin save by the restoration of his father on the 
same terms as if he had never been accused, and 
that this fact carries with it the cancellation of the 
penalty incurred by his advocate, as though he had 
never defended his father at all. 2 Our next point 6) 
will be that which first occurred to us, namely the 
plea that he was recalled by the agency of the 
uneducated son. At this point we are confronted 
by the question whether the son who secured his 
father's restoration is thereby to be regarded in the 
light of an advocate, since he secured for him 
precisely what his original advocate demanded for 
him, and it is not an unreasonable claim to ask that 
an action should be regarded as equivalent when it 
is really more than equivalent. The remaining 62 
points turn on questions of equity, for we ask which 
of the two sons makes the juster claim. This 
question admits of still further division. The claim 
of the uneducated son would have been the juster 
even if both had claimed the whole property. How 
much more so when one claims only a half and the 
other the whole to the exclusion of his brother. 
And then, even after we have dealt with all these 
points, an appeal to the memory of his father will 
carry great weight with the judges, more especially 
as the dispute is about the father's estate. This 
will give rise to conjecture as to what the intentions 

43 



QUINTILIAN 

mente pater intestatus decesserit. Sed ea pertinet 
ad qualitatem ; alterius status instrumenturu est. 

63 Plerumque autem in fine causarum de aequitate 
tractabitur, quia nihil libentius iudices audiunt. 
Aliquando tamen hunc ordinem mutabit utilitas, 
ut, si in iure minus fiduciae erit, aequitate iudicem 
praeparemus. 

64 Nihil habui amplius quod in universum prae- 
ciperem. Nunc eamus per singulas causarum iudici- 
alium partes, quas ut persequi ad ultimam speciem, 
id est ad singulas lites controversiasque, non possum, 
ita de 1 generalibus scribere licet, ut, quae in quemque 
statum frequentissime incidant, tradam. Et, quia 
natura prima quaestio est, factumne sit, ab hoc 
ordiar. 

II. Coniectura omnis aut de re aut de animo est. 
Utriusque tria tempora, praeteritum, praesens, fu- 
turum. De re et generales quaestiones sunt et 
definitae, id est, et quae non continentur personis 
2 et quae continentur. De animo quaeri non potest, 
nisi ubi persona est et de facto constat. Ergo cum 
de re agitur, aut quid factum sit in dubium venit aut 
quid fiat aut quid sit futurum, ut in generalibus, an 
atomorum concursu mundus sit effectus, an provi- 

1 de, Regius : in, AG. 



I.e. qualitative, cp. in. vi. 43. 
cp. vii. i. 23. 



44 



BOOK VII. i. 62-11. 2 

of the father were at the time of his dying intestate. 
This conjecture, however, involves a question of 
quality, and is employed in the service of a 
different basis. 1 As a rule questions of equity are 63 
best introduced at the conclusion of a case, since 
there is nothing to which the judges give more 
ready hearing. Sometimes, however, the interests 
of the case demand a change in this order ; for 
example if we regard our case as weak in point of 
law, it will be well to secure the good-will of the 
judge by dealing with the question of equity first. 

This concludes my general rules on this subject. 64 
We will now proceed to consider the several parts 
of forensic cases, and although I cannot follow them 
to the ultimate species? that is to say, I cannot deal 
with individual suits and controversies, I shall be 
able to discuss them on general lines in such a way 
as to show what bases most of them involve. And 
since the first question naturally is whether an 
alleged fact has taken place, I will begin with this. 

II. All conjecture is concerned either with facts 
or intention. Each of these may occur in one of 
three times, past, present or future. Questions 
concerning facts are either general or definite, that 
is to say, those which involve consideration of 
persons and those which do not. Concerning in- 2 
tentions there can be no questions which do not 
involve some person and where the facts of the 
case are not admitted. Therefore when the question 
turns on some fact, the point on which doubt arises 
is either what has been done, or what is being done, 
or what is likely to be done. For example, in general 
questions we discuss whether the universe has been 
formed of a concourse of atoms, or is governed by 

45 



QU1NTILIAN 

dentia regatur, an sit aliquando casurus; indefinitis: 
an parricidium coinmiserit Roscius, an regnum ad- 
fectet Manlius, an recte Verrem sit accusaturus 

3 Q. Caecilius. In iudiciis praeteritum tempus maxime 
valet ; nemo enim accusat, nisi quae facta sunt. 
Nam quae fiant et quae futura sint ex praeteritis 
colliguntur. Quaeritur et unde quid ortum? ut 
pestilentia ira deum an intemperie caeli an corruptis 
aquis an noxio terrae halitu. Et quae causa facti ? 
ut, quare ad Troiam quinquaginta reges navigaverint 
iureiurando adacti an exemplo moti an gratificantes 
Atridis. Quae duo genera non multum inter se 

4 distant. Ea vero, quae sunt praesentis temporis, si 
non argumentis, quae necesse est praecessisse, sed 
oculis deprehendenda sunt, non egent coniectura, 
ut si apud Lacedaemonios quaeratur, an Athenis 
muri fiant. Sed et illud, quod potest videri extra 
haec positum, coniecturae genus, cum de aliquo 
homine quaeritur, qui sit ; ut est quaesitum contra 
Urbiniae heredes, is qui x tanquam filius petebat 

5 bona, Figulus esset an Sosipater. Nam et substantia 

1 is qui, Spalding : si qui, A : si quis, G. 

1 cv. iv. i. 11 aud vn. ii. 26. 
4 6 



BOOK VII. ii. 2-5 

providence, or is likely some day to come to an end. 
In definite questions, on the other hand, we dis- 
cuss whether Roscius has murdered his father, 
whether Manlius is aiming at making himself king, 
or Quintus Caecilius will be justified in appearing 
as the accuser of Verres. In the law courts past 
time is of most importance, since all accusations 
are concerned with what has actually been done, 
while what is being done or is likely to be done is 
inferred from the past. We also enquire into origins. 
For instance, we enquire whether a pestilence be 
due to the anger of heaven, the inclement weather, 
the pollution of the water-supply, or the noxious 
vapours emitted by the earth. Again, we seek for 
the motives of an act. For example, we enquire 
whether the fifty kings who sailed against Troy did 
so because they were bound by their oath, or were 
moved to do so by righteous indignation, or merely 
desired to gratify the sons of Atreus. There is no 
very great difference between these two classes of 
question. As regards facts falling within the present, 
if they can be detected by the eye without anv 
reference to their logical antecedents being required, 
there will be no need of conjecture : let us suppose, 
for instance, that the Lacedaemonians are enquiring 
whether the Athenians are erecting fortifications. 
But although conjecture may seem entirelv foreign 
to this class of question, there are cases in which it 
it necessary, as in questions of personal identitv, 
which may be illustrated by the action brought 
against the heirs of Urbinia, 1 where the question 
was whether the man who claimed the property as 
being the son of the deceased, was Figulus or Sosi- 
pater. In this case the actual person was before the 

47 



QUINTILIAN 

eius sub oculos venit, ut non possit quaeri, an sit, 
quomodo an ultra oceanum ; nee quid sit nee quale 
sit, sed quis sit? Verum hoc quoque genus litis 
ex praeterito pendet, an hie sit ex Urbinia natus 
Clusinius Figulus. Fuerunt autem tales nostris etiam 
temporibus controversiae, atque aliquae in meum 

6 quoque patrocinium inciderunt. Animi coniectura 
non dubie in omnia tempora cadit, qua mente 
Ligarius in Africa merit, qua mente Pyrrhus foedus 
petat, quomodo laturus sit Caesar, si Ptolemaeus 
Pompeium occiderit. 

Quaeritur per coniecturam et qualitas circa modum, 
speciem, numerum, an sol maior quam terra, luna 
globosa an plana an acuta, unus mundus an plures. 

7 Itemque extra naturales quaestiones, maius bellum 
Troianum an Peloponnesium, qualis clipeus Achillis, 
an unus Hercules. 

In iis autem, quae accusatione ac defensione 
constant, unum est genus, in quo quaeritur et de 
facto et de auctore ; quod interim coniunctam quae- 
stionem habet, cum * utrumque pariter negatur, 
interim separatum, cum et factum sit necne, et si 

8 de facto constet, a quo factum sit ambigitur. Ipsum 
quoque factum aliquando simplicem quaestionem 

1 cum, Halm : et, JISS. 



1 cp, in. viii. 16. 
* cp. in. viii. 5(i. 



43 



BOOK VII. ii. 5-8 

eyes of the court, so that there could be no question 
whether he existed (as there is, for instance, when 
we ask whether there exists any land beyond the 
Ocean) 1 nor what he was nor of what kind. The 
question was simply, who he was. But this kind of 
dispute also depends on past time. The problem is 
whether this man Clusinius Figulus was born of 
Urbinia. Such disputes have arisen even in our 
own day, indeed I myself have pleaded in such. 
On the other hand, conjecture as to intention is 
obviously concerned with all three times. We ask 
with what purpose Ligarius went to Africa, with 
what purpose Pyrrhus is asking for a treaty, and 
how Caesar will take it if Ptolemy kills Pompey. 2 

We may also employ conjecture to enquire into 
quality in questions dealing with size, species and 
number, such as whether the sun is greater than the 
earth, whether the moon is spherical, flat or conical, 
whether there is one universe or several, or, to go 
outside these physical speculations, whether the 
Trojan or the Peloponnesian war was the greatest, 
what was the nature of the shield of Achilles, or 
whether there was more than one Hercules. 

In forensic cases, however, which consist of 
accusation and defence, there is one kind of con- 
jecture by which we enquire both about an act 
and about its author. This sometimes treats the two 
questions together, as, for example, when both the 
act and the identity of the author are denied, and 
sometimes separately, as when the first enquiry, 
whether the act was committed, is followed by a 
second, where, the act being admitted, the question 
is by whom it was committed. The act itself again 
sometimes involves a single question, as, for example, 

49 



QU1NTILIAN 

habet, an homo perierit, aliquando duplicem, veneno 
an cruditate perierit. Alterum est genus de facto 
tantum, cum, si id certum sit, non potest de auctore 
dubitari ; tertium de auctore tantum, cum factum 
constat, sed a quo sit factum in controversiam venit. 
9 Et hoc, quod tertio loco posui, non est simplex. 
Aut enim reus fecisse tantummodo se negat aut 
alium fecisse dicit. Sed ne in alterum quidem trans- 
ferendi criminis una forma est. Interdum enim sub- 
stituitur mutua accusatio, quam Graeci avTiKaTrjyopiav 
vocant, nostrorum quidam concertativam. Interdum 
in aliquam personam, quae extra discrimen iudicii 

10 est, transfer tur, et alias certain, alias incertam ; et, 
cum certam, aut in extrariam aut in ipsius qui 
periit l voluntatem. In quibus similis atque in 
uvTLKaT-qyopia personarum, causarum, ceterorum 
comparatio est, ut Cicero pro Vareno in familiam 
Ancharianam, pro Scauro circa mortem Bostaris in 

11 matrem avertens crimen facit. Est etiam illud huic 
contrarium comparationis genus, in quo uterque a 
se factum esse dicit ; et illud in quo non personae 
inter se sed res ipsae colliduntur, id est, non uter 

1 periit, Badius : perit, cod. Argentorat : petit, AG. 

1 i.e. mutual or reciprocal accusation, see vn. i. 3. 
So 



BOOK VII. ir. 8-1 1 

whether a man is dead, and sometimes two, as, for 
instance, whether he died of poison or of some internal 
disease. Another form of conjecture is concerned 
with the act alone, it being admitted that if the 
act was really committed, there can be no doubt as 
to its author. A third form is concerned solely with 
the author, the act being admitted and the dispute 
turning on the question as to who committed it. 
This third form is complex. For the accused either 9 
confines himself to denying that he did it or accuses 
another of having done it. Further, there is more 
than one way of transferring the charge to another. 
At times this results in mutual accusation, which the 
Greeks call avriKaTrp/opia, and some of our own authors 
cojicertative accusation.^ At times, on the other hand, 
the charge is transferred to some person who 
cannot be brought to trial, and may be either 
known or unknown : again, if the person is known, 
he may be someone outside the case or the victim 
himself, who may be alleged to have committed 
suicide. In such cases we compare characters, 10 
motives and other circumstances in the same way 
as in cases of mutual accusation. Cicero, for instance, 
in the pro Vareno diverts the charge from the 
accused to the slaves of Ancharius and in the pro 
Scauro throws the suspicion of Bostar's murder upon 
his mother. There is also a different form of com- 11 
parison, which comes into play when both parties 
claim the credit of some act, and yet another kind, 
when the question is not as between two persons, 
but as between two acts ; that is to say, the 
question is not which of the two committed an act, 
but which of two acts was committed. Finally, 
if the act and the identity of the author are both 

51 



QUINTILIAN 

fecerit, sed utrum factum sit. Cum de facto et de 
auctore constat, de animo quaeri potest. 

Nunc de singulis. Cum pariter negatur, hoc modo : 
Adulterium non commisi ; Tyrannidem non adfectavi. 
In caedis ac veneficii causis frequens est ilia divisio : 

1 2 Non est factum ; et si est factum, ego non feci. Sed, 
cum dicimus, Proba hominem occisum, accusatoris 
tantum partes sunt ; a reo nihil dici contra praeter 
aliquas fortasse suspiciones potest, quas spargere 
quam maxime varie oportebit, quia, si unum aliquid 
adfirmaris, probandum est aut causa periclitandum. 
Nam cum inter id quod ab adversario et id quod a 
nobis propositum est quaeritur, videtur utique alte- 
rura verum ; ita everso quo defendimur, reliquum 

13 est quo premimur, ut cum quaerimus de ambiguis 
signis cruditatis et veneni, nihil tertium est ideoque 
utraque pars, quod proposuit, tuetur. Interim autem 
ex re quaeritur, veneficium fuerit an cruditas ; cum 
aliqua ex ipsa citra personam quoque argumenta 

14 ducuntur. Refert enim, convivium praecesserit lae- 
titia 1 an tristitia, labor an otium, 2 vigilia an quies. 



1 laetitia, added by Philander. 

2 labor an otium, Regius : laborantium, MSS. 



52 



BOOK VII. ii. 11-14 

admitted, we may still raise the question of his 
intention. 

I shall now proceed to detail. As an example of 
joint denial covering both the act and the identity 
of the author we may take the following statements, 
"I have not committed adultery," "I have not 
sought to establish myself as tyrant." In cases of 
murder or poisoning the denial is often divided as 
follows: "The act was not committed, and, if it 12 
was committed, it was not by me." But if the 
defence say, " Prove that the man was killed," the 
burden falls solely on the accuser, for the accused can 
say nothing more against the charge except perhaps 
in the way of casting certain suspicions, which he 
should throw out in the vaguest terms, since if you 
make one definite assertion, you will have to prove it 
or run the risk of losing your case. For when the 
question lies between our statement and that of our 
opponent, one or other will be regarded as true. 
Thus when the point on which we relied for our 
defence is overthrown, there is nothing left but the 
points that tell against us. For example, when the 13 
question turns on symptoms, which may point either 
to poisoning or internal disease, there is no third 
course left open and consequently each party sticks 
to his statement. At times the question turns on 
the nature of the fact, whether, for instance, death 
was due to poisoning or internal disease, and argu- 
ments are introduced which are drawn from the 
circumstances alone without any reference to the 
person concerned. For example, it makes a differ- 14 
ence whether the deceased was cheerful or depressed, 
had been working or taking his ease, had been awake 
or sleeping previous to the festive gathering that 

53 



QUINTILIAN 

Aetas quoque eius, qui periit, discrimen facit ; 
interest, subito defecerit an longiore valetudine 
consumptus sit. Liberior adhuc in utramque partem 
disputatio, si tantum subita mors in quaestionem 

15 venit. Interim ex persona probatio rei petitur, ut 
propterea credibile sit venerium fuisse, quia crcdibile 
est ab hoc factum veneficium, vel contra. Cum vero 
de reo et de facto quaeritur, naturalis ordo est, ut 
prius factum esse accusator probet, deinde a reo 
factum. Si tamen plures in persona probationes 

16 habuerit, convertet hunc ordinem. Defensor autem 
semper prius negabit esse factum, quia, si in hac 
parte vicerit, reliqua non necesse habet dicere ; victo 
superest, ut tueri se possit. 

Illic quoque, ubi de facto tantum controversia 
est, quod si probetur non possit de auctore dubitari, 
similiter argumenta et ex persona et ex re ducuntur, 

17 sed in unam facti quaestionem, sicut in ilia contro- 
versia : (utendum est enim et his exemplis, quae 
sunt discentibus magis familiaria) Abdicalus medicinae 
sluduit. Cum pater eius aegrotaret, desperantibus de 
eo ceteris medicis, adhibitus sanaturum se dixit, si is 

54 



BOOK VII. ii. 14-17 

was followed by his death. The age of the deceased 
is also an important factor, and it is desirable to 
know whether he died suddenly or after a long 
period of ill health. If the question turns only on 
his sudden death, both parties will have still freer 
scope for discussion. At times the character of the 15 
accused may be adduced to prove the fact, and to 
make it likely that it was or was not a case of 
poisoning because the accused is or is not a likely 
person to have committed such an act. 

When, on the other hand, the enquiry concerns 
both the accused and the act, the natural order for 
the accuser to pursue is to commence by proving 
that the act has been committed and then to go on 
to show that it was committed by the accused. If, 
however, proofs of the authorship of the crime are 
more in number than the proofs of the commission, 
this order may be reversed. On the other hand, the 16 
accused will always begin by denying the act, since 
if this can be successfully proved, there is no need 
to say anything more, while if it is not proved, there 
remain other means of defence. 

Similarly, when the dispute turns solely on the act 
and, the act being proved, there can be no doubt as 
to the author, arguments may be drawn in like 
manner both from the person and the facts, although 
with reference to the question of fact alone. Take the 17 
following controversial theme as an example, for it 
is best to employ scholastic themes as illustrations 
since they are more familiar to the student. "A 
man who had been disinherited by his father took 
to the study of medicine. His father fell sick and, 
his life being despaired of by the other doctors, the 
son was called in, and said he would cure him if 

55 



QU1NTILIAN 

potionem a se datam bibisset. Pater, accept ae polionis 
epota parte, dixit venerium sibi datum; filius quod 
reliquum erat exhausil : pater decessit, Me parricidii 

18 reus est. Manifestum, quis potionem dederit, quae si 
veneni fuit, nulla quaestio de auctore ; tamen, an 
venenum fuerit, ex argumentis a persona ductis 
colligetur. 

Superest tertium, in quo factum esse constat ali- 
quid, a quo sit factum, quaeritur. Cuius rei super- 
vacuum est ponere exemplum, cum plurima sint 
huiusmodi iudicia, ut hominem occisum esse mani- 
festum sit vel sacrilegium commissum, is autem, qui 
arguitur fecisse, neget. Ex hoc nascitur avriKa- 
rrjyopia ; utique enim factum esse convenit, quod 

19 duo invicem obiiciunt. In quo quidem genere cau- 
sarum admonet Celsus fieri id in foro non posse ; 
quod neminem ignorare arbitror. De uno reo 
consilium cogitur, et etiam 1 si qui sunt, qui invicem 
accusent, alterum iudicium praeferre necesse est. 

20 Apollodorus quoque dvTiKaTrjyopiav duas esse contro- 
versias dixit, et sunt revera secundum forense ius 
duae lites. Potest tamen hoc genus in cognitionem 
venire senatus aut principis. Sed in iudicio quoque 

1 et etiara, Christ: etiam et, AfSS. 



BOOK VII. ii. 17-20 

he would take a draught prescribed by himself. 
The father after drinking part of the draught said 
that he had been poisoned : the son drank the 
remainder of the draught. The father died and 
the son is accused of parricide." There is no doubt 18 
who administered the draught, and, if it was poison, 
there is no question as to the author : but the 
problem as to whether the draught was poison can 
only be decided by arguments drawn from the 
character of the accused. 

There remains a third type of conjectural case 
where the fact is admitted, and the only question 
is as to the author. It is unnecessary for me to 
quote examples, since such cases are of frequent 
occurrence. For example, it may be clear that a 
man has been killed or that sacrilege has been com- 
mitted, but the person accused of the crime may 
deny his guilt. It is from such circumstances that 
cases of mutual accusation arise, where it is admitted 
that the crime has been committed, but each party 
charges the other with being the author. With re- 19 
gard to this class of case Celsus points out that they 
cannot actually occur in the courts, a fact which I 
imagine is familiar to all : for the jury is empanelled 
to try one accused person only, and even though 
the defence and the prosecution may accuse each 
other of the crime, the first case must be tried before 
the second. Apollodorus again stated that mutual 20 
accusation involved two separate disputes, and this 
is of course in conformity with the practice of the 
courts, which insists on two separate trials. On the 
other hand, mutual accusation is possible in cases 
tried before the senate or the emperor, and even in 
the courts the fact of mutual accusation will involve 

57 



QUINTILIAN 

nihil interest actionum, utrum simul de utroque 

21 pronuntietur an sententia de uno feratur. 1 Quo in 
genere semper prior debebit esse defensio, primum 
quia natura potior est salus nostra quam adversarii 
pernicies, deinde quod plus habebimus in accusatione 
auctoritatis, si prius de innocentia nostra constiterit, 
postremum, quod ita demuni duplex causa erit. Nam 
qui dicit, Ego non occidi, habet reliquam partem, ut 
dicat, Tu occidisti ; at qui dicit, Tu occidisti* super- 
vacuum habet postea dicere, Ego non occidi. 

22 Hae porro actiones constant comparatione ; ipsa 
comparatio non una via ducitur. Aut enim totam 
causam nostram cum tota adversarii causa compo- 
nimus aut singula argumenta cum singulis. Quorum 
utrum sit faciendum, non potest nisi ex ipsius litis 
utilitate cognosci : ut Cicero singula pro Vareno 
comparat in primo crimine ; etenim in posteriore 3 
crimine persona alieni cum persona matris temere 
compararetur. Quare optimum est, si fieri poterit, 
ut singula vincantur a singulis ; sed si quando in 
partibus laborabimus, universitate pugnandum est. 

23 Et sive invicem accusant, sive crimen reus citra 
accusationem in adversarium vertit (ut Roscius in 

1 sententia . . feratur, Regius, Zumpt : etiamsi . . . 
fertur, MSS. 

* at qui dicit . . . occidisti, added by Regius. 

3 etenim in posteriore crimine persona, Halm: est enim 
superior enim persona, AG (persona enim A). 

1 The pro Vareno being lost, it is impossible to say to 
what this refers, and for the same reason Halm's con- 
jecture must be regarded as quite uncertain. 

58 



BOOK VII. ii. 20-23 

no difference in the pleadings, since the same 
methods will be required whether the verdict is 
given on both charges simultaneously or only on 
one. In such cases the defence must always come 21 
first for three reasons. In the first place, we natur- 
ally prefer to secure our own safety than to injure 
our opponent, while secondly, our accusation will 
carry greater weight if we have first proved our 
own innocence, and thirdly, we shall thus secure 
a double line of defence. For the man who says, 
"I did not kill him," is then free to go on to say, 
"You killed him," whereas it is superfluous for the 
man who says, "You killed him," to go on to say, 
"I did not kill him." 

Further, such cases consist of comparison, which 22 
may be effected in different ways. For we may either 
compare our case in its entirety with that of our 
adversary, or we may compare individual arguments. 
The choice between these two methods can only 
be determined by the requirements of the case. For 
example, in the pro Vareno, Cicero, in dealing with 
the first charge, compares the individual arguments : 
for it would have been rash in connexion with the 
second charge to compare the position of a stranger 
with that of a mother. 1 It is therefore best, if 
possible, to refute argument by individual argument : 
if, however, our individual arguments are weak, we 
shall try to secure success by comparison of case 
with case as a whole. But whether the case is 23 
one of mutual accusation, or the accused throws 
the guilt upon his opponent without making any 
formal accusation (as Roscius 2 did without indicting 

1 Roscins Amerinus, accused of parricide and defended by 
Cicero. 

59 



QUINTILIAN 

accusatores suos, quamvis reos non fecisset), sive in 
ipsos, quos sua manu periisse dicemus, factum de- 
flectitur, non aliter quam in iis quae mutuam accu- 
sationem habent utriusque partis argumenta inter 

24 se comparantur. Id autem genus de quo novissime 
dixi non solum in scholis saepe tractatur, sed etiam 
in foro. Nam id est in causa Naevii Arpiniani solum 
quaesitum, praecipitata esset ab eo uxor an se ipsa 
sua sponte iecisset. Cuius actionem et quidem solam 
in hoc tempus emiseram, quod ipsum me fecisse du- 
ctum iuvenali cupiditate gloriae fateor. Nam ceterae, 
quae sub nomine meo feruntur, 1 negligentia exci- 
pientium in quaestum notariorum corruptae minimam 
partem mei habent. 

25 Est et alia duplex coniectura huic avTiKarrj-yopia 
diversa, de praemiis, ut in ilia controversia, Tyrannus 
suspicatus a medico suo datum sibi venerium torsit eum 
et, cum is dedisse se pernegaret, arcessit alterum medicum ; 
ille datum ei venerium dixit, sed. se antidotum daturum, et 
dedit ei potionem, qua epota tyrannus decessit. De 
praemio duo medici contendunt. Nam ut illic factum 
in adversarium transferentium, ita hie sibi vindi- 

1 feruntur, cod. Monac: ...runtur, A: fecerunt, G. 
6o 






BOOK VII. ii. 23-25 

his accusers), or the responsibility for the deed be 
placed on the victims themselves, whom we allege 
to have perished by their own hand, the arguments 
for both sides of the case will be compared in 
exactly the same way as in cases of mutual accusa- 
tion. The class of case last mentioned by me is, 24 
however, not merely of frequent occurrence in 
the schools, but sometimes actually occurs in the 
courts. For example, the sole question in the 
case of Naevius of Arpinum was whether he threw 
his wife out of the window or she threw herself. 
My speech in this case is the only one of all my 
pleadings that I have so far published, and I admit 
that I was led to do so merely by a youthful 
desire for glory. For the other speeches which 
circulate as mine have little in them that actually 
fell from my lips, having been corrupted by the 
carelessness of the shorthand-writers who took 
them down with a view to making money out of 
them. 

There is also another type of conjectural case 25 
which, though it involves two questions, is different 
from cases of mutual accusation ; such cases are con- 
cerned with rewards and may be illustrated by the 
following controversial theme. " A tyrant, suspect- 
ing that his physician had given him poison, tortured 
him and, since he persisted in denying that he had 
done so, sent for a second physician. The latter 
asserted that poison had been administered, but 
that he would provide an antidote ; he gave him a 
draught : the tyrant drank it and died. Both 
physicians claim a reward for slaying the tyrant." 
Now just as in cases of mutual accusation where each 
party shifts the guilt to his opponent, so in this 

61 



QU1NTILIAN 

cantium personae, causae, facultates, tempora, 

26 instrumenta, testimonia comparantur. Illud quo- 
que, etiamsi non est avTiKar-qyopla, simili tamen 
ratione tractatur, in quo citra accusationem quaeritur, 
utrum factum sit. Utraque enim pars suam exposi- 
tionem habet atque earn tuetur, ut in lite Urbiniana 
petitor dicit, Clusinium Figulum filium Urbiniae acie 
victa, in qua steterat, fugisse, iactatumque casibus 
variis, retentum etiam a rege, tandem in Italiam ac 
patriam suam Marrucinos 1 venisse atque ibi agnosci ; 
Pollio contra, servisse eum Pisauri dominis duobus, 
medicinam factitasse, manumissum alienae se familiae 
venali immiscuisse, a se rogantem, 2 ut ei serviret, 

27 em[)tum. Nonne tota lis constat duarum causarum 
comparatione et coniectura duplici atque diversa? 
Quae autem accusantium ac defendentium, eadem 
petentium et infitiantium ratio est. 

Ducitur coniectura primum a praeteritis. In his 
sunt personae, causae, consilia. Nam is ordo est, ut 
facere voluerit, potuerit, fecerit. Ideoque intu- 

28 endum ante omnia, qualis sit de quo agitur. Accu- 
satoris autem est efficere ut, si quid obiecerit non 

1 Marrucinos, Bonnell: Marginos, MSS. 

2 a se rogantem, A : ac rogantem, arrogantem, other MSS. 



1 cp. iv. i. 11. and vn. ii. 4. 

* For another meaning of vcnalis, newly -bought, see vin. 
ii. 8. 

62 



BOOK VII. ii. 25-28 

case we compare the characters, motives, means, 
opportunities, instruments and evidence of the 
persons who claim the reward. There is yet another 26 
type of case which, though not one of mutual 
accusation, is treated in the same way : I mean a 
case in which we enquire, without accusing any- 
one, which of two acts has taken place. For both 
parties make and defend their own statement of 
the case. Thus in the suit concerning the estate 
of Urbinia 1 the claimant says that Clusinius Figulus, 
the son of Urbinia, on the defeat of the army 
in which he was serving, fled and after various 
misfortunes, being even even kept in captivity bv 
the king, at length returned to Italy and his own 
home in the Marrucine district, where he was recog- 
nised. To this Pollio replies that he had been a 
slave to two masters at Pisaurum, that he had 
practised medicine, and finally, after receiving his 
freedom, inserted himself into a gang of slaves who 
were for sale 2 and was at his own request pur- 
chased by himself. Does not the whole suit consist 27 
of comparison between the two cases and of two 
different and opposite sets of conjecture ? But the 
method to be followed is identical whether the case 
be one of accusation and defence or of claim and 
denial of the claim. 

Conjecture is, in the first place, based on what is 
past, under which I include persons, causes and 
intent. For in dealing with a case we first ask 
what the accused intended to do, next what he was 
in a position to do, and lastly what he actually did. 
Consequently the first point on which we must fix 
our attention is the character of the accused. It is 28 
the business of the accuser to make any charge that 

63 



QUINTILIAN 

solum turpe sit, seel etiam crimini, de quo est iudi- 
cium, quam niaxime conveniat. Nam si reum caedis 
impudicum vel adulterum vocet, laedat quidem 
infamia, minus tamen hoc ad fidem valeat quam si 
audacem, petulantem, crudelem, temerarium osten- 

29 derit. Patrono, si fieri poterit, id agendum est ut 
obiecta vel neget vel defendat vel minuat ; proximum 
est ut a praesenti quaestione separet. Sunt enim 
pleraque non solum dissimilia, sed etiam aliquando 
contraria : ut si reus furti prodigus dicatur aut 
negligens. Neque enim videtur in eundem et con- 

30 temptus pecuniae et cupiditas cadere. Si deerunt 
haec remedia, ad ilia declinandum est, non de hoc 
quaeri nee eum, qui aliquando peccaverit, utique 
commisisse omnia, et hanc fiduciam fuisse accusa- 
toribus falsa obiiciendi, quod laesum et vulneratum 

31 reum speraverint 1 hac invidia opprimi posse. Alii a 
propositione accusatoris contraque earn 2 loci oriuntur. 
Saepe a persona prior ducit argumenta defensor et 
interim generaliter, incredibile esse a filio patrem 
occisum, ab imperatore proditam hostibus patriam. 
Facile respondetur vel quod omnia scelera in malos 



1 speraverint, Gesner : speravere, MSS. 

1 contraque earn, Halm : contra quam, A : contra qua, 0. 



64 



BOOK VII. ii. 28-31 

he may bring against the accused not merely dis- 
creditable, but as consistent as possible with the 
crime for which he is arraigned. For example, if 
he calls a man accused of murder a debauchee or 
an adulterer, the discredit attaching to such charges 
will no doubt tell against the accused, but will, on 
the other hand, do less to prove the case than if 
he shows him to be bold, insolent, cruel or reckless. 
On the other hand, counsel for the defence must, 29 
as far as possible, aim at denying, excusing or 
extenuating such charges, or, if that be impossible, 
show that they are not relevant to the case. For 
there are many charges which not only have no 
mutual resemblance, but may even at times con- 
tradict each other, as for instance if a man accused 
of theft is called prodigal or careless. For it is 
not likely that one and the same man should at 
once despise money and covet it. If such means 30 
of defence are not available, we must take refuge 
with the plea that the charges made are not 
relevant to the case, that because a man has com- 
mitted certain sins, it does not follow that he has 
committed all, and that the accusers ventured to 
make such false charges merely because they hoped 
by injuring and insulting the accused to be able 
to overwhelm him with the unpopularity thus 
created. There are also other topics which arise 31 
from and against the statement of the case by the 
prosecution. The defence may begin by drawing 
arguments from the person involved, and will at 
times urge on general grounds that it is incredible 
that a father has been killed by his son or that a 
commander has betrayed his countrv to the enemy. 
The answer to such arguments is easv, for we may 

65 
vol- in. D 



QUINTILIAN 

cadant ideoque saepe deprehensa sint, vel quod 

32 indignum 1 sit crimina ipsa atrocitate defendi. In- 
terim proprie, quod est varium. Nam dignitas et 
tuetur reum et nonnunquam ipsa in argumentum 
facti convertitur, tanquam inde fuerit spes impuni- 
tatis; proinde paupertas, humilitas, opes, ut cuique 

33 ingenio vis est, in diversum trahuntur. Probi vero 
mores et anteactae vitae integritas nunquam non 
plurimum profuerint. Si nihil obiicietur, patronus 
quidem in hoc vehementer incumbet, accusator 
autem ad praesentem quaestionem, de qua sola 
iudicium sit, cognitionem adligabit dicens neminem 
non aliquando coepisse peccare, nee per encaenia 2 

34 ducendum scelus primum. Haec in respondendo. 
Sic autem praeparabit actione prima iudicum animos, 
ut noluisse potius obiicere quam non potuisse cre- 
datur. Eoque satius est omni se anteactae vitae 
abstinere convicio quam levibus aut frivolis aut 
manifesto falsis reum incessere, quia fides ceteris 
detrahitur; et qui nihil obiicit, omisisse credi potest 

1 indignum, Aldine ed. : ingenuum, ingenium, MSS. 

2 Encaenia is a feast in honour of the dedication of a new 
temple or building. The phrase is strange, but there seems 
no possibility of plausible emendation. The word is rare 
and not likely to be corrupt. Fro is the reading of the 
best MSS. 

66 



BOOK VII. ii. 31-34 

urge that bad men are capable of every crime, as 
is shown by every-day occurrences, or that the 
atrocious nature of a crime is but a poor argument 
against its having been committed. At times we 32 
may base our arguments on the special circumstances 
of the person involved. This may be done in various 
ways : rank, for example, may be pleaded in defence 
of the accused, or at times, on the other hand, may 
be employed to prove his guilt on the ground that 
he trusted to his rank to secure impunity. Similarly 
poverty, humble rank, wealth may be used as argu- 
ments for or against the accused according to the 
talent of the advocate. Upright character, however, 33 
and the blamelessness of his past life are always of 
the utmost assistance to the accused. If no charge 
is made against his character, counsel for the defence 
will lay great stress on this fact, while the accuser 
will attempt to restrict the judge to the sole con- 
sideration of the actual issue which the court has 
to decide, and will say that there must always be 
a first step in crime and that a first offence is not 
to be regarded as the occasion for celebrating a 
feast in honour of the defendant's character. So 34 
much for the methods of reply which will be em- 
ployed by the prosecution. But he will also in his 
opening speech endeavour to dispose the judges to 
believe that it is not so much that he is unable, 
as that he is unwilling to bring any charge against 
the character of the accused. Consequently it is 
better to abstain from casting any slur on the past 
life of the accused than to attack him with slight 
or frivolous charges which are manifestly false, 
since such a proceeding discredits the rest of 
our argument. Further, the advocate who brings 

67 



QUINTILIAN 

maledicta tanquam supervacua ; qui vana congerit, 
confitetur unum x in anteactis argumentum, in quibus 

35 vinci quam tacere maluerit. Cetera, quae a per" 
sonis duci solent, in argumentorura locis exposuimus. 

Proxima est ex causis probatio, in quibus haec 
maxime spectantur, ira, odium, metus, cupiditas, 
spes ; nam reliqua in horum species cadunt. Quorum 
si quid in reum conveniet, accusatoris est efficere ut 2 
ad quidquid faciendum causae valere videantur, 
easque quas in argumentum sumet augere ; si minus, 

36 illuc conferenda est oratio, aut aliquas fortasse la- 
tentes fuisse aut nihil ad rem pertinere cur fecerit, 
si fecit, aut etiam dignius esse odio scelus, quod non 
habuerit causam. Patronus vero, quotiens poterit^ 
instabit huic loco, ut nihil credibile sit factum esse 
sine causa. Quod Cicero vehementissime multis 
orationibus tractat, praecipue tamen pro Vareno, qui 
omnibus aliis premebatur ; nam et damnatus est. 

37 At, si proponitur, cur factum sit, aut falsam causam 

1 unum, Spalding : vanum, MSS. 

2 ut, added by Spalding. 



1 v. x. 20, where argumenlorum loci are defined as " the 
dwellings of arguments, where they hide and where we must 
look for them. 

68 



BOOK VII. ii. 34-37 

no charges against the accused may be believed to 
have omitted all reference to past offences on the 
ground that such reference was not necessary, while 
the advocate who heaps up baseless charges thereby 
admits that his only argument is to be found in the 
past life of the accused, and that he has deliberately 
preferred to risk defeat on this point rather than 
say nothing at all about it. As regards the other 35 
arguments derived from character, I have already 
discussed them in connexion with "places" of 
argument. 1 

The next type of proof is derived from causes or 
motives, such as anger, hatred, fear, greed or hope, 
since all motives can be classified as species of one 
or other of these. If any of these motives can be 
plausibly alleged against the accused, it is the duty 
of the accuser to make it appear that such motives 
may lead a man to commit any crime, and to ex- 
aggerate the particular motives which he selects for 
the purpose of his argument. If no such motive can 36 
be alleged, he must take refuge in suggesting that 
there must have been some hidden motive, or in 
asserting that, if he committed the act, all enquiry 
into motive is irrelevant or that a motiveless crime 
is even more abominable than one which has a 
motive. Counsel for the defence, on the other hand, 
will, wherever it be possible, emphasise the point 
that it is incredible that any act should be committed 
without a motive. Cicero develops this point with 
great energy in a number of his speeches, but more 
especially in his defence of Varenus, who had every- 
thing else against him and was as a matter of fact 
condemned. But if the prosecution do allege some 37 
motive, he will either say that the motive alleged is 

69 



QUINTILIAN 

aut levem aut ignotam reo dicet. Possunt autem 
esse aliquae interim ignotae, an heredem habuerit, an 
accusaturus fuerit eum, a quo dicitur l occisus. Si 
alia defecerint, non utique spectandas esse causas ; 
nam quern posse reperiri, qui non metuat, oderit, 

38 speret? plurimos tamen haec salva innocentia facere. 
Neque illud est omittendum, non omnes causas in 
omnibus personis valere. Nam ut alicui sit furandi 
causa paupertas, non erit idem in Curio Fabricioque 
momentum. 

39 De causa prius an de persona dicendum sit, 
quaeritur, varieque est ab oratoribus factum, a 
Cicerone etiam praelatae frequenter causae. Mihi, 
si neutro litis condicio praeponderet, secundum 
naturam videtur incipere a persona. Nam hoc magis 
generale est rectiorque divisio, an ullum crimen 

40 credibile, an hoc. Potest tamen id ipsum, sicut 
pleraque, vertere utilitas. Nee tantum causae 
voluntatis sunt quaerendae, sed interim et erroris, 
ut ebrietas, ignorantia. Nam ut haec in qualitate 

1 dicitur, vulgo: dicetur, AG. 
70 



BOOK VII. ii. 37-40 

false or inadequate or unknown to the accused. For 
it is possible that a man may be quite ignorant of 
motives imputed to him. He may not, for example, 
have known whether the man whom he is accused 
of having killed had appointed him his heir 
or intended to prosecute him. All else failing, 
we may urge that motives are not necessarily of 
importance. For what man is there who is not 
liable to the emotions of fear, hatred or hope, and 
yet numbers of persons act on these motives without 
committing crime ? Nor should we neglect the point 38 
that all motives do not apply to all persons. For 
example, although poverty may in certain cases be a 
motive for theft, it will not have the same force with 
men such as Curius or Fabricius. 

The question has been raised as to whether we 39 
should deal first with persons or motives, and different 
orators have given different answers : Cicero as a rule 
prefers to treat motives first. For my own part, if 
the circumstances of the case do not point strongly 
in either direction, I consider that the most natural 
course is to begiu by dealing with persons. For the 
enquiry whether any crime can credibly be imputed 
to such a man as the accused is of a more general 
character than the question whether some one 
particular crime can be imputed, and in addition 
involves a greater correctness in division. Still, in 40 
many cases expediency may make it desirable to 
reverse the order. Further, we have to seek not 
merely motives affecting the will, but also causes 
leading to error, such as drunkenness or ignorance. 
For just as such considerations lessen the guilt of a 
crime when regarded from the point of view of its 
quality, so they tell heavily against the criminal as 

7* 



QU1NTILIAN 

41 crimen elevant, ita in coniectura premunt. Et 
persona quidem nescio an unquam, utique in vero 
actu rei, possit incidere, de qua neutra pars dicat ; 
de causis frequenter quaeri nihil attinet, ut in adul- 
teriis, ut in furtis, quia illas per se ipsa crimina 
secum habent. 

42 Post liaec intuenda videntur et consilia, quae late 
patent ; an credibile sit, reuni sperasse id a se scelus 
effici posse, an ignorari, cum fecisset, an, etiamsi 
ignoratum non esset, absolvi vel poena levi transigi 
vel tardiore vel ex qua minus incommodi consecu- 
turus quam ex facto gaudii videretur, an etiam tanti 

43 putaverit poenam subire ; post haec, an alio tempore 
et aliter facere vel facilius vel securius potuerit, ut 
dicit Cicero pro Mil one enumerans plurimas occa- 
siones, quibus ab eo Clodius impune occidi potuerit; 
praeterea, cur potissimum illo loco, illo tempore, illo 
modo sit aggressus, (qui et ipse diligentissime trac- 

4 4 tatur pro eodem locus) an, etiamsi nulla ratione 
ductus est, impetu raptus sit et absque sententia, 
(nam vulgo dicitur scelera non habere consilium) an 
etiam consuetudine peccandi sit ablatus. 

1 c. xiv. sqq. 

72 



BOOK VII. ii. 40-44 

far as the question of fact is concerned. I should 41 
imagine that there could never be a case, or at any rate 
an actual case in the courts, in which neither side said 
anything about the character of the persons involved ; 
but this is not true of causes and motives, for it is 
often wholly unnecessary to trouble ourselves about 
them, as, for example, in cases of theft or adultery, 
crimes which cam* their motives on the face of them. 

Next we must consider the intention, a term which 42 
involves a number of questions, such as whether it is 
probable that the accused hoped that he would be 
able to carry such a crime into effect, or that it 
would escape detection when committed, or that, 
even if detected, it would be pardoned or punished 
but lightly or after considerable lapse of time, or 
that the inconvenience involved by the penalty 
would be outweighed by the pleasure resulting from 
the crime : or again, whether it was worth while 
incurring the penalty ; and further, whether he could 43 
have done the deed at some other time and in some 
other way, or with greater ease or securitv, as Cicero 
says in the pro Milone, 1 where he mentions the 
numerous occasions when his client could have killed 
Clodius with impunity. There is also the question 
why the accused should have chosen that particular 
place or time or means for the commission of the 
crime, a topic to which Cicero gives a thorough 
treatment in the same passage ; or whether, without 44 
having the least reason for the deed, he was carried 
away by the impulse of the moment and acted 
without deliberate purpose (for it is a common 
saying that crimes are irrational), or finally, whether 
he was led astray by the fact that crime had become 
a habit with him. 

73 



QUINTILIAN 

Excussa prima parte, an voluerit, sequitur, an 
potuerit. Hie tractatur locus, tempus, ut furtum in 
loco cluso, frequenti, tempore vel diurno, cum testes 

45 plures, vel nocturno, cum maior difficultas. Inspi- 
ciuntur itaque difficultates occasionesque, quae sunt 
plurimae ideoque exemplis non egent. Hie sequens 
locus talis est, ut, si fieri non potuit, sublata sit lis ; 
si potuit, sequatur quaestio an fecerit. Sed haec 
etiam ad animi coniecturam pertinent, nam et ex bis 
colligitur an speraverit. Ideo spectari debent et 
instrumenta, ut Clodii ac Milonis comitatus. 

46 Quaestio, an fecerit, incipit a secundo tempore, id 
est praesenti, deinde coniuncto, quorum sunt sonus, 
clamor, gemitus ; insequentis latitatio, metus, similia. 
His accedunt signa, de quibus tractatum est, verba 
etiam et facta, quaeque antecesserunt quaeque in- 

47 secuta sunt. Haec aut nostra sunt aut aliena. Sed 
verba nobis magis nocent et minus * prosunt nostra 

1 et minus, Regius : aut minus magis, MSS. 



1 cp. V. x. 45. * V. eh. ix. 

74 






BOOK VII. ii. 44-47 

Having dealt with the question whether he 
intended to commit the crime, we proceed to the 
question whether he was in a position to commit it. 
Under this head we discuss the place and occasion of 
the offence. For instance, in a case of theft we ask 
whether it was committed in a secluded or frequented 
spot, in the daytime, when witnesses are more 
numerous, or by night, when success is more difficult. 
Consequently we shall consider all the circumstances 45 
rendering the act difficult or easy of accomplishment ; 
these require no illustration, being numerous and 
familiar. This second topic is of such importance 
that, if it is impossible to give it satisfactory treat- 
ment, the case falls to the ground ; if, however, we 
succeed in dealing with it adequately, we must 
proceed to consider whether the accused actually 
committed the act. But this topic involves con- 
jecture as to intention, for it is from these facts that 
we infer whether he hoped for success or not. 
Therefore we must also consider the question of 
the means at his disposal, such, for example, as the 
retinues of Clodius and Milo. 

The question whether he actually did the deed 46 
belongs, in the first place, to the second division of 
time, namely the present, and secondly to time that 
is almost, though not actually contemporary : under 
this latter head come circumstances such as noise, 
cries or groans, 1 while concealment, fear and the 
like belong to subsequent time. To these must be 
added indications, which we have already discussed 
elsewhere, 2 and words and acts antecedent or subse- 
quent to the crime. These words and acts are either 47 
our own or those of others. With regard to words, 
our own do us greater harm and bring us less profit 

75 



QUINTILIAN 

quam aliena ; magis prosunt et minus nocent aliena 
quam nostra. Facta autem interim magis prosunt 
nostra, interim aliena, ut si quid, quod pro nobis sit, 
adversarius fecit ; semper vero magis nocent nostra 

48 quam aliena. Est et ilia in verbis differentia, quod 
aut aperta sunt aut dubia. Seu nostra seu aliena 
sunt, infirmiora in utrumque sint necesse dubia ; 
tamen nostra saepe nobis nocent, ut in ilia contro- 
versia : Interrogates filius, ubi esset pater, dixit, Ubicun- 
que est, vivit ; at ille in puteo mortuus est inventus. 

49 Aliena, quae sunt dubia, nunquam possunt nocere 
nisi aut incerto auctore aut mortuo. Node audita 
vox est, Cavele tyrannidem ; et, Interrogatus , cuius 
veneno moreretur, respondit, Non expedit tibi scire. Nam 
si est, qui possit interrogari, solvet ambiguitatem. 

50 Cum autem dicta factaque nostra defendi solo ammo 
possint, aliena varie refutantur. 

De uno quidem maximo genere coniecturalium 
controversiarum locuti videmur, sed x in omnes 
aliquid ex his cadit. Nam furti, depositi, creditae 

1 videmur sed, Spalding : videmus et, (J : videmur et, A. 
7 6 






BOOK VII. ii. 47-50 

than do those of others, while those of others bring 
us greater profit and do us less harm than our own. 
On the other hand, with regard to deeds, it is some- 
times from our own and sometimes from those of 
others that we derive the greatest advantage, as, for 
example, when our opponent has done something 
which tells in our favour: but our own acts are 
always more injurious to our case than are those 
of others. Again, with regard to words, we must 48 
distinguish between those whose meaning is clear 
and those whose significance is doubtful. The latter 
will necessarily give less assistance to either side, be 
they our own words or another's. On the other hand, 
any ambiguity in our own words will always tell 
against us, as, for example, in the following contro- 
versial theme. " A son, on being asked where his 
father was, replied : ' Wherever he is, he is alive.' 
But the father was found dead at the bottom of a 
well." When the ambiguity lies in words used by 49 
others, they can never do us any harm, unless he 
who uttered them be unknown or dead ; I will give 
two illustrations of my meaning: "A cry was heard 
at night, ' Be on your guard against the establish- 
ment of a tyranny ' ; " and, " on being asked who 
had poisoned him, he replied : ' It is not fit that you 
should know.' " For if the speaker is available for 
examination, he will clear up the ambiguity. Finally, 50 
whereas our own words and deeds can only be justi- 
fied by their intention, the deeds and words of others 
can be disposed of in a number of different ways. 

My remarks on this subject have, I think, been 
confined to one very important class of conjectural 
cases, but something of what I have said will apply 
to all cases. For example, in cases concerned with 

77 



QUINTILIAN 
pecuniae et a facultatibus argumenta veniunt, an 
fuerit, quod deponeretur, et a personis, an ullum 
deposuisse apud hunc, vel huic credidisse credibile 
sit, an petitorem calumniari, an reum infitiatorem 

51 esse vel furem. Sed etiam in furti reo sicut in 
caedis quaeritur de facto et de auctore. Crediti et 
depositi duae quaestiones, sed nunquam iunetae, an 
datum sit, an redditum. Habent aliquid proprii 
adulterii causae, quod plerumque duorum discrimen 
est et de utriusque vita dicendum, quanquam et id 
quaeritur, an utrumque pariter defendi oporteat. 
Cuius rei consilium nascetur ex causa; nam si adiu- 
vabit pars altera, coniungam ; si nocebit, separabo. 

62 Ne quis autem mihi putet temere excidisse, quod 
plerumque duorum crimen esse adulterium, non 
semper dixerim : potest accusari sola mulier incerti 
adulterii : Munera domi inventa sunt ; pecunia, amis 
auctor non exstat ; codicilli, dubiam ad quern scripti 

53 In falso quoque ratio similis ; aut enim plures in 
78 



BOOK VII. ii. 50-53 

theft, deposits and loans, arguments are derived both 
from possibilities (as when we enquire whether there 
was any money to deposit), and from persons, as when 
we raise the question whether it is credible that any- 
one deposited money with this man or trusted him 
with a loan, or that the claimant is bringing a false 
accusation, or that the accused repudiates his debt or 
is a thief. But even in the case of an accusation of 61 
theft, just as in an accusation of murder, we enquire 
both into the act and the author, while in cases 
concerned with loans and deposits there are also 
two questions (though these are always distinct 
from one another), namely, whether the money was 
delivered and whether it has been repaid. Cases of 
adultery are marked by the following peculiarity, 
that, as a rule, the safety of two persons is involved, 
and it is necessary to say something of the past life 
of both, although some have raised the question 
whether both parties should be defended together. 
The line to be taken must depend on the circum- 
stances of the individual case: if the defence of one 
party lends support to the defence of the other, I 
should defend them conjointly ; if the reverse is the 
case, 1 should treat the two cases separately. How- 52 
ever, that no one may think me somewhat hasty in 
saying that two persons are as a rule involved in 
charges of adultery, I would point out that I would 
not assert that this is always the case. The 
woman alone may be accused of adultery with a 
person unknown : we may say, " Gifts were found 
in the house, and money from some unknown source, 
and love-letters whose destination cannot be ascer- 
tained." The case is similar in accusations of 53 
forgery : for either there are several accused or only 

79 



QUINTILIAN 

culpam vocantur aut unus. Et scriptor quidem 
semper tueri signatorem necesse habet, signator 
scriptorem non semper, nam et decipi potuit. Is 
autem, qui hos adhibuisse et cui id factum dicitur, 
et scriptorem et signatores defendet. Iidem argu- 
mentorum loci in causis proditionis et adfectatae 
tyrannidis. 

54 Verum ilia scliolarum consuetudo ituris in forum 
potest nocere, quod omnia, quae in themate non 
sunt, pro nobis ducimus. Adulterium obiicis ; quis 
testis ? quis index ? Proditionem, 1 quod prelium ? qais 
conscins ? Venenum ; ubi emi ? a quo ? quando ? 
quanti ? per quern dedi ? Pro reo tyrannidis adfectatae ; 

55 vbi sunt arma 9 quos contraxi satellites ? Neque haec 
nego esse dicenda, et ipsis utendum pro parte 
suscepta. Nam et in foro aliqua, quando 2 adver- 
sarius probare non poterit, desiderabo. Sed in foro 
tantam illam facilitatem olim desideravimus, ubi non 
fere causa agitur, ut non aliquid ex his aut plura 

56 ponantur. Huic simile est, quod in epilogis quidam, 

1 Proditionem, added by Spalding. 

* aliqua quando, Spalding: aliquando, AG. 



1 The writer will always support the signatory's state- 
ment that he signed the document. The signatory will not 
always support the writer ; e. g. he may not know the nature 
of the document which he signed. 

1 cp. iv. ii. 28. As the examples which follow show, the 
declaimer assumes that his imaginary opponent has no good 
evidence to support his case : i. e. no witness, no informer, 
no weapons, no bodyguard. 

8o 



BOOK VII. ii. 53-56 

one. The writer of a document always regards it as 
necessary to support the signatory, but the signatory 
does not always support the writer of the document, 
for it is always possible that he has been deceived 
on the matter. 1 On the other hand, the man who is 
said to have called in their services, and for whom 
the document is alleged to have been written, will 
always defend both writer and signatories. The 
arguments employed in cases of treason or attempted 
tvranny will be drawn from the same sources. 

But the custom prevalent in the schools of regard- 54 
ing everything not definitely stated in the theme as 
being in the speaker's favour, 2 is likely to prove 
harmful to students destined for practice in the 
courts. You bring a charge of adultery. " Who is 
your witness? who is your informer? " You charge 
me with treason. " What was my reward ? who was 
my accomplice ? " You charge me with poisoning. 
•• Where did I buy the poison, and from whom ? 
When did I buy it, what was the price, and whom 
did I employ to administer it ? " Or in defence of 
one charged with attempting to establish himself as 
tyrant, the declaimer will cry, * Where are my 
weapons, and what bodyguards have I ever 
collected?'' I do not deny that these questions 55 
should be asked, or that we should use them as 
far as is permitted by the role whicli we have 
assumed ; for even in the courts I feel that it will 
be desirable to put such questions, if my opponent 
is not in a position to reply effectively ; but we have 
often felt the lack of such freedom in the courts, 
whereas in the schools there is scarcely a case where 
one or more examples of this method are not to be 
found. Similar to this is the practice which some 56 

81 



QUINTILIAN 

quibus volunt, liberos, parentes, nutrices accommo- 
dant, nisi quod magis concesseris ea, quae non sint 
posita, desiderare quam adiicere. 1 

De animo quomodo quaeratur, satis dictum est, 
cum ita diviserimus, an voluerit, an potuerit, an 
fecerit. Nam qua via tractatur, an voluerit, eadem, 
quo animo fecerit; id enim est, an male facere 
57 voluerit. Ordo quoque rerum aut adfert aut detra- 
hit fidem ; multo scilicet magis res, prout ponuntur, 2 
congruunt aut repugnant. Sed haec nisi in ipso 
complexu causarum non deprehenduntur. Quaeren- 
dum tamen semper, quid cuique connectatur et quid 
consentiat. 

III. Sequitur coniecturam finitio. Nam, qui non 
potest dicere nihil fecisse, proximum habebit, ut 
dicat, non id fecisse, quod obiiciatur. Itaque 
pluribus legibus in iisdem quibus coniectura versatur, 
defensionis tantum genere mutato, ut in furtis, 
depositis, adulteriis. Nam, quemadmodum dicimus, 

1 adiicere, Spalding: dicere, AG. 

2 ponuntur, added by Spalding. 

1 i.e. it is safer to ask the imaginary opponent "where 
is your evidence?" than to produce imaginary evidence 
ourselves. 

2 § 27. 



BOOK VII. li. 56-m. 1 

declaimers allow themselves in their perorations 
of assigning children, parents and nurses to their 
characters at will, though it is more reasonable to 
call for evidence which is not explicitly mentioned 
in the statement of the theme than to introduce it 
ourselves. 1 

With regard to the method to be followed when 
we enquire into intention, I have said enough in 
dividing the subject into three questions, 2 namely, 
whether the accused intended to do the deed, 
whether he was in a position to do it and whether 
he actually did it. For the method of enquiring 
into the purpose with which an act was committed 
is identical with that employed in enquiring whether 
the deed was intended, since it amounts to asking 
whether a criminal act was intended. Further, the 57 
order in which the facts are stated may either con- 
tribute to or detract from the credibility of our case ; 
for consistency and the reverse depend to a very 
great extent on the way the circumstances are 
arranged. But we shall be unable to detect these 
qualities unless we consider the circumstances in 
connexion with the case as a whole. None the less, 
it will always be necessary to consider what are best 
suited to be placed together. 

III. Conjecture is followed by definition. For the 
man who cannot assert that he has done nothing, 
must needs take refuge in the assertion that he has 
not committed the act which is alleged against him. 
Consequently the laws which govern definition are 
for the most part the same as those which govern con- 
jecture, the only difference lying in the method to be 
employed in defence in cases such as those concerned 
with theft, deposits or adultery. For just as we say, 

83 



QUINTILIAN 

Non feci furtum, non accept depositum, non commisi 
adulterium, ita, Non est hoc furtum, non est hoc deposi- 

2 turn, 1 non est hoc adulterium. Interim a qualitate ad 
finitionem descenditur, ut in actionibus dementiae, 
malae tractationis, rei publicae laesae ; in quibus si 
recte facta esse, quae obiiciuntur, dici non potest, 
illud succurrit, Non est male tractate uxorem verbis 2 
laedere. Finitio igitur est rei propositae propria et 
dilucida et breviter coinprehensa vei'bis enuntiatio. 

3 Constat maxime, sicut est dictum, genere, specie, 
differentibus, propriis : ut si finias equum, (noto 
enim maxime utar exemplo) genus est animal, 
species mortale, differentia irrationale, (nam et 
homo mortale erat) proprium hinniens. Haec adhi- 

4 betur orationi pluribus causis. Nam turn est certum 
de nomine, sed quaeritur quae res ei subiicienda sit, 
turn res est manifesta, sed de nomine non constat- 
Cum de 3 nomine constat, de re dubium est, interim 

5 coniectura est : ut si quaeratur, quid sit deus. Nam 
qui neget deum esse spiritum omnibus partibus im- , 
mixtum, non hoc dicat falsam esse divinae illius 
naturae appellationem, sicut Epicurus, qui humanam 
ei formam locumque inter mundos dedit? Nomine 

6 uterque uno utitur ; utrum sit in re, coniectat. In- 
terim qualitas tractatur, ut quid sit rhetorice, vis 

1 depositum, Badius: initiatio, AG: mutuatio, cod. Mon. 

2 uxorem verbis, Spalding : rem publicam verbis, MSS. 

3 sed . . . constat, Halm : et quod nomine constat, MSS. 



1 v. x. 55. 



8 4 



BOOK VII. hi. 1-6 

" I have not committed theft, I never received a 
deposit, I am not guilty of adultery," so we say, 
" This is not theft, this is not a deposit, this is not 
adultery." Sometimes we may pass from quality to 
definition, as in actions concerned with lunacy, cruelty 
and offences against the State. In such cases if it 
is impossible to assert that the acts alleged were 
right, we are left with such pleas as, " To use bad 
language to one's wife does not amount to cruelty." 
Definition is the statement of the fact called in 
question in appropriate, clear and concise language. 
As I have already said, 1 it consists mainly in the 
statement of genus, species, difference and property. 
For example, if you wish to define a horse (lor I will 
take a familiar example), the genus is animal, the 
species mortal, the difference irrational (since man also 
is mortal) and the property neighing. Definition is 
employed by the orator for a number of different 
reasons. For sometimes, though there may be no 
doubt as to a term, there is a question as to what it 
includes, or, on the other hand, there may be no 
doubt about the thing, but no agreement as to the 
term to be applied to it. When the term is agreed, 
but the thing doubtful, conjecture may sometimes 
come into play, as, for instance, in the question, 
" What is god ? ' ' For the man who denies that god 
is a spirit permeating all things, assuredly asserts 
that the epithet "divine" is falsely applied to his 
nature, like Epicurus, who gives him a human form 
and makes him reside in the intermundane space. 
While both use the same term god, both have to em- 
ploy conjecture to decide which of the two meanings 
is consistent with fact. Sometimes again we have 
recourse to quality, as in the question, " What is 

85 



QUINTILIAN 

persuadendi an bene dicendi scientia. Quod genus 
est in iudiciis frequentissimum. Sic enim quaeritur, 
an deprehensus in lupanari cum aliena uxore adulter 
sit : quia non de appellatione, sed de vi facti eius 
ambigitur, an omnino peccaverit. Nam si peccavit, 

7 non potest esse aliud quam adulter. Diversum est 
genus, cum controversia consistit in nomine, quod 
pendet ex scripto, nee versatur in iudiciis nisi 
propter verba quae litem faciunt : an, qui se inter- 
ficit, homicida sit ; an, qui tyrannum in mortem 
compulit, tyrannicida ; an carmina magorum vene- 
ficium. Res enim manifesta est, sciturque non 
idem esse occidere se quod alium, non idem occidere 
tyrannum quod compellere ad mortem, non idem 
carmina ac mortiferam potionem ; quaeritur tamen, 
an eodem nomine appellanda sint. 

8 Quanquam autem dissentire vix audeo a Cicerone, 
qui multos secutus auctores dicit, finitionem esse de 
eodem et de altero, semper enim l neganti aliquod 
esse nomen dicendum quod sit potius : tamen equi- 

9 dem 2 tris habeo velut species. Nam interim con- 

1 enim, added by Regius. 

2 equidem, Christ: eandem, AG. 



1 cp. in. vi. 31. 



86 



BOOK VII. hi. 6-9 

rhetoric ? Is it the power to persuade or the science 
of speaking well?" This form of question is of 
frequent occurrence in the courts. For instance, the 
question may arise whether a man caught in a 
brothel with another man's wife is an adulterer. 
Here there is no doubt about the name ; it is the 
significance of the act which is in doubt, since the 
question is whether he has committed any sin at all. 
For if he has sinned, his sin can only be adultery. 
There is a different type of question where the 
dispute is concerned with the term to be applied, 
which depends on the letter of the law : it is a form 
of question which can only arise in the courts from 
the actual words on which the dispute turns. Take 
as examples the questions, whether suicide is a form 
of homicide, or whether the man who forces a tyrant 
to kill himself can be considered a tyrannicide, or 
whether magical incantations are equivalent to the 
crime of poisoning. In all these cases there is no 
doubt about the facts, for it is well known that there 
is a difference between killing oneself and killing 
another, between slaying a tyrant and forcing him 
to suicide, between employing incantations and 
administering a deadly draught, but we enquire 
whether we are justified in calling them by the 
same name. 

Though I hardly like to differ from Cicero, 1 who 
follows many authorities in saying that definition is 
concerned with identity and difference (since he 
who denies the applicability of one term must always 
produce another term which he regards as prefer- 
able), for my own part I consider that definition 
falls into three types, which I may perhaps call 
species For at times it is convenient merely to 

87 



QU1NTILIAN 

venit solum 1 quaerere, an hoc sit, ut an adulterium 
in lupanari. Cum hoc negamus, non necesse est 
dicere quid id vocetur, quia totum crimen infitiamur. 
Interim quaeritur, hoc an hoc ; furtum an sacrilegium. 
Non quin sufficiat non esse sacrilegium, sed quia 
necesse sit dicere quid sit aliud ; quo in loco utrum- 

10 que finiendum est. Interim quaeritur in rebus specie 
diversis, an et hoc et hoc eodem modo sit appellan- 
dum, cum res utraque habet suum nomen, ut amato- 
rium, venenum. In omnibus autem huius generis 
litibus quaeritur, an etiam hoc, quia nomen de quo 
ambigitur utique in alia re certum est. Sacrilegium 
est rem sacram de templo surripere : an et privatum ? 
Adulterium cum aliena uxore domi coire : an et in 
lupanari ? Tyrannicidium occidere tyrannum : an et 

1 1 in mortem compellere ? Ideoque avWoyta-fios, de 
quo postea dicam, velut infirmior est finitio, quia in 
hac quaeritur, an idem sit huius rei nomen quod 
alterius, illo, an proinde habenda sit haec atque ilia. 

12 Est et talis finitionum 2 diversitas, ut qui idem 
sentiant, non iisdem verbis comprehendant : ut 

1 solum, Zumpt: suum, AG. 

* finitionum, Regius: divisionum, MSS. 

1 cp. vni. v. 31. 
88 



BOOK VII. hi. 9-12 

enquire whether one particular term is applicable to 
a given thing, as in the question whether an act 
committed in a brothel is adultery. If we deny 
that it is adultery, there is no need to state what it 
should be called, since we have given a total denial 
to the charge. Secondly, there are occasions when 
the question is which of two terms is to be applied 
to a thing, as in the question whether an act is 
theft or sacrilege. It may be sufficient for the 
defence that it is not sacrilege, but it is still necessary 
to show what else it is, and therefore we must define 
both. Thirdly, there are times when the question 10 
concerns things which are different in species, and 
we ask whether two different things are to be called 
by the same name, in spite of the fact that each has 
a special name of its own : for example, is the same 
name applicable both to a love-potion and a poison? 1 
But in all disputes of this kind the question is 
whether one thing is another thing as well, since 
the name in doubt does without question apply to 
something else. It is sacrilege to steal a sacred 
object from a temple ; is it also sacrilege to steal 
private property from a temple? It is adultery to 
lie with another man's wife in one's own house ; is 
it adultery to do so in a brothel? It is tvrannicide 
to slay a tyrant ; is it tyrannicide to force him to 
slay himself? Consequently the syllogism, to which 11 
I shall return later, is virtually a weaker form of 
definition, since while definition seeks to determine 
whether one thing has the same name as another, 
syllogism seeks to determine whether one thing is 
to be regarded as identical with another. There is 12 
moreover great variety in definitions. For instance, 
persons will give different verbal expression to 

89 



QUINTILIAN 

rhetorice bene dieendi scientia, et eadem bene in- 
veniendi et bene enuntiandi et dieendi secundum 
virtutem orationis et dieendi quod sit officii. Atque 
providendum ut, si sensu non pugnant, comprehen- 
sione dissentiant. Sed de his disputatur, non liti- 

13 gatur. Opus est aliquando finitione obscurioribus 
et ignotioribus verbis ut, quid sit clarigatio, erctum 
citum ; l interim notis nomine verbis, 5 quid sit penus, 
quid litus. 

Quae varietas efficit, ut earn quidam coniecturae, 
quidam qualitati, quidam legitimis quaestionibus 

14 subiecerint. Quibusdam ne placuit quidem omnino 
subtilis haec et ad morem diabeticorum formata 
conclusio, ut in disputationibus potius arguta 3 ver- 
borum cavillatrix quam in oratoris officio multum 
adlatura momenti. Licet enim valeat in sermone 
tantum, ut constrictum vinculis suis eum qui respon- 
surus est vel tacere vel etiam invitum id quod sit 
contra cogat fateri, non eadem est tamen eius in 

15 causis utilitas. Persuadendum enim iudici est, qui 
etiamsi verbis devinctus est, tamen, nisi ipsi rei 
accesserit, tacitus dissentiet. Agenti vero quae 
tanta est liuius praecisae comprehensionis necessitas ? 
An, si non dixero, Homo est animal mortale rationale, 
non potero, expositis tot corporis animique proprie- 

1 erctum citum, Halm : erctus citus, A : ercet ut, 67. 

2 verbis, early edd. : videbis, AG. 

' arguta, Zumpt: arguments, AG. 

1 A formal demand for redress under threat of war. 

2 An undivided inheritance. 

* Store of provisions. 

* Shore, see v. xiv. 34, where its derivation is explained 
as qua fluctus eludit. 

9° 



BOOK VII. hi. 12-15 

things about which they are really in agreement : 
thus rhetoric is defined as the science of speaking 
well, as the science of correct conception or correct 
expression of what we have to say, as the science of 
speaking in accordance with the excellence oj an orator 
and again of speaking to the purpose. And we must 
take care to discover how it is that definitions, 
identical in meaning, differ in the form in which 
they are expressed. However, this is a subject for 
discussion and not for a quarrel. Definition is some- 13 
times required to explain rare or obscure words such 
as clarigatio 1 or erctum citum, 2 or again to explain 
familiar words such as penus 3 or lilus.* 

This variety in definition has caused some writers 
to include it under conjecture, others under quality 
and others again under legal questions. Some, on 14 
the other hand, entirely reject the elaborate and 
formal methods of reasoning employed by dialectic, 
regarding such ingenuity as suited rather to quibbles 
over words in philosophical discussions than as likely 
to carry much weight in the performance of the 
duties of an orator. For though in dialogue defi- 
nition may serve to fetter the person who has got 
to reply in chains of his own making, or may force 
him to silence, or even to reluctant confession of a 
point which tells against himself, it is of less use in 
forensic cases. For there we have to persuade the 15 
judge, who, even though he may be tied and bound 
with our words, will still dissent in silence, unless he 
is brought really into touch with the actual facts. 
And what need has a pleader for such precision of 
definition ? Even if I do not say that man is an 
animal, mortal and rational, surely I shall still be 
able, by setting forth the numerous properties of his 

9 1 



QUINTILIAN 

tatibus, latius oratione ducta, vel a dis eum vel a 
IG mutis discernere ? Quid quod nee uno modo defini- 
tur res eadem (ut facit Cicero : quid est aunt vulgo ? 
universos) jet latiore varioque tractatu, ut omnes 
oratores plerumque fecerunt ? Rarissima enim apud 
eos reperitur ilia ex consuetudine philosophorum 
ducta servitus [est certa servitus] x ad certa se verba 
adstringendi, idque faciendum in libris Ciceronis de 

17 Oratore vetat M. Antonius. Nam est etiam pericu- 
losum, cum, si uno verbo sit erratum, tota causa 
cecidisse videamur ; optiinaque est media ilia via, 
qua utitur Cicero pro Caecina, ut res proponatur, 
verba non perielitentur. Etenim, reciperalores, non 
ea sola vis est quae ad corpus nostrum vitamque pervenit, 
sed cliam multo maior ea quae periculo mortis iniecto 
formidine animum perterritum loco saepe et cerlo statu 

18 demovet. Aut, cum finitionem praecedit probatio, 
ut in Philippicis Cicero Servium Sulpicium occisum 
ab Antonio colligit et in clausula demum ita finit : 
Is enim profecto mortem attulit qui causa mortis fuit. 
Non negaverim tamen haec quoque, ut expediet 
causae, esse facienda, et si quando firme comprehendi 
poterit brevi complexu verborum finitio, esse id turn 

1 Expunged by Halm. 



1 l'ro Mur. xxxv. 73. 2 it xxv. 108 sjq. 

3 xv. 42. « ix. iii. 7. 



92 



BOOK VII. hi. 15-18 

body and mind in more general terms, to distinguish 
him from gods or dumb beasts. Again, may not the 16 
same thing be defined in more than one way, as 
Cicero does when he says, " What do we mean when 
we say ' commonly ' : surely we mean ' by all men ' ?" * 
May it not be given a wide and varied treatment 
such as is frequently employed by all orators ? For 
it is rare to find orators falling victims to that form 
of slavery introduced from the practice of the philo- 
sophers and tying themselves down to certain 
definite words ; indeed it is absolutely forbidden by 
Marcus Antonius in the de Oratore* of Cicero. 
For it is a most dangerous practice, since, if we make 17 
a mistake in a single word, we are like to lose our 
whole case, and consequently the compromise adopted 
by Cicero in the pro Caecina 3 is the safest course to 
follow ; this consists in setting forth the facts without 
running any risks over the exactness of our termi- 
nologv. These are his words : " Judges, the violence 
which threatens our lives and persons is not the 
only kind of violence : there is a much more serious 
form which by the threat of death fills our minds 
with panic and often turns them from their natural 
condition of stability." Or again, we may prove 18 
before we define, as Cicero does in the Philippics,* 
where he proves that Senilis Sulpicius was killed by 
Antony and introduces his definition at the con- 
clusion in the following terms : — " For assuredly the 
murderer was he who was the cause of his death." 
I would not. however, deny that such rules should be 
employed, if it will help our case, and that, if we 
can produce a definition which is at once strong and 
concise, it will be not merely an ornament to our 
speech, but will also produce the strongest im- 

93 



QUINT1LIAN 

elegans turn etiam fortissimum, si modo erit ilia 
inexpugnabilis. 

19 Eius certus ordo est, quid sit, an hoc sit. Et in 
hoc fere labor maior est, ut finitionem confirmes, 
quam ut in rem finitionem applices. In eo, quid sit, 
duplex opus est. Nam et nostra confirmanda est et 

20 adversae partis destruenda finitio. Ideoque in schola, 
ubi nobis ipsi fingimus contradictionem, duos ponere 
debemus fines, quales utrinque esse optimi poterunt. 
At in foro providendum, num forte supervacua et 
nihil ad causam pertinens an ambigua an contraria 
an communis sit finitio; quorum nihil accidere nisi 

21 agentis culpa potest. Ut recte autem finiamus, ita 
fiet, si prius in animo constituerimus quid velimus 
efficere. Sic enim accommodari ad voluntatem verba 
poterunt. Atque ut a notissimo exemplo, quo sit 
res lucidior, non recedamus : Qui privatum pecuniam 

22 de templo surripuil, sacrilegii reus est. Culpa manifesta 
est ; quaestio est an huic crimini nomen quod est in 
lege conveniat. Ergo ambigitur an hoc sacrilegium 

1 i, t. the thing under consideration. 
94 



BOOK VII UK 18-22 

pression, provided always that it cannot be over- 
thrown. 

The order to be followed in definition is invariable. 19 
We first ask what a thing is, and then, whether it is 
this. 1 And there is generally more difficulty in the 
establishment than in the application of a definition. 
In determining what a thing is, there are two things 
which require to be done : we must establish our 
own definition and destroy that of our opponent. 
Consequently in the schools, where we ourselves 20 
imagine our opponent's reply, we have to introduce 
two definitions, which should suit the respective 
sides of the case as well as it is in our power to 
make them. But in the courts we must give careful 
consideration to the question whether our definition 
may not be superfluous and irrelevant or ambiguous 
or inconsistent or even of no less service to our 
opponents than to ourselves, since it will be the 
fault of the pleader if any of these errors occur. On 
the other hand, we shall ensure the right definition, 21 
if we first make up our minds what it is precisely 
that we desire to effect : for, this done, we shall be 
able to suit our words to serve our purpose. To 
make my meaning clearer, I will follow my usual 
practice and quote a familiar example. " A man 
who has stolen private money from a temple is 
accused of sacrilege." There is no doubt about his 22 
guilt; the question is whether the name given by 
the law applies to the charge. It is therefore 
debated whether the act constitutes sacrilege. The 
accuser employs this term on the ground that the 
money was stolen from a temple : the accused denies 
that the act is sacrilege, on the ground that the 
money stolen was private property, but admits that 

95 



QUINTILIAN 

sit? Accusator, quia de templo surrepta sit pecunia, 
utitur hoc nomine. Reus, quia privatam surripuerit, 
negat esse sacrilegium sed furtum fatetur. Actor 
ergo ita finiet, Sacrilegium est surripere aliquid de 
sacro ; Reus, Sacrilegium est surripere aliquid x sacri. 

23 Uterque finitionem alterius impugnat. Ea duobus 
generibus evertitur, si aut falsa est aut parum plena. 
Nam illud tertium nisi stultis non accidit, ut nihil 

24 ad quaestionem pertineat. [Falsa est, si dicas, Equus 
animal rationale; nam est equus animal sed irra- 
tionale. Quod autem commune cum alio est, desinet 
esse proprium.] 2 Hie reus falsam dicit esse finitionem 
accusatoris, accusator autem non potest dicere falsam 
rei ; nam est sacrilegium surripere aliquid sacri ; sed 
dicit parum plenam, adiiciendum enim aut ex sacro. 

25 Maxim us autem usus in approbando refellendoque 
fine propriorum ac differentium, nonnunquam etiam 
etymologiae. Quae tamen omnia, sicut in ceteris, 
confirmat aequitas, nonnunquam et coniectura 
mentis. Etymologia maxime rare est : Quid enim 
est aliud tumultus, nisi perturbatio tanta, ut maior timor 

26 oriatur ? Unde etiam nomen duclum est tumultus. Circa 
propria ac differentia magna subtilitas, ut cum quae- 

1 de sacro . . . aliquid; added by early editors. 
8 Falsa . . . proprium, expunged by Gesner. 

1 Conjecture is here used in the ordinary sense, not the 
technical. 

2 Cic. Phil. vin. i. 3. Tttmiiltus is here used by Cicero in 
its special sense, civil war or Gallic invasion. He derives it 
from timor multus. 3 cp. in. vft 25. 

9 6 



BOOK VII. hi. 22-26 

it is theft. The prosecutor will therefore give the 
following definitions, " It is sacrilege to steal any- 
thing from a sacred place." The accused will reply 
with another definition, " It is sacrilege to steal 
something sacred." Each impugns the other's defi- 
nition. A definition may be overthrown on two 23 
grounds : it may be false or it may be too narrow. 
There is indeed a possible third ground, namely 
irrelevance, but this is a fault which no one save a 
fool will commit. [It is a false definition if you say, 24 
" A horse is a rational animal," for though the horse 
is an animal, it is irrational. Again, a thing which 
is common to something else cannot be a property 
of the thing defined.] In the case under discussion, 
then, the accused alleges that the definition given 
by the accuser is false, whereas the accuser cannot 
do the same by his opponent's definition, since to 
steal a sacred object is undoubtedly sacrilege. He 
therefore alleges that the definition is too narrow 
and requires the addition of the words "or from a 
sacred place." But the most effective method of 25 
establishing and refuting definitions is derived from 
the examination of properties and differences, and 
sometimes even from considerations of etymology, 
while all these considerations will, like others, find 
further support in equity and occasionally in con- 
jecture. 1 Etymology is rarely of assistance, but the 
following will provide an example of its use. " For 
what else is a ' tumult ' but a disturbance of such 
violence as to give rise to abnormal alarm ? And 
the name itself is derived from this fact." 2 Great 26 
ingenuity may be exercised with regard to properties 
and differences, as for instance in the question 
whether a person assigned to his creditor for debt, 8 

97 



QUINTILIAN 

ritur an addictus, quem lex servire, donee solvent, 
iubet, servus sit. Altera pars finit ita, Servus est, qui 
est iure in servitule ; altera, qui in servitute est eo hire, 
quo servus, aut, ut antiqui dixerunt, qui servitutem 
servit. Quae finitio, etiamsi distat aliquo, nisi tamen 

27 propriis et differentibus adiuvatur, inanis est. Dicet 
enim adversarius, servire eum servitutem aut eo iure 
quo servum. Videamus ergo propria et differentia, 
quae libro quinto leviter in transitu attigeram. 
Servus, cum manumittitur, fit libertinus, addictus 
recepta libertate ingenuus ; servus invito domino 
libertatem non consequetur, addictus soluendo citra 
voluntatem domini consequetur : x ad servum nulla 
lex pertinet, addictus legem habet. Propria liberi, 
quod nemo babet nisi liber, praenomen, nomen, 
cognomen, tribum ; habet haec addictus. 

28 Excusso quid sit, prope peracta est quaestio, an hoc 
sit. Id enim agimus ut sit causae nostrae conve- 
niens finitio. Potentissima est autem in ea qualitas, 
an amor insania. Hue pertinebunt probationes, quas 

addictus . . . consequetur, added by Regius. 

1 V. x. GO. 
98 



BOOK VII. hi. 26-28 

who is condemned by the law to remain in a state 
of servitude until he has paid his debt, is actually a 
slave. One party will advance the following defi- 
nition, " A slave is one who is legally in a state of 
servitude." The other will produce the definition, 
"A slave is one who is in a state of servitude on 
the same terms as a slave (or, to use the older 
phrase, 'who serves as a slave')." This definition, 
though it differs considerably from the other, will be 
quite useless unless it is supported by properties 
and differences. For the opponent will say that the 27 
person in question is actually serving as a slave or is 
legally in a state of servitude. We must therefore 
look for properties and differences, to which in 
passing I devoted a brief discussion in my fifth book. 1 
A slave when manumitted becomes a freedman : a 
man who is assigned for debt becomes a free man on 
the restoration of his liberty. A slave cannot acquire 
his freedom without the consent of his master : a 
man assigned for debt can acquire it by paying his 
debt without the consent of his master being 
necessary. A slave is outside the law ; a man 
assigned for debt is under the law. Turning to 
properties, we may note the following which are 
possessed by none save the free, the three names 
(praenomen, nomen and cognomen) and membership 
of a tribe, all of which are possessed by the man 
assigned for debt. 

By settling what a thing is we have come near 28 
to determining its identity, for our purpose is to 
produce a definition that is applicable to our case. 
Now the most important element in a definition is 
provided by quality, as, for example, in the question 
whether love be a form of madness. To this point 

99 



QUINTILIAN 

Cicero dicit propria* esse finitionis, ex antecedenti- 
bus, consequentibus, adiunctis, repugnantibus, causis, 
effectis, similibus ; de quorum argumentorum natura 

29 dictum est. Breviter autem pro Caecina Cicero 
initia, causas, effecta, antecedentia, consequentia 
com plexus est : Quid igilur J'ugiebant? Propter metum 
Quid metuebant ? Vim videlicet. Potestis igitur principia 
negare, aim extrema concedatis ? Sed similitudine quo- 
que usus est, Quae vis in hello appellatur, ea in olio non 

30 appellabitur ? Sed etiam ex contrario argumenta 
ducuntur, ut si quaeratur, amatorium venenum sit 
necne ; quia venenum amatorium non sit. 

Ulud alterum genus quo sit manifestius adolescen- 
tibus meis (meos enim semper adolescentes putabo), 

31 hie quoque fictae controversiae utar exemplo. Iuvenes, 
qui convivere solebant, constituerunt, ut in litore cenarent. 
Unius, qui cenae defuerat, nomen tumido, quern exslruxe- 
rant, inseripserunt , Pater eius, a transmarina pere- 
grinutione cum ad litus idem appulisset, lecto nomine 

32 suspendit se. Dicunlur ii causa mortis fuisse. Hie 
linitiu est aecusatoris. Per quern factum est, ut quis 



1 Top. xxiii. 88. * v. x. 73. 

3 xv. 44. 4 xv. 43. 

IOO 



BOOK VII. hi. 28-32 

in our procedure belong those proofs which according 
to Cicero x are peculiar to definition, that is, proofs 
drawn from antecedents, consequents, adjuncts, con- 
traries, causes, effects and similarities, with the 
nature of which I have already dealt. 2 I will, how- 29 
ever, quote a passage from the pro Caccina z in which 
Cicero includes brief proofs drawn from origins, 
causes, effects, antecedents and consequents : \* Why 
then did they fly ? Because they were afraid. What 
were they afraid of? Obviously of violence. Can you 
then deny the beginning, when you have admitted 
the end ? " But he also argued from similarity : * 
"Shall not that which is called violence in war be 
called violence in peace as well ? " Arguments may 30 
also be drawn from contraries, as for instance in the 
question whether a love-potion can be a poison, in 
view of the fact that a poison is not a love-potion. 

In order that my young students (and I call them 
mine, because the young student is always dear to 
me) may form a clearer conception of this second 
kind of definition, I will once more quote a fictitious 
controversial theme. " Some young men who were 3 1 
in the habit of making merry together decided to 
dine on the sea-shore. One of their party failed 
to put in an appearance, and they raised a tomb to 
him and inscribed his name thereon. His father on 
his return from overseas chanced to land at this 
point of the shore, read the name and hung himself. 
It is alleged that the youths were the cause of 
his death." The definition produced by the accuser 32 
will run as follows : " The man whose act leads to 
another's death is the cause of his death." The 
definition given by the accused will be, " He who 
wittingly commits an act which must necessarily lead 

101 



QU1NTILIAN 

perieri't, causa mortis est ; rei est, Qui fecit quid sciens, 
per quod perire homini necesse est. Remota finitione 
accusatori sat est dicere, Causa 7nortis fuistis ; per vos 
enim factum est, ut homo perirel ; quia, nisi vos Mud 

33 fecissetis, viveret. Contra, Non slatim, per quern factum 
est, ut quis periret, is damnaii debet, ut accusator, testis, 
iudex rei capitalis. Nee undecunque causa Jluxit, ibi 
culpa est : ut si quis profectionem suaserit aut amicum 
arcessierit trans mare et is naufragio pericrit, ad cenam 

34 invitarit et is cruditate illic contractu decesserit. Nee 
fuerit in causa mortis solum adolescentium factum sed 

credulitas senis, in dolore ferundo injtrmilas ; denique, 
si fortior fuisset aut prudentior, viveret. Nee mala 
mente fecerunt ; et Me potxdt vel ex loco tumuli vel ex 
opere tumultuario suspicari non esse monumentum. Qui 
ergo puniri debent, in quibus omnia absunt x homicidae 
praeter manum ? 

35 Est interim certa finitio, de qua inter utramque 
partem convenit : ut Cicero dicit, Maiesfas est in 
imperii atque in nominis populi Komani dignitate. Qua- 
eritur tamen, an maiestas minula sit, ut in causa Corne- 

1 absunt, Teuffel : sunt, MSS. 



1 Part. Or. xxx. 105. maiestatem imminuere = to commit 
l&se-majeste or treason. 

102 






BOOK VII. hi. 32-35 

to another's death, is the cause of his death." With- 
out any formal definition it would be sufficient for 
the accuser to argue as follows : " You were the 
cause of his death, for it was your act that led 
to his death : but for your act he would still be 
alive." To which the accused might answer, " It 33 
does not necessarily follow that the man whose act 
leads to another's death should be condemned forth- 
with. Were this so, the accuser, witnesses and 
judges in a capital case would all be liable to 
condemnation. Nor is the cause of death always a 
guilty cause. Take for instance the case of a man 
who persuades another to go on a journey or 
sends for his friend from overseas, with the result 
that the latter perishes in a shipwreck, or again the 
case of a man who invites another to dine, with 
the result that the guest dies of indigestion. Nor 34 
is the act of the young men to be regarded as 
the sole cause of death. The credulity of the old 
man and his inability to bear the shock of grief 
were contributory causes. Finally, had he been wiser 
or made of sterner stuff, he would still be alive. 
Moreover the young men acted without the least 
thought of doing harm, and the father might have 
suspected from the position of the tomb and the 
traces of haste in its construction that it was not 
a genuine tomb. What ground then is there for 
condemning them, for everything else that constitutes 
homicide is lacking save only the contributory act?" 

Sometimes we have a settled definition on which 35 
both parties are agreed, as in the following example 
from Cicero : x " Majesty resides in the dignity of 
the Roman power and the Roman people." The 
question however, is, whether that majesty has been 

i°3 



QUINTILIAN 

lii quaesitum est. Sed hie etiamsi x videri potest 
finitiva, tamen quia de finitione non ambigitur, 
iudicatio est qualitatis atque ad eum potius statum 
reducenda, ad cuius forte quidem venimus mentio- 
nem, sed erat ordine proximus locus. 

IV. Est autem qualitas alia de summo genere 
atque ea quidem non simplex. Nam et qualis 
sit cuiusque rei natura et quae forma quaeritur : 
an immortalis anima, an humana specie deus ; et 
de magnitudine ac numero, quantus sol, an unus 
mundus. Quae omnia coniectura quidem colligun- 
tur, quaestionem tamen habent in eo, qualia sint? 

2 Haec et in suasoriis aliquando tractari solent, ut, si 
Caesar deliberet, an Britanniam impugnet, quae sit 
Oceani natura, an Britannia insula (nam turn ignora- 
batur), quanta in ea terra, quo numero militum 
aggredienda, in consilium ferendum sit. Eidem 
qualitati succedunt facienda ac non facienda, appe- 
tenda, vitanda ; quae in suasorias quidem maxime 
cadunt, sed in controversiis quoque sunt frequentia, 
hac sola differentia, quod illic de futuris hie de factis 

3 agitur. Item demonstrativae partis omnia sunt in 

1 etiamsi, Christ : etiam similis, MSS. 



1 No fragments of the pro Cornelio contain any trace of this. 

2 See in. vi. 31, sqq. * See in. iv. 12 sqq. 

1 04 






BOOK VII. in. 35-iv. 3 

impaired, as for example in the case of Cornelius. 1 
But even although the case may seem to turn on 
definition, the point for decision is one of quality, 
since there is no doubt about the definition, and 
must be assigned to the qualitative basis. 2 It is a 
mere accident that I have come to mention quality 
at this moment, but in point of fact quality is the 
matter that comes next in order for discussion. 

IV. In speaking of quality we sometimes use 
the word in its most general sense, which covers 
a number of different questions. For we enquire 
sometimes into the nature and form of things : as 
for instance whether the soul is immortal or whether 
god is to be conceived of in human form. Some- 
times, on the other hand, the question turns on size 
and number, as, for instance, what is the size of 
the sun or whether there are more worlds than 
one. In all these cases we arrive at our conclusions 
by conjecture, yet each involves a question of quality. 
Such questions are sometimes treated in delibera- 
tive themes : for example, if Caesar is deliberating 
whether to attack Britain, he must enquire into the 
nature of the Ocean, consider whether Britain is an 
island (a fact not then ascertained), and estimate its 
size and the number of troops which he will require 
for the invasion. Under the same head of quality 
fall questions whether certain things should be done 
or not and certain objects sought or avoided : such 
topics are specially adapted for deliberative themes, 
but occur with some frequency in controversial 
themes as well, the only difference being that in 
the latter we deal with what is past and in the 
former with the future. Similarly all the topics 
of demonstrative 3 oratory involve a qualitative basis. 

105 



QUINTILIAN 

hoc statu : factum esse constat, quale sit factum 
quaeritur. Lis est omnis aut de praemio aut de 
poena aut de quantitate. Igitur x genus causae aut 
simplex aut comparativum. Illic, quid aequum, hie, 
quid aequius aut quid aequissimum sit, excutitur. 
Cum de poena iudicium est, a parte eius, qui causam 
dicit, aut defensio est criminis aut imminutio aut 
excusatio aut, ut quidam putant, deprecatio. 

4 Defensio longe potentissima est, qua ipsum factum, 
quod obiicitur, dicimus honestum esse. Abdicatur 
aliquis, quod invito patre militant, honores petierit, 
uxorem duxerit : tuemur, quod fecimus. Hanc 
partem vocant Hermagorei kclt avrLX-rjipiv, ad intel- 
lectum id nomen referentes. Latine ad verbum 
translatam non invenio ; absoluta appellatur. Sed 

5 enim de re sola quaestio, iusta sit ea necne. Iustum 
omne continetur natura vel constitutione ; natura, 

6 quod fit secundum cuiusque rei dignitatem. Hinc 
sunt pietas, fides, continentia et talia. Adiiciunt et 
id, quod sit par. Verum 2 id non temere intuendum 
est : nam et vis contra vim et talio nihil habent 
adversum eum, qui prior fecit, iniusti ; et non, quo- 
niam res pares sunt, etiam id est iustum, quod 
antecessit. Ilia utrinque iusta, eadem lex, eadem 

1 igitur, early edd. : agitur, A : egrum, G. 
* sit par. Verum, Regius: sit pfisum, MSS. 

1 avrl\r)tyis is the technical term for this form of defence 
which turns not on the facts, but on the justice of the case. 
The meaning of ad intellectum id nomen referentes is obscure. 
If the words are correct (and no satisfactory correction seems 
possible), their meaning must be that the defence turns not 
on the act, but on its significance and equity. If any change 
is made in the text, the simplest course is to delete the words 
as a gloss which has crept into the text. 

106 



BOOK VII. iv. 3-6 

The facts are admitted, and the question turns on 
their quality, the dispute being entirely concerned 
with rewards or penalties or their quantity. The 
case is therefore of two kinds, simple or compara- 
tive, the former dealing with what is just, the latter 
with what is juster, or most just. When the point 
for decision is the penalty to be inflicted, the duty 
of the pleader will be to defend, extenuate or excuse 
the act on which the charge is based, or even, 
according to some, to plead for mercy. 

By far the strongest line that can be taken in 
defence is to assert that the act which forms the 
subject of the charge is actually honourable. A 
man is disinherited because he went on military 
service, stood for office or married without his 
father's consent. We defend this act. This form 
of defence is called koct avrikq^w by the followers of 
Hermagoras, that is, defence by objection, the term 
being used with reference to the purport of the 
defendant's plea. 1 I can find no exact Latin transla- 
tion of the term ; we call it an absolute defence. 
But in such cases the question is concerned with the 
justice or injustice of the act alone. Justice is 
either natural or conventional. Natural justice is 
found in actions of inherent worth. Under this 
head come the virtues of piety, loyalty, self-control 
and the like. To these some add the rendering 
of like for like. But this view must not be adopted 
without consideration : for to retaliate, or meet 
violence with violence on the one hand, does not 
imply injustice on the part of the aggressor, while 
on the other hand it does not follow that the first 
act was just merely because the two acts were alike. 
In cases where there is justice on both sides, the 

107 



QUINT1LIAN 

condicio; ac forsitan ne sint quidem paria, quae 
ulla parte sunt dissimilia. Constitutio est in lege, 
more, iudicato, pacto. 

7 Alterum est defensionis genus, in quo factum per 
se hnprobabile adsumptis extrinsecus auxiliis tuemur ; 
id voeant kcit avriOicnv. Latine hoc quoque non ad 
verbum transferunt, adsumptiva enim dicitur causa. 

8 In quo genere fortissimum est, si crimen causa facti 
tuemur, qualis est defensio Orestis, Horatii, Milonis. 
'JvT€yK\t)fia dicitur, quia omnis nostra defensio con- 
stat eius accusatione, qui vindicatur : Occisus est, sed 

9 latro ; excaecatus, sed raptor. Est et ilia ex causis 
facti ducta defensio priori contraria, in qua neque 
factum ipsum per se, ut in absoluta quaestione, de- 
fenditur neque ex contrario facto, sed ex aliqua 
utilitate aut rei publicae aut hominum multorum aut 
etiam ipsius adversarii, nonnunquam et nostra, si 
modo id erit, quod facere nostra causa fas sit ; quod 
sub extrario accusatore et legibus agente prodesse 



1 i.e. from motives derived from facts lying outside the 
actual case. 



ioS 



BOOK VII. iv. 6-9 

two parties must both come under the same law 
and the same conditions, and it would not perhaps 
be untrue to say that things can never be spoken 
of as like if there is any point in which they 
are dissimilar. Convention, on the other hand, is 
to be found in laws, customs, legal precedents and 
agreements. 

There is another form of defence by which we 
defend an act in itself indefensible by arguments 
drawn from without. 1 This the Greeks call tear 
dvTtdeaiv, by opposition. Here again there is no 
Latin equivalent, since we call it defence by assump- 
tion. The strongest line to take in this form 
of defence is to defend the act forming the subject 
of the charge by appealing to its motive. An 
example of this is provided by the defence put 
forward on behalf of Orestes, Horatius or Milo. The 
term dvreyicX^/xa, or counter-accusation, is emploved 
when our defence consists entirelv in accusing the 
person whom our opponents are seeking to vindicate. 
" He was killed, but he was a robber ; he was blinded, 
but he was a ravisher." There is another form 
of defence based on an appeal to the motives of 
the act which is the opposite of that which I have 
just described It consists not in defending the act 
per se, as we do when we employ the absolute 
defence, nor in opposing another act to it, but 
in appealing to the interests of the State, of a 
number of persons, of our opponent himself or finally 
at times of ourselves, provided alwavs that the act 
in question is such as we might lawfully do in our 
own interests. If, however, the accuser is a stranger 
and insists on the letter of the law, this form 
of defence will invariably be useless, though it may 

109 






QUINTILIAN 

nunquam potest, in domesticis disceptationibus po- 

10 test. Nam et filiis pater in iudicio abdicationis et 
maritus uxori, si malae tractationis accusabitur, et 
patri films, si dementiae causa erit, non inverecunde 
dicet multum sua interfuisse. In quo tamen in- 
commoda vitantis melior quam commoda petentis 

11 est causa. Quibus similia etiam in vera rerum 
quaestione tractantur. Nam quae in scbolis abdica- 
torum, haec in foro exheredatorum a parentibus et 
bona apud centum viros repetentium ratio est; quae 
illic malae tractationis, hie rei uxoriae, cum quaeri- 
tur utrius culpa divortium factum sit ; quae illic 

12 dementiae, hie petendi curatoris. Subiacet utilitati 
etiam ilia defensio, si peius aliquid futurum fuit. 
Nam in comparatione malorum boni locum obtinet 
levius : ut si Mancinus foedus Numantinum sic de- 
fendat, quod periturus, nisi id factum esset, fuerit 
exercitus. Hoc genus avTiaracrts Graece nominatur, 
comparativum nostri vocant. 

1 3 Haec circa defensionem facti ; quae si neque per 
no 



BOOK VII. iv. 9-13 

serve our turn if the dispute is of a domestic 
character. For example, in a suit concerned 10 
with the question of disinheritance a father may, 
without reHecting on himself, say to his sons that 
his act was of importance to his own interests, 
and the same plea may be urged by a husband 
accused of cruelty by his wife or a son who 
alleges that his father is insane. But in such cases 
the position of the man who seeks to avoid 
loss is stronger than that of him who aims at 
positive advantage. Precisely similar methods are 11 
also employed in questions that occur in real life. 
For the scholastic themes concerned with the dis- 
owning of children are on exactly the same footing 
as the cases of sons disinherited by their parents 
which are tried in the public courts, or of those 
claims for the recovery of property which are tried 
in the centumviral court : themes dealing with cruelty 
find an actual parallel in those cases in which the 
wife claims the restoration of her dowry, and the 
question is whose fault it was that led to the divorce: 
and again the theme where the son accuses his father 
of madness has its analogy in cases where a suit is 
brought for the appointment of a guardian. Under 12 
the same heading as the appeal to public or personal 
interest comes the plea that the act in question 
prevented the occurrence of something worse. For 
in a comparison of evils the lesser evil must be 
regarded as a positive good : for example, Mancinus 
may defend the treaty made with the Numantines 
on the ground that it saved the army from annihila- 
tion. This form of defence is called dvT«rrao-is by 
the Greeks, while we style it defence by comparison. 
Such are the methods by which we may 13 

in 



QUINTILIAN 

se ipsa nee adhibitis auxiliis dabitur, proximum est 
in alium transferre crimen, si possumus. Ideoque 
etiam in hos, qui citra scriptum x sunt, status visa est 
cadere translatio Interdum ergo culpa in hominem 
relegatur, ut si Gracchus reus foederis Numantini, 
cuius metu leges populares tulisse in tribunatu vide- 

14 retur, 2 missum se ab imperatore suo diceret. In- 
terim derivatur in rem, ut si is, qui testamento quid 
iussus non fecerit, dicat per leges id fieri non 
potuisse. Hoc ixeTaaTacnv dicunt. 

Hinc quoque exclusis excusatio superest. Ea est 
aut ignorantiae, ut si quis fugitivo stigmata scripserit 
eoque ingenuo iudicato neget se liberum esse scisse ; 
aut necessitatis, ut cum miles ad commeatus diem 
non adfuit et dicit se fluminibus interclusum aut 

15 valetudine. Fortuna quoque saepe substituitur cul- 
pae. Nonnunquam male fecisse nos sed bono animo 
dicimus. Utriusque rei multa et manifesta exempla 
sunt ; idcirco non est eorum necessaria expositio. 

1 citra scriptum, Christ: etiain scriptum, AG. 
8 videretur, Halm : videntur, AG. 



1 i t. there are no legal grounds for alleging that the court 
is not competent to try the case, or the accuser to bring the 
charge, etc. See in. vi. 53, 78. 

112 






BOOK VII. iv. 13-15 

defend an act. If it is impossible to defend an 
act either on its merits or with the assistance of 
arguments from without, the next best course will 
be to shift the charge, if possible, to another. 
It is for this reason that the basis of competence has 
been held to apply even to those who cannot 
plead the letter of the law in this connexion. 1 In 
some cases, then, the blame will be thrown on a 
person : for example, Gracchus, when accused of 
making the treaty with the Numantines (and it was 
fear of this accusation that seems to have led him 
to bring forward the democratic laws of his tribune- 
ship) may plead that he made it as the representa- 
tive of his commander-in-chief. At times, on the 14 
other hand, the blame may be shifted to some 
thing : for instance, a person who has failed to 
comply with some testamentary injunction may plead 
that the laws forbade such compliance. The Greek 
term for such shifting is fitTaaracrts. 

If these methods of defence are out of the 
question, we must take refuge in making excuses. 
We may plead ignorance. For example, if a man 
has branded a runaway slave and the latter is 
subsequently adjudged to be a free man, he may 
deny that he was cognisant of the truth. Or 
we may plead necessity ; for instance, if a soldier 
overstays his leave, he may plead that his return 
was delayed by floods or ill health. Again, the 15 
blame is often cast upon fortune, while sometimes 
we assert that, although we undoubtedly did wrong, 
we did so with the best intentions. Instances 
of these two latter forms of excuse are, however, 
so numerous and obvious that there is no need for 
me to cite them here. 

i*3 



QU1NTILIAN 

Si omnia, quae supra scripta sunt, deerunt, viden- 
dum, an imminui culpa possit. Hie est ille, qui 

16 a quibusdam fieri solet, status quantitatis. Sed ea 
cum sit aut poenae aut honoris, ex qualitate facti 
constituitur, eoque nobis sub hoc esse statu videtur 
sicut eius quoque, quae ad numerum refertur a 
Graecis. Nam et TrrjXiKOTrjra et TrocrorqTa dicunt, 
nos utrumque appellatione una complectimur. 

17 Ultima est deprecatio, quod genus causae plerique 
negarunt in iudicium unquam venire. Quin Cicero 
quoque pro Q. Ligario idem testari videtur, cum 
dicit, Causas, Caesar, egi tnultas equidem tecum, dum te 
in foro tenuit ratio honorum tuorum, eerie nunquam hoc 
modo : Ignoscite, iudices, erravit, lapsus est, non puta- 

18 vit, si unquam postkac, et cetera. In senatu vero et 
apud populum et apud principem et ubicunque iuris 
dementia est, habet locum deprecatio. In qua 
plurimum valent ex ipso, qui reus est, haec tria ; 
vita praecedens, si innocens, si bene meritus, si spes 
in futurum innocenter victuri et in aliquo usu futuri ; 

1 cp. in. vi. 23, 51, 53. 

2 iroff6rr\s = quantity with reference to number ; nrj\tK6rifs 
= quantity with reference to magnitude. 

3 Pro Lig. x. 30. 

114 



BOOK VII. iv. 15-18 

If all the above-mentioned resources prove un- 
available, we must see whether it may not be 
possible to extenuate the offence. It is here that 
what some call the quantitative basis 1 comes into 
play. But when quantity is considered in refer- 16 
ence to punishment or reward, it is determined by 
the quality of the act, and therefore in my opinion 
comes under the qualitative basis, as also does quantity 
which is used with reference to number by the 
Greeks, who distinguish between ttoo-ott)? and 
TTT]\LK6rr)<; - : we, however, have only one name for 
the two. 

In the last resort we may plead for mercy, a though 17 
most writers deny that this is ever admissible in the 
courts. 3 Indeed Cicero himself seems to support 
this view in his defence of Quintus Ligarius where 
he says, " I have pleaded many causes, Caesar, some 
of them even in association with yourself, so long as 
your political ambitions prevented you from abandon- 
ing the bar, but never have I pleaded in words such 
as these, ' Forgive him, gentlemen, he erred, he 
made a slip, he did not think that it mattered, he 
will never do it again,"' and so on. On the other 18 
hand, in addressing the senate, the people, the em- 
peror or any other authority who is in a position to 
show clemency, such pleas for mercy have a legitimate 
place. In such cases there are three points based 
on the circumstances of the accused which are most 
effective. The first is drawn from his previous life, if 
he has been blameless in his conduct and deserved 
well of the state, or if there is good hope that his 
conduct will be blameless for the future and likely 
to be of some use to his fellow men ; the second is 
operative if it appears that he has been sufficiently 

"5 



QUINTILIAN 

praeterea si vel aliis incommodis vel praesenti peri- 
culo vel paenitentia videatur satis poenarum dedisse ; 
extra nobilitas, dignitas, propinqui, amici. 

19 In eo tamen qui cognoscit plurimum ponendum, si 
laus eum misericordis potius quam reprehensio disso- 
luti consecutura est. Verum et in iudiciis, etiamsi non 
toto genere causae, tamen ex parte magna hie locus 
saepe tractatur. Nam et divisio frequens est, et- 
iamsi fecisset, ignoscendum fuisse idque in causis 
dubiis saepe praevaluit, et epilogi omnes in eadem 

20 fere materia versari solent. Sed nonnunquam etiam 
rei totius hie summa constituta. An J vero si exhere- 
datum a se filium pater testatus fuerit elogio, prop- 
terea quod is meretricem amaverit, non omnis hie 
erit quaestio, an huic delicto pater debuerit igno- 
scere et centumviri tribuere debeant veniam ? Sed 
etiam in formulis, cum poenariae sunt actiones, ita 
causam partimur, an commissa sit poena, an exigi 
debeat. Id autem, quod illi viderunt, verum est, 
reum a iudicibus hoc defensionis modo liberari non 
posse. 

21 De praemiis autem quaeruntur duo: an ullo sit 

1 constituta. An, Zumpt : constitutam, O : conBtituta 
iam A. 

u6 



BOOK VII. iv. 1 8-2 1 

punished already on the ground that lie has suffered 
other misfortunes, or that his present peril is extreme, 
or that he has repented of his sin ; while thirdly we 
may base his appeal on his external circumstances, 
his birth, his rank, his connexions, his friendships. 

It is, however, on the judge that we shall pin our l'J 
highest hopes, if the circumstances be such that 
acquittal will result in giving him a reputation for 
clemency rather than for regrettable weakness. But 
even in the ordinary courts appeals for mercy are 
frequently employed to a large extent, although they 
will not colour the whole of our pleading. For the 
following form of division is common : — " Even if 
he had committed the offence, he would have 
deserved forgiveness," a plea which has often 
turned the balance in doubtful cases, while practically 
all perorations contain such appeals. Sometimes 20 
indeed the whole case may rest on such considera- 
tions. For example, if a father has made an express 
declaration that he has disinherited his son because 
he was in love with a woman of the town, will not 
the whole question turn on the point whether it was 
the father's duty to pardon such an offence and 
whether it is the duty of the centumviral court 
to overlook it ? Nay, even in penal prosecutions 
governed by strict forms of law we raise two separate 
questions: first whether the penalty has been incurred, 
and secondly whether, if so, it ought to be inflicted. 
Still the view of the authorities to whom I have 
referred that an accused person cannot be saved 
from the clutches of the law by this method of 
defence is perfectly correct. 

With regard to rewards, there are two questions 21 
which confront us : namely, whether the claimant is 

117 



QUINTILIAN 

dignus, qui petit, an tanto ; ex duobus, uter dignior ; 
ex pluribus, quis dignissimus. Quorum tractatus 
ex ipso meritorum genere ducuntur. Et intuebimur 
non rem tantum, sive adleganda sive comparanda 
erit, sed personam quoque ; nam et multum interest, 
tyrannum iuvenis occiderit an senex, vir an femina, 

22 alienus an coniunctus ; et locum multipliciter, in 
civitate tyrannis assueta an libera semper, in arce 
an domi ; et quomodo factum sit, ferro an veneno ; 
et quo tempore, bello an pace, cum depositurus esset 
earn potestatem an cum aliquid novi sceleris ausurus. 
Habent in meritis gratiam periculum quoque et 

23 difficultas. Similiter liberalitas a quo profecta sit, 
refert. Nam in paupere gratior quam in divite, 
dante beneficium quam reddente, patre quam orbo. 
Item in quam rem dederit et quo tempore et 
quo animo, id est, num in aliquam spem suam; 
similiter alia. Et ideo qualitas maxime oratoris 
recipit operam, quia in utramque partem plurimum 

118 



BOOK VII. iv. 21-23 

deserving of any reward, and, if so, whether he de- 
serves so great a reward. If there are two claimants, 
we have to decide which is the more worthy of the 
two ; if there are a number, who is the most worthy. 
The treatment of these questions turns on the kind 
of merit possessed by the claimants. And we must 
consider not merely the act (whether it has merely 
to be stated or has to be compared with the acts of 
others), but the person of the claimant as well. For 
it makes a great difference whether a tyrannicide be 
young or old, man or woman, a stranger or a con- 
nexion. The place may also be discussed in a number 22 
of ways : was the city in which the tyrant was killed 
one inured to tyranny or one which had always been 
free ? was he killed in the citadel or in his own 
house ? The means, too, and the time call for con- 
sideration: was he killed by poison or the sword? 
was he killed in time of peace or war, when he was 
intending to lay aside his power or to venture on 
some fresh crime ? Further, in considering the 23 
question of merit, the danger and difficulty of the act 
will carry great weight, while with regard to liberality 
it will similarly be of importance to consider the 
character of the person from whom it proceeds. For 
liberality is more pleasing in a poor man than in a 
rich, in one who confers than in one who returns a 
benefit, in a father than in a childless man. Again, 
we must consider the immediate object of the gift, 
the occasion and the intention, that is to say, whether 
it was given in the hope of subsequent profit ; and 
so on with a number of similar considerations. The 
question of quality therefore makes the highest 
demands on the resources of oratory, since it affords 
the utmost scope for a display of talent on either side, 

119 



QUINTILIAN 

est ingenio loci, nee usquam tantum adfectus valent. 

24 Nam coniectura extrinsecus quoque adductas fre- 
quenter probationes habet et argumenta ex materia 
suniit ; quale quidque videatur eloquentiae est opus ; 
hie regnat, hie imperat, hie sola vincit. 

Huic parti subiungit Verginius causas abdicationis, 
dementiae, malae tractationis, orbarum nuptias indi- 
centium. Nam et fere sic accidit, inventique sunt, 

25 qui has materias officiorum vocarent. Sed alios quo- 
que nonnunquam leges hae recipiunt status. Nam 
et coniectura est aliquando in plerisque horurn, cum 
se vel non fecisse vel bona mente fecisse contendunt. 
Cuius generis exempla sunt multa. Et quid sit de- 
mentia ac mala tractatio, finitur. Nam leges iuris x 
plerumque quaestiones praecurrere solent, sed 2 ex 

26 quibus causae non fiat status. Quod tamen facto 
defendi non poterit, iure nitetur : et quot et quibus 
causis abdicare non liceat, et in quae crimina malae 
tractationis actio non 3 detur, et cui accusare de- 
mentiae non permittatur. 

1 leges iuris, Spalding : iuris leges, MSS. 

2 sed, Spalding : et, MSS. 
8 non, added by Obrecht. 

1 The general sense of 25 and 26 is clear. These cases do 
not always come under the status qualitatis : they not infre- 
quently come under the status coniecturalis and finitivus. 
They cannot, however, strictly be said to come under the status 
legalis, since although the leges of such scholastic themes do 
involve certain questions of law, these are not such as to con- 
stitute the status legalist. Still in the last resort such cases 
may be argued on legal grounds. The text adopted for the 

120 



BOOK VII. iv. 23-26 

while there is no topic in which the emotional appeal 
is so effective. For conjecture has often to introduce 24 
proofs from without and uses arguments drawn from 
the actual subject matter, whereas the real task of 
eloquence is to demonstrate qualify : there lies its 
kingdom, there its power, and there its unique 
victory. 

Verginius includes under quality cases concerned 
with disinheritance, lunacy, cruelty to a wife, and 
claims of female orphans to marry relatives. The 
questions thus involved are, it is true, frequently ques- 
tions of quality, while some writers style them ques- 
tions of moral obligation. But the laws governing 25 
these cases sometimes admit of other bases. For 
example, conjecture is involved in quite a number of 
such cases, as when the accused urges either that he 
did not commit the act or, if he did, acted with the 
best intentions. I could quote many examples of 
this kind. Again, it is definition which tells us what 
precisely is meant by lunacy or cruelty to a wife. 1 
For as a rule the laws cited in such themes involve 
certain legal questions, though not to such an extent 
as to determine the basis of the case. But this not- 26 
withstanding, if the actual fact cannot be defended, 
we may in the last resort base our defence on legal 
grounds, in which case we shall consider how many 
and what cases there are in which a father may not 
disinherit his son, what charges fail to justify an 
action for cruelty, and under what circumstances a 
son is not allowed to accuse his father of lunacy. 

last sentence of 25 is that which involves the least change, 
but it is highly obscure and the corruption may well lie 
deeper still. For the whole question of bases, which is 
highly technical, see III, vi. 



QU1NTILIAN 

27 Abdicationum formae sunt duae, altera criminis 
perfecti, ut si abdicetur raptor, adulter, altera velut 
pendentis et adhuc in condicione positi, quales sunt, 
in quibus abdicatur filius, quia non pareat patri. Ilia 
semper asperam abdicantis actionem habet ; immuta- 
bile est enim, quod factum est ; haec ex parte 
blandam et suadenti similem ; mavult enim pater 1 
non abdicare ; at profiliis in utroque genere summis- 

28 sam et ad satisfaciendum compositam. A quo dissen- 
suros scio, qui libenter patres figura laedunt ; quod non 
ausim dicere nunquam esse faciendum, potest enim 
materia incidere, quae hoc exigat ; certe vitandum 
est, quotiens aliter agi potest. Sed de figuris alio 

29 libro tractabimus. Non dissimiles autem abdica- 
tionum actionibus sunt malae tractationis actiones ; 
nam et ipsae habent eandem in accusationibus mo- 
derationem. Dementiae quoque iudicia aut propter 
id, quod factum est, aut propter id quod adhuc fieri 

30 vel non fieri potest instituuntur. Et actor in eo, 
quod factum est, liberum habet impetum, sic tamen 
ut factum accuset, ipsius patris tanquam valetudine 
lapsi misereatur ; in eo vero, cuius libera mutatio est, 

1 pater non abdicare, Spalding •: pater abdicare, G. : quam 
abdicare, A. : pater corrigere quam abdicare, cod. Monac 
and early edd. 

1 Literally conditional. The sense, however, is that the dis- 
inheritance is only conditional on the disobedience being 
continued. 

2 Book IX. See especially IX. ii. 65 sqq. 



BOOK VII. iv. 27-30 

Disinheritance may be of two kinds. In the first 27 
case it is for a completed crime : for example, the son 
who is disinherited may be a ravisher or an adulterer: 
in the second case it is for a crime which is still in- 
complete and terminable * ; an instance of this will 
be the case where the son is disinherited because of 
disobedience to his father. The first form of disin- 
heritance always demands a certain harshness when 
the father pleads his case, since the act is irrevocable, 
whereas in the latter his pleading will be of a kindly 
and almost persuasive nature, since he would prefer 
not to disinherit him. On the other hand, the 
pleading of the sons should in both cases be of a 
subdued character and couched in a conciliatory 
tone. I know that those who delight in making 28 
covert attacks upon the father under the disguise 
of some figure of speech will disagree with me : 
and I would not deny that their procedure may 
sometimes be justifiable, since the theme may con- 
ceivably be such as to demand it ; but it is certainly 
to be avoided wherever possible. However, I shall 
deal with the whole question of figures in a later 
book. 2 The treatment of the theme of cruelty to a 29 
wife is not unlike that of the theme of disinherit- 
ance ; for both demand a certain moderation on the 
part of the accuser. Cases concerned with lunacy 
arise either out of what has been done or out of 
something which may or may not be done in the 
future. In the former case the pleader is free to 30 
attack as he will, but must none the less do so in 
such a manner that, while denouncing the act, he 
will yet express pity for the father on the ground 
that he has erred by reason of his infirmity. On the 
other hand, in the latter case, where the act has not 

"3 



QUINTILIAN 

diu roget et suadeat et novissime dementiam rationi 
queratur obstare, non mores : quos quanto magis in 
praeteritum laudaverit, tanto facilius probabit morbo 

31 esse mutatos. Reus, quotiens causa patietur, debebit 
esse in defensione moderatus, quia fere ira et conci- 
tatio furori sunt similia. Omnibus his commune est, 
quod rei non semper defensione facti, sed excusatione 
ac venia frequenter utuntur. Est enim domestica 
disceptatio, in qua et semel peccasse et per errorem 
et levius, quam obiiciatur, absolutioni nonnunquam 
sufficit. 

32 Sed alia quoque multa controversiarum genera 
in qualitatem cadunt. Iniuriarum ; quanquam enim 
reus aliquando fecisse negat, plerumque tamen haec 

33 actio facto atque animo continetur. De accusatore 
constituendo, quae iudicia divinationes vocantur ; in 
quo genere Cicero quidern, qui mandantibus sociis 
Verrem deferebat, 1 hac usus est divisione, spec- 
tandum a quo maxime agi. velint ii quorum de 
ultione quaeritur, a quo minime velit is qui accusatur. 

34 Frequentissimae tamen hae sunt quaestiones, uter 

1 deferebat, Halm : defendebant, AG. : accusabat contra eos 
qui eum defeudebant, 2nd hand of A and early edd. 

124 



BOOK VII. iv. 30-34 

yet taken place and there is nothing to prevent the 
father changing his purpose, he must hegin by a 
prolonged attempt to induce him to change his mind, 
and then, and only then, complain that it is madness 
and not depravity of character that prevents him 
from listening to the voice of reason ; and the more 
he praises his past character, the easier will it be to 
prove the change which it has undergone owing to 
the inroads of the disease. The accused, wherever 31 
possible, must assume a temperate tone in his de- 
fence, for the reason that as a rule anger and excite- 
ment are near akin to madness. All these cases 
have this much in common, that the accused does not 
always defend his act, but often pleads excuse and 
asks for pardon. For these are domestic quarrels, in 
which the fact that the offence is an isolated case, 
due to error and of a less serious character than 
alleged, will sometimes suffice to secure an acquittal. 

There are, however, a number of other contro- 32 
versial themes involving quality, as, for example, 
cases of assault. In these, although at times the 
accused denies that he committed the assault, the 
pleading as a rule is concerned with fact and in- 
tention. Then there are cases concerned with the 33 
appointment of a prosecutor, which are known as 
divinations. In this connexion Cicero, who was in- 
dicting Verres on the instruction of our Sicilian allies, 
adopts the following division — to the effect that the 
main point for consideration is, by whom those the 
redress of whose wrongs forms the subject of the 
trial would prefer to be represented, and by whom 
the accused would least desire them to be repre- 
sented. But in the great majority of cases the 34 
questions raised are, which claimant has the strongest 

"5 



QUINTILIAN 

maiores causas habeat, uter plus industriae aut 
virium sit adlaturus ad accusaudum, uter id fide 

35 meliore facturus. Tutelae praeterea ; in quo iudicio 
solet quaeri, an alia de re quam de calculis cognosci 
oporteat, an fidem praestare debeat tantum, non 
etiam consilium et eventum. Cui simile est male 
gestae procurations, quae in foro negotiorum ges- 

36 torum ; nam et mandati actio est. Praeter haec 
finguntur in scholis et inscripti 1 maleficii, in quibus 
aut hoc quaeritur, an inscriptum x sit aut hoc, an 
maleficium sit, raro utrumque. Male gestae lega- 
tionis apud Graecos et veris causis frequens, ubi iuris 
loco quaeri solet, an omnino aliter agere quam man- 
datum sit liceat, et quousque sit legatus, quoniam aliae 
in nuntiando, aliae in renuntiando 2 sunt, ut in Heio, 
qui testimonium in Verrem dixerat post perlatam 

37 legationem. PI urimum tamen est in eo, quale sit fac- 
tum. Rei publicae laesae : hinc moventur quidem illae 

1 inscripti . . . inscriptum, Caperonnier : scripti . . . 
facriptum, MSS. 

2 aliae in nuntiando, added by Spalding. 

126 



BOOK VII. iv. 34-37 

motives for undertaking the role of accuser, which is 
likely to bring the greatest energy or talent to the 
task, and which is likely to press the charge with 
the greatest sincerity. Next we may take cases 35 
concerned with guardianship, in which it is usual 
to enquire whether it is necessary to investigate 
anvthing save the accounts, and whether anything 
can be demanded of the guardian except the 
honest execution of his trust ; his sagacity and the 
success of his administration being beside the mark. 
Cases of fraud on the part of an agent, which are 
stvled cases of conduct of business when they occur in 
the actual courts, are of a similar nature, since they 
also are concerned with the administration of a 
trust. In addition to these we have the fictitious 36 
cases of the schools which deal with crimes not covered 
by the law, where the question is as a rule either 
whether the crime is really not covered by the law 
or whether it is a crime, though on rare occasions 
both questions are raised. Cases of misconduct on 
the part of an ambassador are of frequent occurrence 
among the Greeks, even in actual life : in these the 
legal question is raised whether it is lawful to deviate 
at all from one's instructions and for how long the 
accused was technically an ambassador, since in some 
cases the ambassador's duty is to convey a communi- 
cation to a foreign power and in others to bring one 
back. Take for example the case of Heius, who gave 
evidence against Verres after performing his duties 
as ambassador. But in such cases the most important 
question turns on the nature of the deed complained 
of. Next come cases of action contrary to the interests 37 
of the state. In these we meet with legal quibbles 
as to what is the meaning of " action contrary to the 

127 



QUINT1LIAN 

iuris cavillationes, quid sit rem publicam laedere, et, 
laeserit an non profuerit, et, ab ipso an propter 
ipsum laesa sit : in facto tarnen plurimum est. 
Ingrati quoque, in quo genere quaeritur, an is cum 
quo agitur acceperit beneficium. Quod raro negan- 

38 dum est ; ingratus est enim qui negat. Quantum 
acceperit, an reddiderit, an protinus qui non 
reddidit ingratus sit, an potuerit reddere, an id, 
quod exigebatur, debuerit, quo animo sit. Simpli- 
ciores illae iniusti repudii, sub qua lege controversiae 
illud proprium habent, quod a parte accusantis 

39 defensio est, a l defendentis accusatio. Praeterea, 
cum quis rationem mortis in senatu reddit, ubi una 
quaestio est iuris, an is demum prohibendus sit, qui 
mori vult ut se legum actionibus subtrahat ; cetera 
qualitatis. Finguntur et testamenta, in quibus de 
sola qualitate 2 quaeratur, ut in controversia, quam 
supra exposui, in qua de parte patrimonii quarta, 
quam pater dignissimo ex filiis reliquerat, contendunt 
philosophus, medicus, orator. Quod idem accidit, 
si orbae nuptias indicant pares gradu, et si inter 

40 propinquos de idoneo quaeratur. Sed mihi nee 
omnes persequi materias in animo est, fingi enim 

1 a, Spakling : et, MSS. * qualitate, added by Christ. 

1 i. e. the divorced wife defends her character, while the 
husband attacks her character. 

2 Based on a law of Massilia, where the state provided 
poison for the would-be suicide, provided he could justify 
himself before the senate. 

3 vii. i. 38. 

128 



BOOK VII. iv. 37-40 

interests of the state," and whether the action of 
the accused was injurious or profitable, or whether 
the interests of the state suffered at his hands or 
merely on his account : but the most important 
question is that of fact. There are also cases of 
ingratitude ; in these we raise the question whether 
the accused has really received any kindness. It is 
only rarely that the fact can be denied, as denial is 
in itself a sign of ingratitude. But there are the 
further questions as to the extent of the kindness 
and whether it has been repaid. If it has not been 38 
repaid, does this necessarily involve ingratitude? 
Was it in his power to repay? Did he really owe 
the return which was demanded of him? What is 
his intention? Somewhat simpler are cases of 
unjust divorce, a form of controversy which has this 
peculiarity, that the accuser defends and the de- 
fendant accuses. 1 Further there are cases where 39 
a senator sets forth to the senate the reasons which 
determine him to commit suicide, 2 in which there is one 
legal question, namely, whether a man who desires to 
kill himself in order to escape the clutches of the 
law ought to be prevented from so doing, while the 
remaining questions are all concerned with quality. 
There are also fictitious cases concerned with wills, 
in which the only question raised is one of quality, as, 
for instance, in the controversial theme quoted above, 8 
where the philosopher, physician and orator all 
claim the fourth share which their father had left 
to the most worthy of his sons. The same is true 
of cases where suitors of equal rank claim the 
hand of an orphan and the question confronting her 
relatives is which is the most suitable. I do not, 40 
however, intend to discuss every possible theme, 

129 

VOL. 111. F 



QUINTILIAN 

adhuc possunt ; nee omnes earum quaestiones, quia 
positionibus mutantur. Hoc tantum admiror Flavum, 
cuius apud me summa est auctoritas, cum artem 
scholae tantum componeret, tam anguste materiam 
qualitatis terminasse. 

41 Quantitas quoque, ut dixi, etiamsi non semper, 
plerumque tamen eidem subiacet, seu modi est seu 
numeri. Sed modus aliquando constat aestimatione 
facti, quanta sit culpa, quantumve beneficium, ali- 
quando iure, cum id in controversiam venit, qua quis 

42 lege puniendus vel honorandus sit : stuprator decern 
milia dare debeat, quae poena huic crimini constituta 
est, an, quia se stupratus suspendit, capite puniri 
tanquam causa mortis. Quo in genere falluntur, qui 
ita dicunt, tanquam inter duas leges quaeratur : nam 
de decern milibus nulla controversia est, quae non 

43 petuntur. Iudicium redditur, an reus causa sit mor 
tis. In coniecturam quoque eadem species cadit, 
cum, perpetuo an quinquennali sit exilio multandus, 
in controversiam venerit ; nam an prudens caedem 

44 commiserit quaeritur. Ilia quoque, quae ex numero 



1 i. e. Verginius mentioned in § 24. 
§ 16. * cp. iv. ii. G9. 



13° 



BOOK VII. iv. 40-44 

since fresh ones can always be invented, nor yet to 
deal with all the questions to which they give rise, 
since these vary with circumstances. But I cannot 
help expressing my astonishment that Flavus, 1 for 
whose authority I have the highest respect, restricted 
the range of quality to such an extent in the text-book 
which he composed for the special guidance of the 
schools. 

Quantity also, as I have already stated, 2 falls as a 41 
rule, though not always, under the head of quality, 
whether it is concerned -with measure or number. 
Measure, however, sometimes consists in the valuation 
of a deed with a view to determining the amount 
of guilt or the amount of benefit involved, while, on 
the other hand, it sometimes turns on a point of 
law, when the dispute is under what law a man 
is to be punished or rewarded. For example is a 42 
ravisher to pay 10,000 sesterces 3 because that is the 
penalty appointed by law, or is he liable to capital 
punishment as a murderer because his victim hanged 
himself? In such cases those who plead as if there 
were a question between two laws, are wrong : for 
there is no dispute about the fine of 10,000, 
since it is not claimed by the prosecution. The 43 
point on which judgment has to be delivered is 
whether the accused is guilty of causing his victim's 
death. The same type of case will also bring 
conjecture into plav, when, for example, the question 
in dispute is whether the accused shall be punished 
with banishment for life or for five years. For the 
question then is whether he caused his death 
willingly or not. Again, there are questions con- 44 
cerned with numerical quantity which turn on a 
point of law, such as the questions whether thirty 

131 



QUINTILIAN 

ducitur, pendet ex iure, an Thrasybulo triginta 
praemia debeantur, et, cum duo fures pecuniam 
abstulerint, separatim quadruplum quisque an du- 
plum debeat. Sed hie quoque factum aestimatur et, 
tamen ius ipsum pendet ex qualitate. 

V. Qui neque fecisse se negabit neque aliud esse 
quod fecerit dicet neque factum defendet, necesse 
est in suo iure consistat, in quo plerumque actionis 

2 est quaestio. Ea non semper, ut quidam putaverunt, 
iudicium antecedit, qualia sunt praetorum curiosa 
consilia, cum de iure accusatoris ambigitur ; sed in 
ipsis iudiciis frequentissime versatur. Est autem 1 
duplex eius disceptationis condicio, quod aut intentio 
aut praescriptio habet controversiam. Ac fuerunt, 
qui praescriptionis statum facerent, tanquam ea non 
iisdem omnibus quibus ceterae leges quaestionibus 

3 contineretur. Cum ex praescriptione lis pendet, de 
ipsa re quaeri non est necesse. Ignominioso Alius 
praescribit : de eo solo a iudicatio est, an liceat. 
Quotiens tamen poterimus, efficiendum est, ut de 
re quoque iudex bene sentiat ; sic enim iuri nostro 

1 autem, Spalding: enim, M SS. 
1 solo, Regius: loco, O: colo, A. 



1 i.e. for his overthrow of the thirty tyrants ; cp. in. vi. 26. 

2 cp. in. vi. 72. 



132 



BOOK VII. iv. 44-v. 3 

rewards are due to Thrasybulus, 1 or whether, when 
two thieves have stolen a sum of money, they are 
each to be required to refund fourfold or twofold. 
But in these cases, too, valuation of the act is 
necessary, and yet the point of law also turns on 
quality. 

V. He who neither denies nor defends his act nor 
asserts that it was of a different nature from that 
alleged, must take his stand on some point of law 
that tells in his favour, a form of defence which 
generally turns on the legality of the action brought 
against him. This question is not, however, as some 2 
have held, always raised before the commencement 
of the trial, like the elaborate deliberations of the 
praetor when there is a doubt as to whether the 
prosecutor has any legal standing, but frequently 
comes up during the course of the actual trial. Such 
discussions fall into two classes, according as the point 
in dispute arises from an argument advanced by the 
prosecution or from some prescription 2 (or demurrer) 
put forward by the defence. There have indeed 
been some writers who have held that there is a 
special prescriptive basis; but prescription is covered 
by precisely the same questions that cover all other 
laws. When the dispute turns on prescription, there 3 
is no need to enquire into the facts of the case 
itself. For example, a son puts forward a demurrer 
against his father on the ground that his father has 
forfeited his civil rights. The only point which has 
to be decided is whether the demurrer can stand. 
Still, wherever possible, we should attempt to create 
a favourable impression in the judge as to the facts 
of the case as well, since, if this be done, he will be 
all the more disposed to give an indulgent hearing 

133 



QUINTILIAN 

libentius indulgebit, ut in sponsionibus, quae ex 
interdictis fiunt, etiamsinon proprietatis est quaestio 
sed tantum possessionis, tamen non solum possedisse 
nos, sed etiain nostrum possedisse docere oportebit. 

4 Sed frequentius etiam quaeritur de intentione. Vir 
fortis optet, quod volet. Nego illi dandum, quidquid 

optaverit : non habeo praescriptionem, sed tamen 
voluntate contra verba praescriptionis modo utor. 
In utroque autem genere status iidem sunt. 

5 Porro lex omnis aut tribuit aut adimit aut punit 
aut iubet aut v'etat aut permittit. Litem habet aut 
propter se ipsam aut propter alteram, quaestionem 

6 aut in scripto aut in voluntate. Scriptum aut 
apertum est aut obscurum aut ambiguum. Quod de 
legibus dico, idem accipi volo de testamentis, pactis, 
stipulationibus, omni denique scripto, idem de voce. 
Et quoniam quattuor eius generis quaestiones vel 
status facimus, singulos percurram. 

VI. Scripti et voluntatis frequentissima inter con- 
sultos quaestio est, et pars magna controversi iuris 
hinc pendet ; quo minus id accidere in scholis mirum 
est, ubi etiam ex industria fingitur. Eius genus 
unum est, in quo et de scripto et de voluntate 



1 sponsio (= wager) was a form of suit in which the litigant 
promised to pay a sum of money if he lost his case. The 
interdict was an order issued by the praetor commanding or 
prohibiting certain action. It occurred chiefly in disputes 
about property. 

1 i.e. an imaginary law of the schools of rhetoric. 

'34 



BOOK VII. v. 3-V1. i 

to our point of law j for example, in actions taking 
the form of a wager and arising out of interdicts, 1 
even though the question is concerned solely with 
actual possession, the question as to the right to 
possession not heing raised, it will be desirable to 
prove not merely that the property was actually in 
our possession, but that it was ours to possess. On 4 
the other hand, the question more frequently turns 
on intention. Take the law 2 " Let a hero choose what 
reward he will." I deny that he is entitled to receive 
whatever he chooses. I cannot put forward any 
formal demurrer, but none the less I use the inten- 
tion as against the letter of the law just as I should 
use a demurrer. In both cases the basis is the same. 

Moreover every law either gives or takes away, 5 
punishes or commands, forbids or permits, and 
involves a dispute either on its own account or on 
account of another law, while the question whfch it 
involves will turn either on the letter or the intention. 
The letter is either clear or obscure or ambiguous. 6 
And what I say with reference to laws will apply 
equally to wills, agreements, contracts and every 
form of document ; nay, it will apply even to verbal 
agreements. And since I have classified such cases 
under four questions or bases, I will deal with each in 
turn. 

VI. Lawyers frequently raise the question of the 
letter and the intention of the law, in fact a large 
proportion of legal disputes turn on these points. 
We need not therefore be surprised that such 
questions occur in the schools as well, where they 
are often invented with this special purpose. One 
form of this kind of question is found in cases where 
the enquiry turns both on the letter and the spirit 

135 



QUINTILIAN 

2 quaeritur. Id turn accidit, cum est in lege aliqua 
obscuritas. In ea aut uterque suam interpretationem 
confirmat, adversarii subvertit : ut hie, Fur quad- 
ruplum solvai. Duo surripuerunt pariler decern milia ; 
petuntur ab ulroque quadragena ; Mi postulant, ut vicena 
conferant ; nam et actor dicit hoc esse quadruplum 
quod petat, et rei hoc quod offerant ; voluntas quoque 

3 utrinque defenditur. Aut, cum de altero intellectu 
certum est, de altero dubium : Ex meretrice natus tie 
conlionetur. Quae Jtlium hahebat, proxtare coepit : 
prohibetur adolescens contione. Nam de eius filio, quae 
ante partum meretrix fuit, certum est : an eadem 
huius causa sit, dubium est, quia ex hac natus est, 

4 antequam meretrix esset. 1 Solet et illud quaeri, quo 
referatur, quod scriptum est, Bis de eadem re ne sit 
actio ; id est, hoc bis ad actorem an ad actionem ? 
Haec ex iure obscuro. 

Alterum genus est ex manifesto ; quod qui solum 
viderunt, hunc statum plani et voluntatis appellarunt. 
In hoc altera pars scripto nititur, altera voluntate. 

1 antequam . • . esset, Regius i et haec . . . e»t, MSS. 
136 



BOOK VII. vi. 1-4 

of a law. Such questions arise when the law presents 
some obscurity. Under these circumstances both 
parties will seek to establish their own interpretation 
of the passage and to overthrow that advanced by 
their opponent. Take for example the following 
case. " A thief shall refund four times the amount 
of his theft. Two thieves have jointly stolen 10,000 
sesterces. 40,000 are claimed from each. They 
claim that they are liable only to pay 20,000 each." 
The accuser will urge that the sum which he claims 
is fourfold the amount stolen ; the accused will urge 
that the sum which they offer to pay is fourfold. 
The intention of the law will be pleaded by both 
parties. On the other hand, the dispute may turn 
on a passage of the law which is clear in one sense 
and doubtful in another. " The son of a harlot shall 
not address the people. A woman who had a son 
became a prostitute. The youth is forbidden to 
address the people." Here there is no doubt about 
the son of one who was a prostitute before his birth, 
but it is doubtful whether the law applies to the case 
of one born before his mother became a prostitute. 
Another question which is not infrequently raised is 
as to the interpretation of the law forbidding an action 
to be brought twice on the same dispute, the problem 
being whether the word twice refers to the prosecutor 
or the prosecution. Such are the points arising out 
of the obscurity of the law. 

A second form of question turns on some passage 
where the meaning is clear. Those who have given 
exclusive attention to this class of question call it 
the basis concerned with the obvious expression of the 
law and its intention. In such circumstances one 
party will rest their case on the letter, the other 

137 



QUINTILIAN 

5 Sed contra scriptum tribus generibus occurritur. 
Unum est, in quo ipso patet, semper id servari non 
posse : Liberi parentes alant aid vinciantur; non enim 
adligabitur infans. Hie erit ad alia transitus, et 
divisio, num quisquis non aluerit, num hie propter 

6 hoc. Secundum * tale genus controversiarum, in 
quo nullum argumentum est, quod ex lege ipsa peti 
possit, sed de eo tantum, de quo lis est, quaerendum 
est. 2 Peregtinus, si murum ascendent, capite puniatur. 
Cum hostes murum ascendissent, peregrinus eos depulit ; 

7 petitur ad supplicium. Non erunt hie separatae 
quaestiones, an quisquis, an hie, quia nullum potest 
adferri argumentum contra scriptum vehementius eo 
quod in lite est ; sed hoc tantum, an ne servandae 
quidem civitatis causa. Ergo aequitate et voluntate 
pugnandum. Fieri tamen potest, ut ex aliis legibus 
exempla ducamus, per quae appareat semper stari 
scripto non posse, ut Cicero pro Caecina fecit. 

8 Tertium, cum in ipsis verbis legis reperimus aliquid, 
per quod probemus aliud legumlatorem voluisse, ut 



1 Secundum, Christ : quidam, MSS. 
* est, Halm : sit, MSS. 



138 



BOOK VII. vi. 5-8 

on the intention of the law. There are three 
different methods in which we may combat the letter. 
The first comes into play where it is clear that it is 
impossible always to observe the letter of the law. 
" Children shall support their parents under penalty 
of imprisonment." It is clear, in the first place, that 
this cannot apply to an infant. At this point we 
shall turn to other possible exceptions and distinguish 
as follows. " Does this apply to everyone who refuses 
to support his parent ? Has this particular individual 
incurred the penalty by this particular act?" The 
second arises in scholastic themes where no argu- 
ment can be drawn from the particular law, but the 
question is concerned solely with the subject of the 
dispute. * A foreigner who goes up on to the wall 
shall be liable to capital punishment. The enemy 
had scaled the wall and were driven back by a 
foreigner. His punishment is demanded." In this 
case we shall not have two separate questions, 
namely, whether every foreigner who goes up on 
the wall is liable to the penalty, and whether this 
particular foreigner is liable, since no more forcible 
argument can be brought against the application of 
the letter of the law than the fact in dispute, but the 
only question to be raised will be whether a foreigner 
may not go on to the wall even for the purpose of 
saving the city. Therefore we shall rest our case on 
equity and the intention of the law. It is, however, 
sometimes possible to draw examples from other laws 
to show that we cannot always stand by the letter, 
as Cicero did in his defence of Caecina. The third 
method becomes operative when we find something 
in the actual words of the law which enables us to 
prove that the intention of the legislator was different. 

139 



QUINTILIAN 

in hac controversia : Qui node cum ferro deprehensus 
Jtierit, adligetur. Cum anulo ferreo inventum magi- 
stratus adligavit. Hie quia est verbum in lege depre- 
hensus, satis etiam signification videtur, non contineri 
lege nisi noxium ferrum. 
9 Sed ut qui voluntate nitetur scriptum, quotiens 
poterit, infirmare debebit, ita, qui scriptum tuebitur, 
adiuvare se etiam voluntate temptabit. In testa- 
mentis et ilia aecidunt, ut voluntas manifesta sit, 
scriptum nihil sit : ut in iudicio Curiano, in quo nota 

10 L. Crassi et Scaevolae fuit contentio. Substitutus 
heres erat, si postumus ante tutelae annos de- 
cessisset. Non est natus. Propinqui bona sibi 
vindicabant. Quis dubitaret, quin ea voluntas fuisset 
testantis, ut is non nato filio heres esset, qui mortuo? 

1 1 sed hoc non scripserat. Id quoque, quod huic con- 
trarium est, accidit nuper, ut esset scriptum, quod 
appareret scriptorem noluisse. Qui sestertium 
nummum quinque milia legaverat, cum emendaret 
testamentum, sublatis sestertiis minimis, argenti pondo 
posuit, quinque milia manserunt. Apparuit tamen, 
quinque pondo dari voluisse, quia ille in argento legati 

12 modus et inauditus erat et incredibilis. Sub hoc 
statu generales sunt quaestiones, scripto an voluntate 

1 About 384 sesterces go to the pound of silver. 
140 



BOOK VII. vi. 8-12 

The following theme will provide an example. "Any- 
one who is caught at night with steel in his hands 
shall be thrown into prison. A man is found wear- 
ing a steel ring, and is imprisoned by the magistrate." 
In this case the use of the word caught is sufficient 
proof that the word steel was only intended by the 
law in the sense of a weapon of offence. 

But just as the advocate who rests his case on the 9 
intention of the law must wherever possible impugn 
the letter of the law, so he who defends the letter 
of the law must also seek to gain support from the 
intention. Again, in cases concerned with wills it 
sometimes happens that the intention of the testator 
is clear, though it has not been expressed in writing : 
an example of this occurs in the trial of Curius, which 
gave rise to the well-known argument between 
Lucius Crassus and Scaevola. A second heir had 10 
been appointed in the event of a posthumous son 
dying while a minor. No posthumous son was born. 
The next of kin claimed the property. Who could 
doubt that the intention of the testator was that 
the same man should inherit in the event of the 
son not being born who would have inherited in the 
event of his death ? But he had not written this in 
his will. Again, the opposite case, that is to say, 11 
when what is written is obviously contrary to the 
intention of the writer, occurred quite recently. A 
man who had made a bequest of 5000 sesterces, on 
altering his will erased the word sesterces and inserted 
pounds of silver. 1 But it was clear that he had meant 
not 5000 but 5 pounds of silver, because the weight 
of silver mentioned in the bequest was unparalleled 
and incredible. The same basis includes such general 12 
questions as to whether we should stand by the 

141 



QUINTILIAN 

standum sit, quae fuerit scribentis voluntas ; trac- 
tatus omnes qualitatis aut coniecturae, de quibus 
satis dictum arbitror. 

VII. Proximum est de legibus contrariis dicere, 
quia inter omnes artium scriptores constitit, in 
antinomia duos esse scripti et voluntatis status ; 
neque immerito ; quia, cum lex legi obstat, et l 
utrinque contra scriptum dicitur et quaestio est de 
voluntate; in utraque id ambigitur, an utique ilia 

2 lege sit utendum. Omnibus autem manifestum est 
nunquam esse legem legi contrariam iure ipso, quia, 
si diversum ius esset, alterum altero abrogaretur, 
sed eas casu collidi et eventu. 

3 Colliduntur autem aut pares inter se, ut si optio 
tyrannicidae et viri fortis comparentur, utrique data 
quod velit petendi potestate ; hie meritorum, tem- 
poris, praemii collatio est ; aut secum ipsae, ut 
duorum fortium, duorum tyrannicidarum, duarum 
raptarum, in quibus non potest esse alia quaestio, 
quam temporis, utra prior sit, aut qualitatis, utra 
iustior sit petitio. Diversae quoque leges confligunt 

4 aut similes aut impares. 2 Diversae, quibus etiam 

1 obstat et, Halm : obstet, MSS. 

* aut impares. Diversae, Christ : ut duae, AG. 

1 See in. vi. 46. 

2 Both claiming the reward allotted by the law. 

3 Two women, both dishonoured by one man, put in 
different claims, both of which are provided for as alternatives 
in the same law. A. demands the ravisher's death, B. 
demands his hand in marriage. 

142 



BOOK VII. vi. 12-vn. 4 

letter or the intention of the document, and what 
was the purpose of the writer, while for the treat- 
ment of such questions we must have recourse to 
quality or conjecture, with which I think I have dealt 
in sufficient detail. 

VII. The next subject which comes up for dis- 
cussion is that of contrary laws. 1 For all writers 
of text-books are agreed that in such cases there 
are two bases involving the letter and the intention 
of the law respectively. This view is justified by 
the fact that, when one law contradicts another, both 
parties attack the letter and raise the question of 
intention, while the point in dispute, as regards each 
law, is whether we should be guided by it at all. But 
it is clear to everybody that one law cannot contradict 
another in principle (since if there were two different 
principles, one law would cancel the other), and 
that the laws in question are brought into collision 
purely by the accidents of chance. 

When two laws clash, they may be of a similar 
nature, as for instance if we have to compare two 
cases in which a tyrannicide and a brave man are 
given the choice of their reward, both being granted 
the privilege of choosing whatever they desire. In 
such a case we compare the deserts of the claimants, 
the occasions of the respective acts and the nature 
of the rewards claimed. Or the same law may be 
in conflict with itself, as in the case where we have 
two brave men, 2 two tyrannicides 2 or two ravished 
women, 3 when the question must turn either on time 
(that is, whose claim has priority) or on quality (that 
is, whose claim is the more just). Again, we may 
have a conflict between diverse, similar or dissimilar 
laws. Diverse laws are those against which arguments 

*43 



QUINTILIAN 
citra adversam legem contradici possit, ut in hac 
controversia : Magistraius ab arce ne discedat; vir 
fortis optei quod volet : impunitalem magistrates petit. 1 
Vel alia nulla obstante quaeri potest, vir fortis an, 
quidquid optarit, accipere debeat. Et in legem 2 
magistratus multa dicentur, quibus scriptum ex- 
pugnatur; si incendium in arce fuerit, si in hostes 

6 decurrendum. Similes, contra quas nihil opponi 
potest nisi lex altera : Tyrannicidae imago in gymnasio 
ponatur ; contra, Mulieris imago in gymnasio 3 ne 
ponatur. Mulier tyrannum occidit. Nam neque mu- 
lieris imago ullo alio casu poni potest nee tyrannici- 

6 dae ullo alio casu summoveri. Impares sunt, cum 
alteri multa opponi possunt, alteri nihil nisi quod in 
lite est : ut cum vir fortis impunitatem desertoris 
petit. Nam contra legem viri fortis, ut supra 

x vir fortis . . . petit, added by Christ : it is possible that 
no insertion is necessary, the heading Magistratus . . . discedat 
being considered by Q. as sufficient indication of a familiar 
theme. 

* legem, added by Halm. 

3 ponatur ; contra . . . gymnasio, added by Regiut. 

144 



BOOK VII. vii. 4-6 

may be brought without reference to any contra. 
dictory law. The following theme will provide an 
example. "A magistrate shall not quit the citadel. 
One who has rendered heroic service to his country 
may choose what reward he pleases. A magistrate 
who left his post and saved his country, demands an 
amnesty for his conduct." In this case, even though 
there be no other law covering the case, we may 
raise the question whether a hero ought to be 
granted anything he chooses to claim. Again, many 
conclusive arguments may be brought against the 
letter of the law restricting the movements of the 
magistrate : for example, a fire may have broken out 
in the citadel, or a sally against the enemy may have 
been necessary. Laws are styled similar when no- 
thing can be opposed to one except the other. 
"Tyrannicides shall have their statues set up in the 
gymnasium. A statue of a woman shall not be set 
up in the gymnasium. A woman killed a tyrant." 
Here are two conflicting laws : for a woman's statue 
cannot under any other circumstances be erected in 
the gymnasium, while there is no other circumstance 
which can bar the erection of the statue of a 
tyrannicide in the gymnasium. Laws are styled 
dissimilar when many arguments can be urged against 
one, while the only point which can be urged against 
the other is the actual subject of dispute. An 
example is provided by the case in which a brave 
man demands the pardon of a deserter as his reward. 
For there are many arguments, as I have shown 
above, which can be urged against the law permitting 
a hero to choose whatever reward he will, but 
the letter of the law dealing with the crime of 
desertion cannot be overthrown under any circum- 

145 



QUINTILIAN 

ostendi, nmlta dicuntur ; adversus desertores scripta 
non potest nisi optione subverti. 

7 Item aut confessum ex utraque parte ius est aut 
dubium. Si confessum est, haec fere quaeruntur, 
utra lex potentior ; ad deos pertineat an ad homines, 
rem publicam an privates, de honore an de poena, de 
magnis rebus an de parvis ; permittat an vetet an 

8 imperet. Solet tractari et, utra sit antiquior, sed 
velut potentissimum, utra minus perdat ; ut in de- 
sertore et viro forti, quod illo non occiso lex tota 
tollatur, occiso, sit reliqua viro forti alia optio. 
Plurimum tamen est in hoc, utrum fieri sit melius 
atque aequius ; de quo nihil praecipi nisi proposita 

9 materia potest. Si dubium, aut alteri aut invicem 
utrique de iure fit controversia, ut in re tali : Palri 
in /ilium, patrono in libertum mantis iniectio sit ; liberty 
heredcm sequantur. Liberti jilium quidam fecit heredem : 
invicem pelitur mantis iniectio ; et pater dicit sibi ius in 
filium esse, et patronus x negat ius patris illi fuisse, 
quia ipse in manu patroni fuerit. 

1 dicit . . . et patrouus, added by Halm. 
I46 



BOOK VII. vii. 6-9 

stances save the choice of rewards to which I have 
just referred. 

Again, the point of law is either admitted by 7 
both parties or disputed. If it be admitted, the 
questions which are raised will as a rule be such 
as the following. Which of the two laws is the 
most stringent? Does it concern gods or men, the 
state or private individuals, reward or punishment, 
great things or small ? Does it permit, forbid or 
command ? Another common question is which of 8 
the two laws is the oldest ; but the most important 
question is which of the two laws will suffer less by 
its contravention, as for example in the case of the 
hero and the deserter just mentioned, in which case, 
if the deserter is not put to death, the whole law is 
ignored, whereas, if he be put to death, the hero 
will still have another choice left open to him. It 
is, however, of the utmost importance to consider 
which course is best from the point of view of 
morality and justice, a problem for the solution of 
which no general rules can be laid down, as it will 
depend on the special circumstances of the case. If, 9 
on the other hand, the point of law is disputed, either 
one party or both in turn will argue the point. Take 
the following case as an example. "A father shall 
be empowered to arrest his son, and a patron to 
arrest his freedman. Freedmen shall be transferred 
to their patron's heir. A certain man appointed the 
son of a freedman as his heir. The son of the freed- 
man and the freedman himself both claim the right 
to arrest the other." Here the father claims his right 
over the son, while the son, in virtue of his new position 
as patron, denies that his father possessed the rights 
of a father, because he was in the power of his patron. 

147 



QUINTILIAN 

10 Duplices leges sicut duae colliduntur: ut Nothus 
ante legitimum natus, legilimus sit; post legitimum, 
tantum civis. Quod de legibus, idem de senatus- 
consultis dictum ; quae si aut inter se pugnent aut 
obstent legibus, non tamen aliud sit eius status 
nomen. 

VIII. Syllogismus habet aliquid simile scripto et 
voluntatis quia semper pars in eo altera scripto 
nititur, sed hoc interest, quod illic dicitur contra 
scriptum, hie supra scriptum ; illic qui verba 
defendit, hoc agit ut fiat utique quod scriptum 
est; hie, ne aliud quam scriptum est. Ei nonnulla 
etiam cum finitione coniunctio : nam saepe, si finitio 
2 infirma est, in syllogismum delabitur. Sit enim lex : 
Venefica capile puniatur. Saepe se verberanti marito uxor 
amatorium 1 dedit ; eundem repudiavit ; per propinquos 
rogata ut rediret non est reversa ; suspendit se maritus. 
Mulier veneficii rea est. Fortissima est actio dicentis 
amatorium venenum esse. Id erit finitio ; quod 
si parum valebit, fiet syllogismus, ad quem, velut 

1 se verberanti marito uxor amatorium, Victor (p. 373, II.): 
severantia moritorium, 6 : se . . . rantis maritorium, A. 

1 See in. vi. 96. * See in. vi. 43 sqq. 

148 



BOOK VII. vii. io-vm. 2 

Laws containing two provisions may conflict with 10 
themselves in exactly the same way as two laws may 
conflict. The following will serve as an illustration. 
" The bastard born before a legitimate son shall rank 
as legitimate, the bastard born after the legitimate 
son shall only rank as a citizen." * All that I have 
said about laws will also apply to decrees of the 
senate. If decrees of the senate conflict with one 
another or with the laws, the basis will be the same 
as if laws only were concerned. 

VIII. The syllogistic basis 2 has some resemblance 
to the basis concerned with the letter and intention of 
the law, since whenever it comes into play, one party 
rests his case on the letter : there is, however, this 
difference between the two bases, that in the latter 
we argue against the letter, in the present beyond 
the letter, while in the latter the party defending 
the letter aims at securing that in any case the letter 
may be carried into effect, whereas in the present his 
aim will be to prevent anything except the letter 
being carried into effect. The syllogism is sometimes 
employed in conjunction with definition : for often if 
the definition be weak it takes refuge in the syllogism. 
Assume a law to run as follows : " A woman who is 2 
a poisoner shall be liable to capital punishment. A 
wife gave her husband a love-potion to cure him of 
his habit of beating her. She also divorced him. 
On being asked by her relatives to return to him, 
she refused. The husband hung himself. The 
woman is accused of poisoning." The strongest 
line for the accuser to take will be to assert that 
the love-potion was a poison. This involves definition. 
If it proves weak, we shall have recourse to the 
syllogism, to which we shall proceed after virtually 

149 



QUINTILIAN 

remissa priore contentione, veniemus, an proinde 
puniri debeat, ac si virum veneno necasset ? 

3 Ergo hie status ducit ex eo quod scriptum est id 

quod incertum est ; quod quoniam ratione colligitur, 
ratiocinativus dicitur. In has autem fere species 
venit an, quod semel ius est, idem et saepius. 
Incesti damnata et praecipitata de saxo vixit ; re- 
petitur. An, quod in uno, et in pluribus. Qui duos 
uno tempore tyrannos occidit, duo praemia petit. An 

4 quod ante, et postea. Raptor profugit, rapta nupsit, 
reverso illo petit optionem. An, quod in toto, idem 
in parte. Aratrum accipere pignori non licet, vomerem 
accepit. An, quod in parte, idem in toto. Lanas 

5 evehere Tarento non licet, ores evexil. In his syllogismus 
et scripto nititur ; nam satis cautum esse dicit. 
Postulo, ut praecipitetur incesta ; lex est; et rapta 



1 See in. vi. 43, 61. 

* i. e. the death of the ravisher, see n. on vil. vii. 3. 



15° 



BOOK VII. vm. 2-5 

dropping our previous argument, and which we shall 
employ to decide the question whether she does not 
deserve to be punished for administering the love- 
potion no less than if she had caused her husband's 
death by poison. 

The syllogistic basis, then, deduces from the letter 
of the law that which is uncertain ; and since this 
conclusion is arrived at by reason, the basis is called 
ratiocinatice. 1 It may be subdivided into the follow- 
ing species of question. If it is right to do a thing 
once, is it right to do it often ? Example : " A 
priestess found guilty of unchastity is thrown from 
the Tarpeian rock and survives. It is demanded 
that she shall be thrown down again." If the law 
grants a privilege with reference to one thing, does 
it grant it with reference to a number ? Example : 
"A man kills two tyrants together and claims two 
rewards." If a thing is legal before a certain 
occurrence, is it legal after it? Example: "The 
ravisher took refuge in flight. His victim married. 
The ravisher returned and the woman demands to 
be allowed her choice." 2 Is that which is lawful 
with regard to the whole, lawful with regard to a 
part ? Example : " It is forbidden to accept a plough 
as security. He accepted a ploughshare." Is that 
which is lawful with regard to a part, lawful with 
regard to the whole ? Example : " It is forbidden 
to export wool from Tarentum : he exported sheep." 
In all these cases the syllogism rests on the letter of 
the law as well : for the accuser urges that the 
provisions of the law are precise. He will say, 
" I demand that the priestess who has broken 
her vows be cast down : it is the law," or " The 
ravished woman demands the exercise of the 

I5 1 



QUINTILIAN 

optionem petit, et in ove lanae sunt, similiter alia. 

6 Sed quia responderi potest, non est scriptum, ut bis 
praecipitetur damnaia, ut quandoque rapta optet, id 
tyrannicida duo praemia accipiat, nihil de vomere caution, 
nihil de ovibus : ex eo, quod manifestum est, colligitur 
quod dubium est. Maioris pugnae est ex scripto 
ducere quod scriptum non est ; an, quia hoc, et hoc. 1 
Qui patrem Occident, culleo insuatur : matrem occidit. 
Ex domo in ius educere ne liceat : ex tabernaculo eduxit. 

7 In hoc genere haec quaeruntur, an, quotiens propria 
lex non est, simili sit utendum, an id de quo agitur 
ei de quo scriptum est simile sit. Simile autem et 
maius est et par et minus. In illo priore, an satis 
lege cautum sit, an, etsi parum cautum est, et hoc 
sit utendum. In utroque de voluntate legumlatoris. 
Sed de aequo tractatus potentissimi. 

IX. Amphiboliae species sunt innumerabiles, adeo 
ut philosophorum quibusdam nullum videatur esse 
verbum quod non plura significet ; genera ad- 
moduni pauca ; aut enim vocibus accidit singulis 
aut coniunctis. 

1 et hoc, added by 2nd hand of A. 
153 



BOOK VII. vm. 5-1X. i 

choice permitted her by law," or " Wool grows on 
sheep," and so on. But to this we may reply, 
"The law does not prescribe that the condemned 
woman should be thrown down twice, that the 
ravished woman should exercise her choice under 
all circumstances, that the tyrannicide should receive 
two rewards, while it makes no mention of plough- 
shares or of sheep." Thus we infer what is doubtful 
from what is certain. It is a more difficult task to 
deduce from the letter of the law that which is not 
actually prescribed by the letter, and to argue because 
that is the case, so also is this. Take the following 
problems. "The man who kills his father shall be 
sewn up in a sack. He killed his mother," or " It 
is illegal to drag a man from his own house into the 
court. He dragged him from his tent." Under this 
heading come questions such as the following : if 
there is not a special law applicable to the case, ought 
we to have recourse to an analogous law ? is the 
point in question similar to what is contained in the 
letter of the law ? Now it should be noted that what 
is similar may be greater, equal or less. In the first 
case we enquire whether the provisions of the law 
are sufficient, or, if they are insufficient, whether we 
should have recourse to this other law. In both 
cases it is a question of the intention of the legislator. 
But the most effective form of treatment in such 
cases will be to appeal to equity. 

IX. I turn to the discussion of ambiguity, which will 
be found to have countless species : indeed, in the 
opinion of certain philosophers, there is not a single 
word which has not a diversity of meanings. There 
are, however, very few genera, since ambiguity must 
occur either in a single word or in a group of words. 

153 



QUINTILIAN 

2 Singula ad fe runt errorem, cum pluribus rebus aut 
hominibus eadem appellatio est (6/>twvu/Aia dicitur), 
ut gallus, avem an gentem an nomen an fortunam 
corporis significet, incertum est ; et Aiax, Telamonius 
an Oi'lei filius. Verba quoque quaedam diversos 

3 intellectus habent, ut cerno. Quae arabiguitas pluri- 
mis modis accidit. Unde fere lites, praecipue ex 
testamentis, cum de libertate aut etiam de heredi- 
tate contendunt ii quibus idem nomen est, aut 

4 quid sit legatum quaeritur. Alterum est, in quo 
alia integro verbo significatio est, alia diviso, ut 
ingenua et anncnncntum et Corvinum, ineptae sane 
cavillationis, ex qua tamen Graeci controversias 
ducunt : inde enim avA^-rots ilia vulgata, cum quae- 
ritur, utrum aula, quae ter ceciderit, an tibicina, si 

5 ceciderit, debeat publicari. Tertia est ex compositis, 
ut si quis corpus suum in culto loco poni iubeat, 
circaque monumentum multum agri ab heredibus in 
tutelam cinerum, ut solent, leget, sit litis occasio 

6 cultum locum dixerit an incultum. 1 Sic apud 

1 locum . . . incultum, added by Zumpt. 



1 See or decide or separate. 

* Inye7iua f a freeborn woman ; in genua, on to the knees. 
Armamentum, equipment ; arma mention, arms, chin. 
Corvinum, ace. of name Corvinus; cor vinum, heart, wine. 

154 



BOOK VII. ix. 2-6 

Single words give rise to error, when the same 
noun applies to a number of things or persons (the 
Greeks call this hoinonymy) : for example, it is un- 
certain with regard to the word gallus whether it 
means a cock or a Gaul or a proper name or an 
emasculated priest of Cybele ; while Ajax may refer 
either to the son of Telamon or the son of Oileus. 
Again, verbs likewise may have different meanings, 
as, for example, cerno. 1 This ambiguity crops up in 
many ways, and gives rise to disputes, more especially 
in connexion with wills, when two men of the same 
name claim their freedom or, it may be, an inherit- 
ance, or again, when the enquiry turns on the precise 
nature of the bequest. There is another form of 
ambiguity where a word has one meaning when 
entire and another when divided, as, for example, 
ingenua, armamentum or Corvinum.* The disputes 
arising from such ambiguities are no more than 
childish quibbles, but nevertheless the Greeks are 
in the habit of making them the subject for con- 
troversial themes, as, for example, in the notorious 
case of the avXrjrpU, when the question is whether 
it is a hall which has fallen down three times {avkrj 
Tpi's) or a flute-player who fell down that is to be sold. 
A third form of ambiguity is caused by the use of 
compound words; for example, if a man orders his 
body to be buried in a cultivated spot, and should 
direct, as is often done, a considerable space of land 
surrounding his tomb to be taken from the land left 
to his heirs with a view to preserving his ashes from 
outrage, an occasion for dispute may be afforded by 
the question whether the words mean " in a culti- 
vated place" (in culto loco) or "in an uncultivated 
place" (inculto loco). Thus arises the Greek theme 

155 



QUINTILIAN 

Graecos contendunt AcW et UavraXeow, cum 
scriptura dubia est, bona omnia Ac'ovrt an bona 
Ilai'TaA.e'oi'Ti relicta sint. 

In coniunctis plus ambiguitatis est. Fit autem 
per casus, ut 

7 Aio te, Aeacida, Romanos vincere posse. 

Per collocationem, ubi dubium est, quid quo referri 
oporteat, ac frequentissime, cum quidem medium 
est, cum utrinque possit trahi, ut de Troilo Vergilius, 
Lora tenens tamen. Hie, utrum teneat tamen lora 
an, quamvis teneat, tamen trahatur, quaeri potest. 

8 Unde controversia ilia, Testamento quidam iussit poni 
statuam auream haslam tenentem. Quaeritur, statua 
hastam tenens aurea esse debeat an hasta esse aurea 
in statua alterius materiae ? Fit per flexum idem 
magis : 

Quinquaginta ubi erant centum inde occidit Achilles. 

9 Saepe, utri duorum antecedentium sermo sub- 
iunctus sit, in dubio est : unde et controversia, Heres 

1 i. e. whether he wrote irdvra heovrt or navraXeovrt. 

* Enn. Ann. 1S6. An ambiguous oracle quoted by Cicero 
{de Div. II. lvi. ). It might equally mean that Rome or 
Pyrrhus would conquer. Cp. the oracle given to Croesua : 
"If thou cross the Halys, thou shalt destroy a mighty 
empire." 

8 Am. i. 477. 

* "Achilles slew fifty out of a hundred," or "a. hundred 
out of fifty." Translated from a Greek line in Arist. Soph. 
El. i. 4. [irivr^Kovr avSpwv tKarby Xlire Stos 'A^iWevs). Quin- 
quaginta is the object of occidit. Faulty reading might 
make it go with ubi erant, leaving centum as the object of 
occidit, and making nonsense of the line. 

I 5 6 



BOOK VII. ix. 6-9 

about Leon and Pantaleon, who go to law because 
the handwriting of a will makes it uncertain whether 
the testator has left all his property to Leon or his 
property to Pantaleon. 1 

Groups of words give rise to more serious am- 
biguity. Such ambiguity may arise from doubt as 
to a case, as in the following passage : 2 — 

" I say that you, O prince of Aeacus' line, 
Rome can o'erthrow." 

Or it may arise from the arrangement of the words, 7 
which makes it doubtful what the exact reference of 
some word or words may be, more especially when 
there is a word in the middle of the sentence which 
may be referred either to what precedes or what 
follows, as in the line of Virgil 3 which describes 
Troilus as 

lora tenens tamen, 

where it may be disputed whether the poet means 
that he is still holding the reins, or that, although 
he holds the reins, he is still dragged along. The 8 
controversial theme, "A certain man in his will 
ordered his heirs to erect ( statu am auream haxtam 
tenentem,' " turns on a similar ambiguitv ; for it raises 
the question whether it is the statue holding the 
spear which is to be of gold, or whether the spear 
should be of gold and the statue of some other 
material. The same result is even more frequently 
produced by a mistaken inflexion of the voice, as in 
the line : 

quinquaginta ubi erant centum inde occidit Achilles.* 

It is also often doubtful to which of two antecedents 9 
a phrase is to be referred. Hence we get such con- 

157 



QUINTILIAN 

mens uxori meae dare damnas esto argenti quod elegeiit 
pondo centum. Uter eligat, quaeritur. 

Verum id, quod ex his primum est, mutatione 
casuum, sequens divisione verborum aut translatione 

10 emendatur, tertium adiectione. Accusativi gemi- 
natione facta amphibolia solvitur ablativo, ut illud, 
Lachetem audivi percussissc Demean fiat a Lachete 
percussum Demean. Sed ablativo ipsi, ut in primo 
diximus, inest naturalis amphibolia. Caelo decurrit 
aperto : utrum per apertum caelum, an cum apertum 

11 esset. Divisio respiratione et mora constat: statuam, 
deinde auream hastam ; vel statuam auream, deinde 
hastam. Adiectio talis est, argentum, quod elegeiit ipse, 
ut heres intelligatur, vel ipsa, ut uxor. Adiectione 
facta amphibolia, qualis sit, Nos x flentes illos depre- 

12 hendimus, detractione solvetur. Pluribus verbis em- 
endandum, ubi est id, quod quo referatur dubium est, 
et ipsum 2 est ambiguum. Heres mens dare illi damnas 

1 Nos, Badius : Nunc, MSS. : Hunc, Spalding. 
1 ipsum, later MSS. : ipse est, AG. 

i See § 11. a i. vii. 3. 

3 Apparently a misquotation of Virg. Aen. v. 212, pelago 
decurrit aperto. 

* Does this mean we found them weeping, or we found them 
weeping for v,a ! The ambiguity is eliminated by the removal 
of nos. 

'58 



BOOK VII. ix. 9-12 

troversial themes as, " My heir shall be bound to 
give my wife a hundred pounds of silver according 
to choice/' where it is left uncertain which of the 
two is to make the choice. 

But in these examples of ambiguity, the first may 
be remedied by a change of case, the second by 
separating 1 the words or altering their position, the 
third by some addition. 1 Ambiguity resulting from 10 
the use of two accusatives may be removed by the 
substitution of the ablative : for example, Lachetem 
audivi percussisse Demeam (I heard that Demea struck 
Laches, or that L. struck D.) may be rendered clear 
by writing a Lachete percussum Demeam (that D. was 
struck by L.). There is, however, a natural am- 
biguity in the ablative case itself, as I pointed out 
in the first book. 2 For example, caelo decurrit operlo 3 
leaves it doubtful whether the poet means he 
hastened down " through the open sky," or " when 
the sky was opened for him to pass." Words may 11 
be separated by a breathing space or pause. We 
may, for instance, say statuam, and then, after a 
slight pause, add auream hast am, or the pause may 
come between statuam auream and hastam. The 
addition referred to above would take the form quod 
elegerit ipse, where ipse will show that the reference 
to the heir, or quod elegerit ipsa, making the reference 
to the wife. In cases where ambiguity is caused 
by the addition of a word, the difficulty may be 
eliminated by the removal of a word, as in the 
sentence nos jientes illos deprehendimus* Where it 12 
is doubtful to what a word or phrase refers, and the 
word or phrase itself is ambiguous, we shall have to 
alter several words, as, for example, in the sentence, 
" My heir shall be bound to give him all his own 

159 



QUINTILIAN 

esto omnia sua. In quod genus incidit Cicero loquens 
de C. Fannio ; Is soceri institute, quern, quia cooptatus 
in augurum collegium non erat, non admodum diligebat, 
praeserlim cum ille Q. Scaevolam sibi minorem natu 
generum practulisset. Nam sibi et ad socerum referri 

13 et ad Fannium potest. Productio quoque in scripto 
et correptio in dubio relicta causa est ambiguitatis, 
ut in hoc, Cato. Aliud enim ostendit brevis secunda 
syllaba casu nominativo, aliud eadem syllaba producta 
casu dativo aut ablativo. 1 Plurimae praeterea sunt 
aliae species, quas persequi nihil necesse est. 

14 Nee refert, quo modo sit facta amphibolia aut quo 
resolvatur. Duas enim res significari manifestum est 
et, quod ad scriptum vocemve pertinet, in utramque 
partem par est. Ideoque frustra praecipitur, ut in 
hoc statu vocem ipsam ad nostram partem conemur 
vertere. Nam, si id fieri potest, amphibolia non est. 

15 Amphiboliae autem omnis erit in his quaestio ; 
aliquando, uter sit secundum naturam magis sermo, 
semper, utrum sit aequius, utrum is, qui scripsit ac 
dixit, voluerit. Quarum in utramque partem satis 
ex his, quae de coniectura et qualitate diximus, 
praeceptum est. 

1 aliud eadem . . . ablativo, added by Regius. 

1 Brut. xxvi. 101. The sentence continues, "(an act of 
which Laelius said by way of excuse that he had given the 
augurship not to his younger son-in-law, but to his elder 
daughter), Fannius, I say, despite his lack of affection for 
Laelius, in obedience to his instructions attended the lectures 
of Panaetins." 

1 se. of the adjective cuius, shrewd. 

160 



BOOK VII. ix. 12-is 

property," where "his own" is ambiguous. Cicero 
commits the same fault when he says of Gaius 
Fannius, 1 "He following the instructions of his 
father-in-law, for whom, because he had not been 
elected to the college of augurs, he had no great 
affection, especially as he had given Quintus Scaevola, 
the younger of his sons-in-law, the preference over 
himself . . ." For over himself' may refer either to his 
father-in-law or to Fannius. Again, another source 13 
of ambiguity arises from leaving it doubtful in a 
written document whether a syllable is long or short. 
Cato, for example, means one thing in the nomina- 
tive when its second syllable is short, and another in 
the dative or ablative when the same syllable is long. 2 
There are also a number of other forms of ambiguity 
which it is unnecessary for me to describe at length. 

Further, it is quite unimportant how ambiguity 14 
arises or how it is remedied. For it is clear in all 
cases that two interpretations are possible, and as 
far as the written or spoken word is concerned, 
it is equally important for both parties. It is 
therefore a perfectly futile rule which directs us to 
endeavour, in connexion with this basis, to turn the 
word in question to suit our own purpose, since, if 
this is feasible, there is no ambiguity. In cases of 15 
ambiguity the only questions which confront us will 
be, sometimes which of the two interpretations is 
most natural, and always which interpretation is 
most equitable, and what was the intention of the 
person who wrote or uttered the words. I have, 
however, given sufficient instructions in the course 
of my remarks on conjecture and quality, as to the 
method of treating such questions, whether by the 
prosecution or the defence. 

161 

VOL. III. G 



QUINTILIAN 

X. Est autem quaedam inter hos status cognatio. 
Nam et in finitione, quae sit voluntas nominis, 
quaeritur, et in syllogismo, qui secundus a finitione 
status est, 1 spectatur quid voluerit scriptor ; et con- 
trarias leges duos esse scripti et voluntatis status 
apparet. Rursus et finitio quodamraodo est amphi- 
bolia, cum in duas partes diducatur intellectus 

2 nominis. Scriptum et voluntas habet in verbis iuris 2 
quaestionem, quod idem antinomia petitur. Ideoque 
omnia haec quidam scriptum et voluntatem esse 
dixerunt, alii in scripto et voluntate amphiboliam 
esse, quae facit quaestionem. Sed distincta sunt ; 
aliud est enim obscurum ius, aliud ambiguum. 

3 Igitur finitio in natura ipsa nominis quaestionem 
habet generalem, et quae esse etiam citra complexum 
causae possit ; scriptum et voluntas de eo disputat 
iure quod est in lege, syllogismus de eo quod non 
est. Amphiboliae lis in diversum trahit, legum 

4 contrariarum ex diverso pugna est. Neque immerito 

1 After est AG read quae, which is expunged by Regius. 
1 iuris, Spalding : * * ocis, A. : iocis, G. 

1 ill. vi. 54. * See ch. viii. 1. 

162 



BOOK VII. x. 1-4 

X. There is, however, a certain affinity between 
all these bases. 1 For in definition we enquire into the 
meaning of a term, and in the syllogism, which is 
closely connected with definition* we consider what 
was the meaning of the writer, while it is obvious 
that in the case of contrary laws there are two bases, 
one concerned with the letter, and the other with 
the intention. Again, definition is in itself a kind of 
ambiguity, since it brings out two meanings in the 
same term. The basis concerned with the letter and 
the intention of the law involves a legal question as 
regards the interpretation of the words, which is 
identical with the question arising out of contrary 
lan-s. Consequently some writers have asserted that 
all these bases may be resolved into those concerned 
with the letter and intention, while others hold that 
in all cases where the letter and the intention of a 
document have to be considered, it is ambiguity that 
gives rise to the question at issue. But all these 
bases are really distinct, for an obscure point of law 
is not the same as an ambiguous point of law. 
Definition, then, involves a general question as to 
the actual nature of a term, a question which may 
conceivably have no connexion whatsoever with the 
content of the case in point. In investigations as 
to the letter and the intention, the dispute turns on 
the provisions contained in the law, whereas the 
syllogism deals with that which is not contained in 
the law. In disputes arising out of ambiguity we 
are led from the ambiguous phrase to its conflicting 
meanings, whereas in the case of contrary laws the 
fight starts from the conflict of their provisions. 
The distinction between these bases has therefore 
been rightly accepted by the most learned of 

163 



QUINTILIAN 

et recepta est a doctissimis haec differentia et apud 
plurimos ac prudentissimos durat. 

Et de hoc quidem genere dispositions, etiamsi 

5 non omnia, tradi tamen aliqua potuerunt. Sunt alia 
quae, nisi proposita de qua dicendum est materia, 
viam docendi non praebeant. Non enim causa 
tantum 1 universa in quaestiones ac locos diducenda 2 
est, sed hae ipsae partes habent rursus ordinem 
suum. Nam et in prooemio primum est aliquid et 
secundum ac deinceps, et quaestio omnis ac locus 
habet suam dispositionem ut theses etiam simplices. 

6 Nisi 3 forte satis erit dividendi peritus, qui contro- 
versiam in haec diduxerit, 4 an omne praemium viro 
forti dandum sit, an ex privato, an nuptiae, an eius 
quae nupta sit, an hae ; deinde, cum fuerit de prima 
quaestione dicendum, passim et ut quidque in men- 
tem veniet miscuerit, non primum in ea scierit 

7 esse tractandum, verbis legis standum sit an volun- 
tate, buius ipsius particulae aliquod initium fecerit, 
deinde proxima subnectens struxerit orationem, ut 

1 tantum, added by Halm. 

* diducenda, Regius: dicenda, AG. 
8 nisi, Obrecht : si, MSS. 

* diduxerit, Regixis : dixerit, MSS. 



1 cp. ii. iv. 24 ; in. v. 8. 



164 



BOOK VII. x. 4-7 

rhetoricians, and is still adopted by the majority 
and the wisest of the teachers of to-day. 

It has not been possible in this connexion to give 
instructions which will cover the arrangement to be 
adopted in every case, though I have been able to 
wive some. There are other details concerning which 
I can give no instructions without a statement of the 
particular case on which the orator has to speak. 
For not only must the whole case be analysed into 
its component topics and questions, but these sub- 
divisions themselves require to be arranged in the 
order which is appropriate to them. For example, 
in the exordium each part has its own special place, 
first, second and third, etc., while each question and 
topic requires to be suitably arranged, and the same 
is true even of isolated general questions. 1 For it will 
not, I imagine, be represented that sufficient skill 
in division is possessed by the man who, after re- 
solving a controversial theme into questions such as 
the following, whether a hero is to be granted any 
reward that he may claim, whether he is allowed to 
claim private property, whether he may demand any 
woman in marriage, whether he may claim to marry 
a woman who already possesses a husband, or this 
particular woman, then, although it is his duty to 
deal with the first question first, proceeds to deal 
with them indiscriminately as each may happen to 
occur to him, and ignores the fact that the first 
point which should be discussed is whether we 
should stand by the letter or the intention of the 
law, and fails to follow the natural order, which 
demands that after beginning with this question he 
should then proceed to introduce the subsidiary 
questions, thereby making the structure of his speech 

165 



QUINTILIAN 

pars hominis est manus, eius digiti, illorum quoque 
articuli. Hoc est quod scriptor demonstrare non 

8 possit, nisi certa definitaque materia. Sed quid una 
faciet aut altera, quin imino centum ac mille in re 
infinita 1 ? Praeceptoris est, in alio atque alio genere 
cotidie ostendere, quis ordo sit rerum et quae 
copulatio, ut paulatim fiat usus et ad similia transitus. 
Tradi enim omnia, quae ars efficit, non possunt. 

9 Nam quis pictor omnia, quae in rerum natura sunt, 
adumbrare didicit? sed percepta semel imitandi 
ratione adsimulabit quidquid acceperit. Quis non 
faber vasculum aliquod, quale nunquam viderat, 
fecit? 

10 Quaedam vero non docentium sunt, sed discentium. 
Nam medicus, quid in quoque valetudinis genere 
faciendum sit, quid quibusque signis providendum, 
docebit; vim sentiendi pulsus venarum, coloris 
modos, spiritus meatum, caloris distantiam, quae sui 
cuiusque sunt ingenii, non dabit. Quare plurima 
petamus a nobis et cum causis deliberemus cogite 

1 in re infinita, Rollin: in re finita quae materia in se 
finita, O : in re finitaque materia ars finita, A. 

1 fecerit and struxerit are both negatived by the preceding 
non. It is impossible to reproduce the conciseness of the 
original. 

166 



BOOK VII. x. 7-10 

as regular as that of the human body, of which, for 
example, the hand is a part, while the fingers are 
parts of the hand, and the joints of the fingers. 1 It 
is precisely this method of arrangement which it is 
impossible to demonstrate except with reference to 
some definite and specific case. But it is clearly S 
useless to take one or two cases, or even a hundred 
or a thousand, since their number is infinite. It is 
the duty of the teacher to demonstrate daily in one 
kind of case after another what is the natural order 
and connexion of the parts, so that little by little 
his pupils may gain the experience which will enable 
them to deal with other cases of the same character. 
For it is quite impossible to teach everything that 
can be accomplished by art. For example, what 9 
painter has ever been taught to reproduce everything 
in nature ? But once he has acquired the general 
principles of imitation, he will be able to copy what- 
ever is given him. What vase-maker is there who 
has not succeeded in producing a vase of a type 
which he had never previously seen ? 

There are, however, some things which depend 10 
not on the teacher, but on the learner. For example, 
a physician will teach what treatment should be 
adopted for different diseases, what the dangers are 
against which he must be on his guard, and what 
the symptoms by which they may be recognised. But 
he will not be able to communicate to his pupil the 
gift of feeling the pulse, or appreciating the variations 
of colour, breathing and temperature : this will 
depend on the talent of the individual. Therefore, 
in most instances, we must rely on ourselves, 
and must study cases with the utmost care, never 

167 



QUINTILIAN 

musque homines ante invenisse artem quani docuisse. 

1 1 Ilia enim potentissima est, quaeque vere dicitur 
oeconomica totius causae dispositio, quae nullo modo 
constitui nisi velut in re praesente potest : ubi 
adsumendum prooemium, ubi omittendum, ubi uten- 
dum expositione continua, ubi partita, ubi ab initiis 
incipiendum, ubi more Homerico e mediis vel 

12 ultimis, ubi omnino non exponendum, quando a 
nostris, quando ab adversariorum propositionibus 
incipiamus, quando a firmissimis probationibus, 
quando a levioribus ; qua in causa praeponendae 
prooemiis quaestiones, qua praeparatione praemuni- 
endae, quid iudicis animus accipere possit statim 
dictum, quo paulatim deducendus, singulis an uni- 
versis opponenda refutatio, reservandi perorationi 
an per totam actionem diffundendi adfectus, de iure 
prius an de aequitate dicendum ; anteacta crimina 
an de quibus iudicium est prius obiicere vel diluere 

13 conveniat ; si multiplices causae erunt, quis ordo 
faciendus, quae testimonia tabulaeve cuiusque generis 
in actione recitandae, quae reservandae. Haec est 
velut imperatoria virtus copias suas partientis ad 

1 cp. in. iii. 9. 
168 



BOOK VII. x. 11-13 

forgetting that men discovered our art before ever 
they proceeded to teach it. For the most effective, 11 
and what is justly styled most economical l arrange- 
ment of a case as a whole, is that which cannot be 
determined except when we have the specific facts 
before us. It consists in the power to determine 
when the exordium is necessary and when it should 
be omitted ; when we should make our statement of 
facts continuous, and when we should subdivide it ; 
when we should begin at the very beginning, when, 
like Homer, start at the middle or the end; when 12 
we should omit the statement of facts altogether; 
when we should begin bv dealing with the arguments 
advanced by our opponents, and when with our own ; 
when we should place the strongest proofs first and 
when the weakest; in what cases we should prefix 
questions to the exordium, and what preparation is 
necessary to pave the way for these questions ; what 
arguments the judge will accept at once, and to 
what he requires to be led by degrees ; whether we 
should refute our opponent's arguments as a whole 
or in detail ; whether we should reserve emotional 
appeals for the peroration or distribute them through- 
out the whole speech ; whether we should speak first 
of law or of equity ; whether we should first advance 
(or refute) charges as to past offences or the charges 
connected with the actual trial ; or, again, if the 13 
case is complicated, what order we should adopt, 
what evidence or documents of any kind should 
be read out in the course of our speech, and what 
reserved for a later stage. This gift of arrangement 
is to oratory what generalship is to war. The skilled 
commander will know how to distribute his forces 

169 



QUINTILIAN 

casus proeliorum, retinentis partes per castella 
tuenda custodiendasve urbes, petendos commeatus, 
obsidenda itinera, mari denique ac terra dividentis. 

14 Sed haec in oratione praestabit, cui omnia adfuerint, 
natura, doctrina, studium. Quare nemo exspectet, 
ut alieno tantum labore sit disertus. Vigilandum, 
durandum, 1 enitendum, pallendum est, facienda sua 
cuique vis, suus usus, sua ratio, non respiciendum 
ad haec, sed in promptu habenda, nee tanquam 

15 tradita sed tanquam innata. Nam via demonstrari 
potest, velocitas sua cuique est; verum ars satis 
praestat, si copias eloquentiae ponit in medio ; 

16 nostrum est uti eis scire. Neque enim partium 
est demum dispositio, sed in his ipsis primus aliquis 
sensus et secundus et tertius ; qui non modo ut 
sint ordine collocati, laborandum est, sed ut inter 
se vincti atque ita cohaerentes, ne commissura per- 

17 luceat; corpus sit, non membra. Quod ita con- 
tinget, si et quid cuique conveniat viderimus et 
verba verbis applicarimus non pugnantia, sed quae 
invicem complectantur. Ita res non diversae dis- 
tantibus ex locis quasi invicem ignotae collidentur, 
sed aliqua societate cum prioribus ac sequentibus 

1 durandum, Bonnell : dicendum, A. : dicat iterum, O. 
170 



BOOK VII. x. 13-17 

for battle, what troops he should keep back to 
garrison forts or guard cities, to secure supplies, or 
guard communications, and what dispositions to make 
by land and by sea. But to possess this gift, our 14 
orator will require all the resources of nature, learning 
and industrious study. Therefore let no man hope 
that he can acquire eloquence merely by the labour 
of others. He must burn the midnight oil, persevere 
to the end and grow pale with study : he must form 
his own powers, his own experience, his own 
methods : he must not require to hunt for his 
weapons, but must have them ready for immediate 
use, as though they were born with him and not 
derived from the instruction of others. The road 15 
may be pointed out, but our speed must be our 
own. Art has done enough in publishing the 
resources of eloquence, it is for us to know how to 
use them. And it is not enough merely to arrange 16 
the various parts : each several part has its own 
internal economy, according to which one thought 
will come first, another second, another third, while 
we must struggle not merely to place these thoughts 
in their proper order, but to link them together and 
give them such cohesion that there will be no trace 
of any suture : they must form a body, not a congeries 
of limbs. This end will be attained if we note what 17 
best suits each position, and take care that the words 
which we place together are such as will not clash, 
but will mutually harmonise. Thus different facts 
will not seem like perfect strangers thrust into 
uncongenial company from distant places, but will 
be united with what precedes and follows by an 
intimate bond of union, with the result that our 

171 



QUINTILIAN 

copulatae tenebuntur, 1 ac videbitur non solum 
composita oratio, sed etiam continua. Verum longius 
fortasse progredior fallente transitu et a dispositione 
ad elocutionis praecepta labor, quae proximus liber 
inchoabit. 

1 copulatae tenebuntur, Halm, : scopula tenebunt, G : se 
copula tenebunt, A (se 2nd hand). 



172 



BOOK VII. x. 17 

speech will give the impression not merely of having 
been put together, but of natural continuity. I fear, 
however, that I have been lured on from one thing to 
another and have advanced somewhat too far, since 
I find myself gliding from the subject of arrange- 
ment to the discussion of the general rules of style, 
which will form the opening theme of the next 
book. 



173 



BOOK VIII 



LIBER VIII 

Prooemium 

His fere, quae in proximos quinque libros collata 
sunt, ratio inveniendi atque inventa disponendi 
continetur, quam ut per omnes numeros penitus 
cognoscere ad summam scientiae necessarium est, 
ita incipientibus brevius ac simplicius tradi magis 

2 convenit. Aut enim difficultate institutionis tam 
numerosae atque perplexae deterreri solent, aut eo 
tempore, quo praecipue alenda ingenia atque indul- 
gentia quadam enutrienda sunt, asperiorum tractatu 
rerum atteruntur, aut, si haec sola didicerunt, satis 
se ad eloquentiam instructos arbitrantur, aut quasi 
ad certas quasdarn dicendi leges adligati conatum 

3 omnem reformidant. Unde existimant accidisse ut, 
qui diligentissimi artium scriptores exstiterint, ab 
eloquentia longissime fuerint. Via tamen opus est 
incipientibus, sed ea plana et cum ad ingrediendum 
turn ad demonstrandum expedita. Eligat itaque 
176 






BOOK VIII 

Preface 

The observations contained in the preceding five 
books approximately cover the method of invention 
and the arrangement of the material thus provided. 
It is absolutely necessary to acquire a thorough 
knowledge of this method in all its details, if we 
desire to become accomplished orators, but a simpler 
and briefer course of instruction is more suitable for 
beginners. For they tend either to be deterred from 2 
study by the difficulties of so detailed and complicated 
a course, or lose heart at having to attempt tasks of 
such difficulty just at the very period when their 
minds need special nourishment and a more attrac- 
tive form of diet, or think that when they have 
learned this much and no more, they are fully 
equipped for the tasks of eloquence, or finally, re- 
garding themselves as fettered by certain fixed laws 
of oratory, shrink from making any effort on their 
own initiative. Consequently, it has been held that 3 
those who have exercised the greatest care in 
writing text-books of rhetoric have been the furthest 
removed from genuine eloquence. Still, it is abso- 
lutely necessary to point out to beginners the road 
which they should follow, though this road must be 
smooth and easy not merely to enter, but to indicate. 
Consequently, our skilful instructor should select all 

177 



QUINTILIAN 

peritus ille praeceptor ex omnibus optima et tradat 
ea demum in praesentia quae placet, remota re- 
futandi cetera mora. Sequentur enim discipuli, quo 

4 duxeris. Mox cum robore dicendi crescet etiam 
eruditio. Iidem primo solum iter credant esse in 
quod inducentur, mox illud cognituri etiam optimum. 
Sunt autem neque obscura neque ad percipiendum 
difficilia quae scriptores diversis opinionibus perti- 

5 naciter tuendis involverunt. Itaque in toto artis 
huiusce tractatu difficilius est iudicare quid doceas 
quam, cum iudicaris, docere, praecipueque in duabus 
his partibus perquam sunt pauca, circa quae si is 
qui instituitur non repugnaverit, pronum ad cetera 
habiturus est cursum. 

6 Nempe enim plurimum in hoc laboris exhausimus, 
ut ostenderemus rhetoricen bene dicendi scientiam 
et utilem et artem et virtutem esse ; materiam eius 
res omnes de quibus dicendum esset; eas in tribus 
fere generibus, demonstrative, deliberativo, iudici- 
alique reperiri ; orationem porro omnem constare 
l 7 8 



BOOK VIII. Pr. 3-6 

that is best in the various writers on the subject 
and content himself for the moment with imparting 
those precepts of which he approves, without wasting 
time over the refutation of those which he does not 
approve. For thus your pupils will follow where you 
lead. Later, as they acquire strength in speaking, 4 
their learning will grow in proportion. To begin 
with, they may be allowed to think that there is no 
other road than that on which we have set their 
feet, and it may be left to time to teach them what 
is actually the best. It is true that writers on 
rhetoric have, by the pertinacity with which they 
have defended their opinions, made the principles 
of the science which they profess somewhat com- 
plicated ; but these principles are in reality neither 
obscure nor hard to understand. Consequently, if 5 
we regard the treatment of the art as a whole, it is 
harder to decide what we should teach than to teach 
it, once the decision has been made. Above all, in 
the two departments which I have mentioned, the 
necessary rules are but few in number, and if the 
pupil gives them ready acceptance, he will find that 
the path to further accomplishment presents no 
difficulty. 

I have, it is true, already expended much labour 6 
on this portion of my task ; for I desired to make 
it clear that rhetoric is the science of speaking well, 
that it is useful, and further, that it is an art and a 
virtue. I wished also to show that its subject matter 
consists of everything on which an orator may be 
called to speak, and is, as a rule, to be found in three 
classes of oratory, demonstrative, deliberative, and 
forensic ; that every speech is composed of matter 
and words, and that as regax*ds matter we must 

179 



QUINTILIAN 

rebus et verbis ; in rebus intuendam inventionem, 
in verbis elocutionem, in utroque x collocationem, 
quae memoria conplecteretur, actio commendaret. 

7 Oratoris officium docendi, movendi, delectandi par- 
tibus contineri, ex quibus ad docendum expositio 
et argumentatio, ad movendum adfectus pertinerent, 
quos per omnem quidem causam sed maxime tamen 
in ingressu ac fine dominari. Nam delectationem, 
quamvis in utroque sit eorum, magis tamen proprias 

8 in elocutione partes habere. Quaestiones alias in- 
finitas, alias finitas quae personis, temporibus, locis 
continerentur. In omni porro materia tria esse 
quaerenda, an sit, quid sit, quale sit. His adiicie- 
bamus demonstrativam laude ac vituperatione con- 
stare. In ea quae ab ipso de quo diceremus, quae 
post eum acta essent, intuendum. Hoc opus trac- 

9 tatu honestorum utiliumque constare. Suasoriis 
accedere tertiam partem ex coniectura, possetne 
fieri et an esset futurum de quo deliberaretur. Hie 
praecipue diximus spectandum, quis, apud quem, 
quid diceret. Iudicialium causarum alias in singulis, 
alias in pluribus controversiis consistere, et in 

1 utroque, Halm : utraque, AG. 
180 



BOOK VIII. Pr. 6-9 

study invention, as regards words, style, and as 
regards both, arrangement, all of which it is the 
task of memory to retain and delivery to render 
attractive. I attempted to show that the duty of 7 
the orator is composed of instructing, moving and 
delighting his hearers, statement of facts and argu- 
ment falling under the head of instruction, while 
emotional appeals are concerned with moving the 
audience and, although they may be employed 
throughout the case, are most effective at the be- 
ginning and end. As to the element of charm, I 
pointed out that, though it may reside both in facts 
and words, its special sphere is that of style. I 8 
observed that there are two kinds of questions, the 
one indefinite, the other definite, and involving the 
consideration of persons and circumstances of time 
and place ; further, that whatever our subject mat- 
ter, there are three questions which we must ask, is 
it ? what is it ? and of' what kind is it ? To this I 
added that demonstrative oratory consists of praise 
and denunciation, and that in this connexion we 
must consider not merely the acts actually per- 
formed by the person of whom we were speaking, 
but what happened after his death. This task I 
showed to be concerned solely with what is honour- 
able or expedient. I remarked that in deliberative 9 
oratory there is a third department as well which 
depends on conjecture, for we have to consider 
whether the subject of deliberation is possible or 
likely to happen. At this point I emphasised the 
importance of considering who it is that is speaking, 
before whom he is speaking, and what he says. As 
regards forensic cases, I demonstrated that some 
turn on one point of dispute, others on several, and 

181 



QUINTILIAN 

quibusdam intentionem modo statum facere, modo 
depulsionem ; x depulsionem porro omnem infitia- 
tione duplici, factumne et an hoc factum esset, 

10 praeterea defensione ac translatione constare. Quae- 
stionem aut ex scripto esse aut ex facto ; facto, 2 
de rerum fide, proprietate, qualitate ; scripto, de 
verborum vi aut voluntate, in quibus vis turn causa- 
rum turn actionum inspici soleat, quae aut scripti 
et voluntatis aut ratiocinativa aut ambiguitatis aut 

11 legum contrariarum specie continentur. In omni 
porro causa iudiciali quinque esse partes, quarum 
exordio conciliari audientem, narratione doceri, pro- 
batione 3 proposita confirmari, refutatione contra 
dicta dissolvi, peroratione 4 aut memoriam refici aut 

12 animos inoveri. His argumentandi et adficiendi 
locos et quibus generibus concitari, placari, resolvi 
iudices oporteret, adiecimus. Accessit ratio divi- 
sionis. Credere modo qui discet velit materiam 
quandam variam esse, 5 et in qua multa etiam sine 
doctrina praestare debeat per se ipsa natura, ut haec 

1 statum . . . depulsionem, added by Happel, following 
Schiitz. 

t facto, added by Spalding. 

3 doceri, probatione, added by Meister. 

* contra dicta, added by Halm : dissolvi, peroratione, added 
by Aldine edn. 

6 materiam quandam variam esse, Happel : certa quaedam 
varia est and the like, MSS. 

182 



BOOK VIII. Pr. 9-12 

that whereas in some cases it is the attack, in others 
it is the defence that determines the basis ; that 
every defence rests on denial, which is of two kinds, 
since we may either deny that the act was com- 
mitted or that its nature was that alleged, while it 
further consists of justification and technical pleas 
to show that the action cannot stand. I proceeded 10 
to show that questions must turn either on some- 
thing written or something done : in the latter 
case we have to consider the truth of the facts 
together with their special character and quality ; 
in the former we consider the meaning or the 
intention of the words, with reference to which we 
usually examine the nature of all cases, criminal or 
civil, which fall under the heads of the letter and 
intention, the syllogism, ambiguity or contrary laws. 
I went on to point out that in all forensic cases the 1 1 
speech consists of five parts, the exordium designed 
to conciliate the audience, the statement of facts 
designed to instruct him, the proof which confirms 
our own propositions, the refutation which overthrows 
the arguments of our opponents, and the peroration 
which either refreshes the memory of our hearers 
or plays upon their emotions. I then dealt with the 12 
sources of arguments and emotion, and indicated 
the means by which the judges should be excited, 
placated, or amused. Finally I demonstrated the 
method of division. But I would ask that the 
student who is really desirous of learning should 
believe that there are also a variety of subjects with 
regard to which nature itself should provide much 
of the requisite knowledge without any assistance 
from formal teaching, so that the precepts of which 
I have spoken may be regarded not so much as 

183 



QUINTILIAN 

de quibus dixi non tam inventa a praeceptoribus 
quam cum fierent observata esse videantur. 

13 Plus exigunt laboris et curae quae sequuntur. 
Hinc enim iam elocutionis rationem tractabimus, 
partem operis, ut inter omnes oratores convenit, 
difficillimam. Nam et M. Antonius, cuius supra 
mentionem habuimus, cum a se disertos visos esse 
multos ait, eloquentem neminem : diserto satis 
putat dicere quae oporteat, ornate autem dicere 

14 proprium esse eloquentissimi. Quae virtus si usque 
ad eum in nullo reperta est, ac ne in ipso quidem 
aut L. Crasso, certum est et in his et in prioribus 
earn desideratam, quia difficillima fuit. Et Marcus 
Tullius inventionem quidem ac dispositionem pru- 

15 dentis hominis putat, eloquentiam oratoris, ideoque 
praecipue circa praecepta partis huius laboravit. 
Quod eum merito fecisse etiam ipso rei, de qua 
loquimur, nomine palam declaratur. Eloqui enim 4 
est omnia, quae mente conceperis, promere atque 
ad audientes perferre ; sine quo supervacua sunt 
priora et similia gladio condito atque intra vaginam 

16 suam haerenti. Hoc itaque maxime docetur, hoc 
nullus nisi arte adsequi potest, hie studium 
plurimum adhibendum, hoc exercitatio petit, hoc 

1 After enim the iVSS. give hoc which is deleted by Gesner. 

1 de Or. I. xxi. 94. * Cic. Or. xiv. 44 ; 

184 



BOOK VIII. Pr. 12-16 

having been discovered by the professors of rhetoric 
as having been noted by them when they presented 
themselves. 

The points which follow require greater care and 13 
industry. For I have now to discuss the theory of 
style, a subject which, as all orators agree, presents 
the greatest difficulty. For Marcus Antonius, whom 
I mentioned above, states that he has seen many 
good, but no really eloquent speakers, and holds 
that, while to be a good speaker it is sufficient to 
say what is necessarv, onlv the really eloquent 
speaker can do this in ornate and appropriate lan- 
guage. 1 And if this excellence was to be found in 14 
no~orator up to his own day, and not even in himself 
or Lucius Crassus, we may regard it as certain that 
the reason why they and their predecessors lacked 
this gift was its extreme difficulty of acquisition. 
Again, Cicero 2 holds that, while invention and 
arrangement are within the reach of any man of 
good sense, eloquence belongs to the orator alone, 
and consequently it was on the rules for the cultiva- 
tion of eloquence that he expended the greatest 
care. That he was justified in so doing is shown 15 
clearly by the actual name of the art of which I am 
speaking. For the verb eloqui means the production 
and communication to the audience of all that the 
speaker has conceived in his mind, and without this 
power all the preliminary accomplishments of oratory 
are as useless as a sword that is kept permanently 
concealed within its sheath. Therefore it is on this 16 
that teachers of rhetoric concentrate their atten- 
tion, since it cannot possibly be acquired without 
the assistance of the rules of art : it is this which 
is the chief object of our study, the goal of all 

185 



QUINTILIAN 

imitatio, hie omnis aetas consumitur, hoc maxime 
orator oratore praestantior, hoc genera ipsa dicendi 

17 aliis aliapotiora. Neque enim Asiani aut quocunque 
alio genere corrupti res non viderunt aut eas non 
collocaverunt neque, quos aridos vocamus, stulti 
aut in causis caeci fuerunt ; sed his iudicium in elo- 
quendo ac modus, illis vires defuerunt, ut appareat 
in hoc et vitium et virtutem esse dicendi. 

18 Non ideo tamen sola est agenda cura verborum. 
Occurram enim necesse est et, velut in vestibulo 
protinus apprehensuris hanc confessionem meam, 
resistam iis qui, omissa rerum (qui nervi sunt in 
causis) diligentia, quodam inani circa voces studio 
senescunt, idque faciunt gratia decoris, qui est in 
dicendo mea quidem opinione pulcherrimus, sed 

19 cum sequitur non cum adfectatur. Corpora sana et 
integri sanguinis et exercitatidne firmata ex iisdem 
his speciem accipiunt ex quibus vires, namque et 
colorata et adstricta et lacertis expressa sunt ; at 
eadem si quis volsa atque fucata muliebriter comat, 
186 



BOOK VIII. Pr. 16-19 

our exercises and all our efforts at imitation, and it 
is to this that we devote the energies of a lifetime ; 
it is this that makes one orator surpass his rivals, 
this that makes one style of speaking preferable to 
another. The failure of the orators of the Asiatic 17 
and other decadent schools did not lie in their 
inability to grasp or arrange the facts on which 
they had to speak, nor, on the other hand, were 
those who professed what we call the dry style of 
oratory either fools or incapable of understanding 
the cases in which they were engaged. No, the 
fault of the former was that they lacked taste and 
restraint in speaking, while the latter lacked power, 
whence it is clear that it is here that the real faults 
and virtues of oratory are to be found. 

This does not, however, mean that we should 18 
devote ourselves to the study of words alone. For 
I am compelled to offer the most prompt and deter- 
mined resistance to those who would at the very 
portals of this enquiry lay hold of the admissions 
I have just made and, disregarding the subject 
matter which, after all, is the backbone of any 
speech, devote themselves to the futile and crippling 
study of words in a vain desire to acquire the gift of 
elegance, a gift which I myself regard as the fairest 
of all the glories of oratory, but only when it is 
natural and unaffected. Healthy bodies, enjoying 19 
a good circulation and strengthened by exercise, 
acquire grace from the same source that gives them 
strength, for they have a healthy complexion, firm 
flesh and shapely thews. But, on the other hand, 
the man who attempts to enhance these physical 
graces by the effeminate use of depilatories and cos- 
metics, succeeds merely in defacing them by the 

187 



QUINTILIAN 

20 foedissima sint ipso formae labore. Et cultus con- 
cessus atque magnificus addit hominibus, ut Graeco 
versu testatum est, auctoritatem ; at muliebris et 
luxuriosus non corpus exornat, sed detegit mentem. 
Similiter ilia translucida et versicolor quorundam 
elocutio res ipsas effeminat, quae illo verborum 
habitu vestiantur. Curam ergo verborum, rerum 

21 volo esse sollicitudinem. Nam plerumque optima 
rebus cohaerent et cernuntur suo lumine ; at nos 
quaerimus ilia, tanquam lateant semper seque sub- 
ducant. Ita nunquam putamus circa id esse de quo 
dicendum est, sed ex aliis locis petimus et inventis 

22 vim adferimus. Maiore animo aggredienda eloquen- 
tia est, quae si toto corpore valet, ungues polfre et 
capillum reponere non existimabit ad curam suam 
pertinere. 

Sed evenit plerumque ut in hac diligentia deterior 

23 etiam fiat oratio, primum, quia sunt optima minime 
arcessita et simplicibus atque ab ipsa veritate pro- 
fectis similia. Nam ilia, quae curam fatentur et ficta 
atque composita videri etiam volunt, nee gratiam 
consequuntur et fid em amittunt propter id quod 
sensus obumbrantur et velut laeto gramine sata 

24 strangulantur. 1 Nam et quod recte dici potest cir- 
cumimus amore verborum et quod satis dictum est 

1 obumbrantur . . . strangulantur, Spalding : obumbrant 
, . . strangulant, MSS. 

188 



BOOK VIII. Pr. 19-24 

very care which he bestows on them. Again, a 20 
tasteful and magnificent dress, as the Greek poet 
tells us, lends added dignity to its wearer : but 
effeminate and luxurious apparel fails to adorn the 
body and merely reveals the foulness of the mind. 
Similarly, a translucent and iridescent style merely 
serves to emasculate the subject which it arrays with 
such pomp of words. Therefore I would have the 
orator, while careful in his choice of words, be even 
more concerned about his subject matter. For, as a 21 
rule, the best words are essentially suggested by the 
subject matter and are discovered by their own 
intrinsic light. But to-day we hunt for these words 
as though they were always hiding themselves and 
striving to elude our grasp. And thus we fail to 
realise that they are to be found in the subject of 
our speech, and seek them elsewhere, and, when we 
have found them, force them to suit their context. 
It is with a more virile spirit that we should pursue 22 
eloquence, who, if only her whole body be sound, 
will never think it her duty to polish her nails and 
tire her hair. 

The usual result of over-attention to the niceties 
of style is the deterioration of our eloquence. The 23 
main reason for this is that those words are best 
which are least far-fetched and give the impression 
of simplicity and reality. For those words which are 
obviously the result of careful search and even seem to 
parade their self-conscious art, fail to attain the grace 
at which they aim and lose all appearance of sincerity 
because they darken the sense and choke the good 
seed by their own luxuriant overgrowth. For in 24 
our passion for words we paraphrase what might be 
said in plain language, repeat what we have already 

189 



QUINTILIAN 

repetimus et quod uno verbo patet pluribus one- 
ramus et pleraque significare melius putamus quam 
dicere. Quid quod nihil iam proprium placet, dum 

25 parum creditur disertum quod et alius dixisset? A 
corruptissimo quoque poetarum figuras seu trans- 
lationes mutuamur, turn demum ingeniosi scilicet, 
si ad intelligendos nos opus sit ingenio. Atqui satis 
aperte Cicero praeceperat, in dicendo vitium vel 
maximum esse a vulgari genere orationis atque a 

26 consuetudine communis sensus abhorrere. Sed ille 
est durus atque ineruditus ; nos melius, quibus sordet 
omne quod natura dictavit, qui non ornamenta 
quaerimus sed lenocinia, quasi vero sit ulla verborum 
nisi rei cohaerentium virtus ; quae ut propria sint 
et dilucida et ornata et apte collocentur, si tota 
vita laborandum est, omnis studiorum fructus amis- 

27 sus est. Atqui plerosque videas haerentes circa 
singula et dum inveniunt et dum inventa ponderant 
ac dimetiuntur. Quod si idcirco fieret ut semper 
optimis uterentur, abominanda tamen haec infelicitas 
erat, quae et cursum dicendi refrenat et calorem 

28 cogitationis extinguit mora et diffidentia. Miser 

1 de Or. i. iii. 12. 
190 



BOOK VIII. Pr. 24-28 

said at sufficient length, pile up a number of words 
where one would suffice, and regard allusion as 
better than directness of speech. So, too, all 
directness of speech is at a discount, and we think no 
phrase eloquent that another could conceivably have 
used. We borrow figures and metaphors from the 25 
most decadent poets, and regard it as a real sign 
of genius that it should require a genius to under- 
stand our meaning. And yet Cicero l long since 
laid down this rule in the clearest of language, that 
the worst fault in speaking is to adopt a style in- 
consistent with the idiom of ordinary speech and 
contrary to the common feeling of mankind. But 26 
nowadays our rhetoricians regard Cicero as lacking 
both polish and learning ; we are far superior, for 
we loo k upon everything that is dictated by nature 
a"s~beneatli our notice, and seek not for thje_Jtme 
ornaments of speech, but for meretricious finery, as 
though there were any real virtue in words save in 
their power to represent Tacts. And if we have to 
spend all our life in the laborious effort to discover 
words which will at once be brilliant, appropriate 
and lucid, and to arrange them with exact precision, 
we lose all the fruit of our studies. And yet we see 27 
the majority of modern speakers wasting their time 
over the discovery of single words and over the 
elaborate weighing and measurement of such words 
when once discovered. Even if the special aim of 
such a practice were always to secure the best words, 
such an ill-starred form of industry would be much 
to be deprecated, since it checks the natural current 
of our speech and extinguishes the warmth of 
imagination by the delay and loss of self-confidence 
which it occasions. For the orator who cannot 28 

191 



QUINTILIAN 

enim et, ut sic dicam, pauper orator est qui nullum 
verbum aequo animo perdere potest. Sed ne perdet 
quidem, qui rationem loquendi primum cognoverit, 
turn lectione multa et idonea copiosam sibi ver- 
borum supellectilem compararit et huic adhibuerit 
artem collocandi, deinde haec omnia exercitatione 
plurima roborarit, ut semper in promptu sint et 

29 ante oculos. Namque ei qui id fecerit simul x res 
cum suis nominibus occurrent. Sed opus est studio 
praecedente et acquisita facultate et quasi reposita. 
Namque ista quaerendi, iudicandi, comparandi an- 
xietas, dum discimus, adhibenda est, non dum 
dicimus. Alioqui sicut, qui patrimonium non para- 
runt, sub diem quaerunt, ita in oratione, qui non 

30 satis laboravit. Sin praeparata dicendi vis fuerit, 
erunt in officio, non ut requisita respondere, sed 
ut semper sensibus inhaerere videantur atque eos 

31 ut umbra corpus sequi. Sed 2 in hac ipsa cura est 

aliquid satis. Nam cum Latina, significantia, ornata, 

cum apte sunt collocata, quid amplius laboremus? 

Quibusdam tamen nullus est finis calumniandi se et 

cum singulis paene syllabis commoriendi, qui etiam, 

1 ei qui fecerit, simul, Halm: hii quid fecerit sic, O i illi 
qui id fecerit sic, A. (illi qui id, 2nd hand). 

* sequi. Sed, Balm : sequis, G. : sequitur, A. 

192 



BOOK VIII. Pr. 28-31 

endure to lose a single word is like a man plunged 
in griping poverty. On the other hand, if he will 
only first form a true conception of the principles of 
eloquence, accumulate a copious supply of words by 
wide and suitable reading, apply the art of arrange- 
ment to the words thus acquired, and finally, by 
continual exercise, develop strength to use his 
acquisitions so that every word is ready at hand 
and lies under his very eyes, he will never lose a 
single word. For the man who follows these in- 29 
structions will find that facts and words appropriate 
to their expression will present themselves spon- 
taneously. But it must be remembered that a long 
course of preliminary study is necessary and that 
the requisite ability must not merely be acquired, 
but carefully stored for use ; for the anxiety devoted 
to the search for words, to the exercise of the 
critical faculty and the power of comparison is in its 
place while we are learning, but not when we are 
speaking. Otherwise, the orator who has not given 
sufficient attention to preliminary study will be like 
a man who, having no fortune, lives from hand to 
mouth. If, on the other hand, the powers of speech 30 
have been carefully cultivated beforehand, words 
will yield us ready service, not merely turning up 
when we search for them, but dwelling in our 
thoughts and following them as the shadow follows 
the body. There are, however, limits even to this 31 
form of study ; for when our words are good Latin, 
full of meaning, elegant and aptly arranged, why 
should we labour further? And yet there are some 
who are never weary of morbid self-criticism, who 
throw themselves into an agony of mind almost 
over separate syllables, and even when they have 

193 

VOL. III. H 



QU1NTILIAN 

cum optima sunt reperta, quaerunt aliquid quod sit 
magis antiquum, remotum, inopinatum, nee intel- 
ligunt iacere sensus in oratione, in qua verba lau- 

32 dantur. Sit igitur cura elocutionis quam maxima, 
dum sciamus tamen nihil verborum causa esse 
faciendum, cum verba ipsa rerum gratia sint re- 
perta; quorum ea sunt maxime probabilia, quae 
sensum animi nostri optime promunt atque in animis 

33 iudicum quod nos volumus efficiunt. Ea debent 
praestare sine dubio et admirabilem et iucundam 
orationem, verum admirabilem non sic, quomodo pro- 
digia miramur, et iucundam non deformi voluptate 
sed cum laude ac dignitate coniuncta. 

1. Igitur, quam Graeci <f>pdariv vocant, Latine dici- 
mus elocutionem. Ea spectatur verbis aut singulis 
aut coniunctis. In singtdis intuendum est ut sint 
Latina, perspicua, ornata, ad id quod efficere volumus 
accommodata, in coniunctis, ut emendata, ut collo- 
2 cata, ut figurata. Sed ea, quae de ratione Latine 
atque emendate loquendi ftierunt dicenda, in libro 
primo, cum de grammatice loqueremur, exsecuti 
sumus. Verum illic tantum ne vitiosa essent prae- 
cepimus; hie non alienum est admonere ut sint 
quam minime peregrina et externa. Multos enim, 
194 



BOOK VIII. Pn. 31-1. 2 

discovered the best words for their purpose look for 
some word that is older, less familiar, and less 
obvious, since they cannot bring themselves to 
realise that when a speech is praised for its words, 
it implies that its sense is inadequate. While, then, 32 
style calls for the utmost attention, we must always 
bear in mind that nothing should be done for the 
sake of words only, since words were invented 
merely to give expression to things : and those 
words are the most satisfactory which give the best 
expression to the thoughts of our mind and produce 
the effect which we desire upon the minds of the 
judges. Such words will assuredly be productive 33 
of a style that will both give pleasure and awaken 
admiration ; and the admiration will be of a kind 
far other than that which we bestow on portents, 
while the pleasure evoked by the charm will have 
nothing morbid about it, but will be praiseworthy 
and dignified. 

I. What the Greeks call cfapacns, we in Latin call 
e/ocutio or style. Style is revealed both in individual 
words and in groups of words. As regards the 
former, we must see that they are Latin, clear, elegant 
and well-adapted to produce the desired effect. As 
regards the latter, they must be correct, aptly placed 
and adorned with suitable figures. I have already, 2 
in the portions of the first book dealing with the 
subject of grammar, said all that is necessary on 
the way to acquire idiomatic and correct speech. 
But there my remarks were restricted to the pre- 
vention of positive faults, and it is well that I should 
now point out that our words should have nothing 
provincial or foreign about them. For you will find 

195 



QUINTILIAN 

quibus loquendi ratio non desit, invenias quos curiose 
potius loqui dixeris quam Latine, quomodo et ilia 
Attica anus Theophrastum, hominem alioqui disertis- 
simum, adnotata unius adfectatione verbi, hospitem 
dixit nee alio se id deprehendisse interrogata respon- 
3 dit, quam quod nimium Attice loqueretur. Et in 
Tito Livio, mirae f'acundiae virOj putat inesse Pollio 
Asinius quandam Patavinitatem. Quare, si fieri po- 
test et verba omnia et vox huius alumnuni urbis 
oleant, ut oratio Roinana plane videatur, non civitate 
donata. 

II. Perspicuitas in verbis praecipuam habet pro- 
prietatem, sed proprietas ipsa non simpliciter aeci- 
pitur. Primus enim intellectus est sua cuiusque rei 
appellatio, qua non semper utemur ; nam et obscena 

2 vitabimus et sordida et humilia. Sunt autem bumilia 
infra dignitatem rerum aut ordinis. In quo vitio 
cavendo non mediocriter errare quidam solent, qui 
omnia quae sunt in usuj 1 etiamsi causae necessitas 
postulet, reformidant ; ut ille, qui in actione Ibericas 
herbas, se solo nequicquam intelligente, dicebat, nisi 
irridens hanc vanitatem Cassius Severus spartum 

3 dicere eum velle indicasset. Nee video quare clarus 
orator duratos muria pisces nitidius esse crediderit 

1 in, Regius : sine, MS8. 
196 



BOOK VIII. i. 2-n. 3 

that there are a number of writers by no means 
deficient in style whose language is precious rather 
than idiomatic. As an illustration of my meaning 
I would remind you of the story of the old woman 
at Athens, who, when Theophrastus, a man of no 
mean eloquence, used one solitary word in an 
affected way, immediately said that he was a 
foreigner, and on being asked how she detected it, 
replied that his language was too Attic for Athens. 
Again Asinius Pollio held that Livy, for all his 3 
astounding eloquence, showed traces of the idiom 
of Padua. Therefore, if possible, our voice and all 
our words should be such as to reveal the native of 
this city, so that our speech may seem to be of 
genuine Roman origin, and not merely to have 
been presented with Roman citizenship. 

II. Clearness results above all from propriety in 
the use of words. But propriety is capable of more 
than one interpretation. In its primary sense it 
means calling things by their right names, and is 
consequently sometimes to be avoided, for our 
language must not be obscene, unseemly or mean. 
Language may be described as mean when it is 2 
beneath the dignity of the subject or the rank of 
the speaker. Some orators fall into serious error 
in their eagerness to avoid this fault, and are afraid 
of all words that are in ordinary use, even although 
they may be absolutely necessary for their purpose. 
There was, for example, the man who in the course 
of a speech spoke of "Iberian grass," a meaningless 
phrase intelligible only to himself. Cassius Severus, 
however, by way of deriding his affectation, explained 
that he meant Spanish broom. Nor do I see why 3 
a certain distinguished orator thought " fishes con- 

197 



QUINTILIAN 

quam ipsum id quod vitabat. 1 In hac autem pro- 
prietatis specie, quae nominibus ipsis cuiusque rei 
utitur, nulla virtus est, at quod ei contrarium est, 
vitium. Id apud nos impropriurn, axvpov apud 

4 Graecos vocatur, quale est, tantum sperare dolorem, aut, 
quod in oratione Dolabellae emendatum a Cicerone 
adnotavi, mortem ferre, aut, qualia nunc laudantur a 
quibusdam, quorum est, de cruce verba ceciderunt. 
Non tamen quidquid non erit proprium, protinus et 
improprii vitio laborabit, quia primum omnium multa 

5 sunt et Graece et Latine non denominata. Nam et, 
qui iaculum emittit, iaculari dicitur, qui pilam aut 
sudem, appellatione privatim sibi adsignata caret; 
et ut, lapidate quid sit, manifestum est, ita glebarum 

G testarumque iactus non habet nomen. Unde abusio, 
quae Kara^piqcns dicitur, necessaria. Translatio quo- 
que, in qua vel maximus est orationis ornatus, verba 
non suis rebus accommodat. Quare proprietas non 
ad nomen, sed ad vim significandi refertur nee 

7 auditu, sed intellectu perpendenda est. Secundo 
modo dicitur proprium inter plura, quae sunt eius- 
1 vitabat, Aldine ed. : videbat, MSS. 

1 Probably salaam enta. * Aen. iv. 419. 

3 Presumably in the sense, "He spoke like one in bodily 
pain." 



BOOK VIII. ii. 3-7 

served in brine" a more elegant phrase than the 
word which he avoided. 1 But while there is no 
special merit in the form of propriety which consists 
in calling things by their real names, it is a fault 
to fly to the opposite extreme. This fault we call 
impropriety, while the Greeks call it aicvpov. As 4 
examples I may cite the Virgilian, 2 " Never could 
I have hoped for such great woe," or the phrase, 
which I noted had been corrected by Cicero in a 
speech of Dolabella's, "To bring death," or again, 
phrases of a kind that win praise from some of 
our contemporaries, such as, " His words fell from 
the cross." 3 On the other hand, everything that 
lacks appropriateness will not necessarily suffer from 
the fault of positive impropriety, because there are, in 
the first place, many things which have no proper 
term either in Greek or Latin. For example, the 5 
verb iaculari is specially used in the sense of " to 
throw a javelin," whereas there is no special verb 
appropriated to the throwing of a ball or a stake. 
So, too, while lapidare has the obvious meaning of 
"to stone," there is no special word to describe 
the throwing of clods or potsherds. Hence abuse or 6 
catachresis of words becomes necessary, while meta- 
phor, also, which is the supreme ornament of oratory, 
applies words to things with which they have 
strictly no connexion. Consequently propriety turns 
not on the actual term, but on the meaning of the 
term, and must be tested by the touchstone of the 
understanding, not of the ear. The second sense 7 
in which the word propriety is used occurs when 
there are a number of things all called bv the same 
name : in this case the original term from which 
the others are derived is styled the proper term. 

199 



QUINTILIAN 

dem nominis, id unde cetera ducta sunt ; ut vertex 
est contorta in se aqua vel quidquid aliud similiter 
vertitur, inde propter flexurn capillorum pars summa 
capitis, ex hoc id quod in montibus eminentissimum. 
Recte dixeris haec omnia vertices, proprie tamen 

8 unde initium est. Sic soleae et turdi pisces et cetera. 
Tertius est huic diversus modus, cum res communis 
pluribus in uno aliquo habet nomen eximium, ut 
carmen funebre proprie naenia et tabernaculum ducis 
augurale. Item, quod commune et aliis nomen 
intellectu alicui rei peculiariter tribuitur, ut urbem 
Romam accipimus et venules novicios et Corinlhia aera, 
cum sint urbes aliae quoque et venalia multa et tarn 
aurum et argentum quam aes Corinthium. Sed ne 

9 in his quidem virtus oratoris inspicitur. At illud 
iam non mediocriter probandum, quod hoc etiam 
laudari modo solet, ut proprie dictum, id est, quo 
nihil inveniri possit significantius : ut Cato dixit, 
C. Caesarem ad evertendam rem publicum sobrium acces- 
sisse j ut Virgilius deduct um carmen, et Horatius acrevi 

10 tilriam Hannibalemque dirum.. In quo modo illud 



1 Lit. i. e. in the proper sense the sole of the foot and 
a thrush. 

2 Suet. Cues. 53. 3 Ed. vi. 5. 
4 Odes I. xii. 1, and in. vi. 36. 



BOOK VIII. n. 7-10 

For example, the word vertex means a whirl of 
water, or of anything else that is whirled in a like 
manner : then, owing to the fashion of coiling the 
hair, it comes to mean the top of the head, while 
finally, from this sense it derives the meaning of 
the highest point of a mountain. All these things 
may correctly be called vertices, but the proper use 
of the term is the first. So, too, solea and tardus 8 
are employed as names of fish, to mention no other 
cases. 1 The third kind of propriety is found in 
the case where a thing which serves a number 
of purposes has a special name in some one par- 
ticular context ; for example, the proper term for 
a funeral song is naenia, and for the general's tent 
augurale. Again, a term which is common to a 
number of things may be applied in a proper or 
special sense to some one of them. Thus we use 
urbs in the special sense of Rome, venales in the 
special sense of newly-purchased slaves, and Cor- 
inthia in the special sense of bronzes, although 
there are other cities besides Rome, and many 
other things which may be styled venales besides 
slaves, and gold and silver are found at Corinth 
as well as bronze. But the use of such terms 
implies no special excellence in an orator. There 9 
is, however, a form of propriety of speech which 
deserves the highest praise, that is to say, the 
employment of words with the maximum of signi- 
ficance, as, for instance, when Cato 2 said that 
" Caesar was thoroughly sober when he undertook 
the task of overthrowing the constitution," or as 
Virgil 3 spoke of a " thin-drawn strain," and Horace* 
of the "shrill pipe," and "dread Hannibal." Some 10 
also include under this head that form of pro- 



QUINTILIAN 

quoque est a quibusdam traditum proprii genus ex 
appositis (epitheta dicuntur) : ut dulcis musti et cum 
dentibus albis. De quo genere alio loco dicendum 

1 1 est. Etiam quae bene translata sunt propria dici 
solent. Interim autem quae sunt in quoque prae- 
cipua proprii locum accipiunt, ut Fabius inter plures 
imperatorias virtutes Cunctalor est appellatus. Pos- 
sunt videri verba, quae plus significant quam elo- 
quuntur, in parte ponenda perspicuitatis ; intellectum 
enim adiuvant. Ego tamen libentius emphasin retu- 
lerim ad ornatum orationis, quia non ut intelligatur 
efficit, sed ut plus intelligatur. 

1 2 At obscuritas fit verbis iam 1 ab usu remotis : ut si 
commentaries quis pontificum et vetustissima foedera 
et exoletos scrutatus auctores id ipsum petat ex his 
quae inde contraxerit, quod non intelliguntur. Hinc 
enim aliqui famam eruditionis adfectant, ut quaedam 

13 soli scire videantur. Fallunt etiam verba vel regioni- 
bus quibusdam magis familiaria vel artium propria, 
ut Atabulus ventus et navis saccaria et in mah cosa- 
num. 2. Quae vel vitanda apud iudicem ignarum 
significationum earum vel interpretanda sunt, sicut 

1 iam, Halm: etiam, AG. 

2 The meaning is not known and no satisfactory emendation 
has been made. 



1 Georg. i. 295 and Aen. xi. G81. 

2 Sc. ch. vi. 3 See ix. ii. 64. 

4 An Apulian term for the Scirocco. What is the peculi- 
arity of a sack-ship is unknown. It is possible that with 
Haupt we should read stlataria, "a broad-beamed merchant- 
vessel. 



BOOK VIII. ii. 10-13 

priely which is derived from characteristic epithets, 
such as in the Virgilian l phrases, "sweet unfer- 
mented wine," or "with white teeth." But of 
this sort of propriety I shall have to speak else- 
where. 2 Propriety is also made to include the appro- 11 
priate use of words in metaphor, while at times the 
salient characteristic of an individual comes to he 
attached to him as a proper name : thus Fabius was 
called " Cunctator," the Delayer, on account of the 
most remarkable of his many military virtues. Some, 
perhaps, may think that words which mean more 
than they actually say deserve mention in connexion 
with clearness, since they assist the understanding. 
I, however, prefer to place emphasis 3 among the 
ornaments of oratory, since it does not make a thing 
intelligible, but merely more intelligible. 

Obscurity, on the other hand, results from the 12 
employment of obsolete words, as, for instance, if 
an author should search the records of the priests, 
the earliest treaties and the works of long-forgotten 
writers with the deliberate design of collecting 
words that no man living understands. For there 
are persons who seek to gain a reputation for erudi- 
tion by such means as this, in order that they 
may be regarded as the sole depositories of certain 
forms of knowledge. Obscurity may also be pro- 13 
duced by the use of words which are more familiar 
in certain districts than in others, or which are 
of a technical character, such as the wind called 
"Atabalus," 4 or a "sack-ship," or in vialo cosanum. 
Such expressions should be avoided if we are plead- 
ing before a judge who is ignorant of their meaning, 
or, if used, should be explained, as may have to be 
done in the case of what are called homonyms. For 

203 



QUINTILIAN 

in his, quae homonyma vocantur : ut, Taurus animal 
sit an mons an signum in coelo an nomen hominis an 
radix arboris, nisi distinctum non intelligetur. 

14 Plus tamen est obscuritatis in contextu et conti- 
nuatione sermonis et plures modi. Quare nee sit 
tarn longus, ut eum prosequi non possit intentio, nee 
traiectione vel ultra modum 1 hyperbato finis eius 
differatur. Quibus adhuc peior est mixtura verborum, 
qualis in illo versu. 

Saxa vocant Itali, mediis quae in Jluctibus, aras. 

15 Etiam interiectione (qua et oratores et historici fre- 
quenter utuntur, ut medio sermone aliquem inserant 
sensum) impediri solet intellectus, nisi quod interpo- 
nitur breve est. Nam Vergilius illo loco, quo pullum 
equinum describit, cum dixisset, 

Nee vanos horret strepitus, 

compluribus insertis alia figura quinto demum versu 
redit, 

Turn, si qua sonum procul anna dedere, 

Stare loco nescit. 

16 Vitanda in primis ambiguitas, non haec solum, de 
cuius genere supra dictum est, quae incertum intel- 
lectum facit, ut Chremetem audivi percussisse Demean, 

1 transiectione vel ultra modum,' Spalding: transiectio intra 
modum (domum G ), AG. 

1 Reference unknown. * See vm. vi. 62. 

3 A en. i. 109. The awkwardness of the order cannot be 
brought out in English. 
* Georg. iii. 79-83. * See vn. ix. 10. 

204 



BOOK VIII. ii. 13-16 

example, the word taunts may be unintelligible un- 
less we make it clear whether we are speaking of 
a bull, or a mountain, or a constellation, or the name 
of a man, or the root of a tree. 1 

A greater source of obscurity is, however, to be 14 
found in the construction and combination of words, 
and the ways in which this may oecur are still more 
numerous. Therefore, a sentence should never be 
so long that it is impossible to follow its drift, nor 
should its conclusion be unduly postponed by trans- *AP • 
position or an excessive use of hyperbaton ? Still - ■, \ .- ^ 
worse is the result when the order of the words is 
confused as in the line 3 j(r 

" In the midmost sea 
Rocks are there by Italians altars called." 

Again, parenthesis, so often employed by orators 15 
and historians, and consisting in the insertion of one 
sentence in the midst of another, may seriously 
hinder the understanding of a passage, unless the 
insertion is short. For example, in the passage 
where Vergil 4 describes a colt, the words 

" Nor fears he empty noises," 

are followed by a number of remarks of a totally 
different form, and it is only four lines later that 
the poet returns to the point and says, 

" Then, if the sound of arms be heard afar, 
How to stand still he knows not." 

Above all, ambiguity must be avoided, and by 16 
ambiguity I mean not merely the kind of which 
I have already spoken, where the sense is uncertain, 
as in the clause Chremetem audivi percussisse Demean, 5 



QUINTILIAN 

sed ilia quoque, quae, etiamsi turbare non potest 
sensum, in idem tamen verborum vitium incidit, ut 
si quis dicat, visum a se hominem librum scribentem. 
Nam etiamsi librum ab homine scribi patet, male 
tamen composuerit feceritque ambiguum, quantum 
in ipso fuit. • 

17 Est etiam in quibusdam turba inanium verborum, 
qui, dum communem loquendi morem reformidant, 
ducti specie nitoris circumeunt omnia copiosa lo- 
quacitate, eo quod 1 dicere nolunt ipsa 2 ; deinde illam 
seriem cum alia simili iungentes miscentesque, ultra 

18 quam ullus spiritus durare possit, extendunt. In 
hoc malum a quibusdam etiam laboratur; neque id 
novum vitium est, cum iam apud Titum Livium 
inveniam fuisse praeceptorem aliquem, qui discipulos 
obscurare quae dicerent iuberet, Graeco verbo utens 
(tkotutov. Unde ilia scilicet egregia laudatio : Tanto 

19 melior ; ne ego ijuidem intellexi. Alii brevitatem ae- 
mulati necessaria quoque orationi subtrahunt verba 
et, velut satis sit scire ipsos quid dicere velint, 
quantum ad alios pertineat, nihil putant. At ego 
otiosum sermonem dixerim, quern auditor suo ingenio 
intelligit. Quidam, emutatis in perversum dicendi 

1 eo quod, Halm : et quod or et quae, MSS. 

2 ipsa ; deinde, Christ : ipsam deinde, MSS. 



1 i. e. and not the man by the book ! 

2 Perhaps in his letter to his son, for which see n. v. 20. 



206 



BOOK VIII. ii. 16-19 

but also that form of ambiguity which, although 
it does not actually result in obscuring the sense, 
falls into the same verbal error as if a man should say 
visum a se hominem librum scribentem (that he had 
seen a man writing a book). For although it is 
clear that the book was being written by the man, 1 
the sentence is badly put together, and its author 
has made it as ambiguous as he could. 

Again, some writers introduce a whole host of 17 
useless words ; for, in their eagerness to avoid 
ordinary methods of expression, and allured by 
false ideals of beauty they wrap up everything in a 
multitude of words simply and solely because they 
are unwilling to make a direct and simple state- 
ment of the facts : and then they link up and 
involve one of those long-winded clauses with others 
like it, and extend their periods to a length beyond 
the compass of mortal breath. Some even expend 13 
an infinity of toil to acquire this vice, which, by the 
way, is nothing new : for I learn from the pages of 
Livy 2 that there was one, a teacher, who instructed 
his pupils to make all they said obscure, using the 
Greek word <tk6ti<tov ("darken it.") It was this 
same habit that gave rise to the famous words of 
praise, " So much the better : even I could not 
understand you." Others are consumed with a 19 
passion for brevity and omit words which are 
actually necessary to the sense, regarding it as a 
matter of complete indifference whether their mean- 
ing is intelligible to others, so long as thev know 
what they mean themselves. For my own part, I 
regard as useless words which make such a demand 
upon the ingenuity of the hearer. Others, again, 
succeed in committing the same fault by a per- 

207 



QUINTILIAN 

20 figuris, idem vitium consequuntur. Pessima vero 
sunt aSiavorjTa, hoc est, quae verbis aperta occultos 
sensus habent, ut cum ductus est caecus secundum 
viam stare, 1 et, qui suos artus morsu lacerasset, 

21 fingitur in scholis supra se cubasse. Ingeniosa haec 
et fortia et ex ancipiti diserta creduntur, pervasitque 2 
iam multos ista persuasio, ut id iam demum eleganter 
atque exquisite dictum putent, quod interpretandum 
sit. Sed auditoribus etiam nonnullis grata sunt haec, 
quae cum intellexerunt acumine suo delectantur et 
gaudent, non quasi audierint sed quasi invenerint. 

22 Nobis prima sit virtus perspicuitas, propria verba, 
rectus ordo, non in longum dilata conclusio, nihil 
neque desit neque superfluat: ita sermo et doctis 
probabilis et planus imperitis erit. Haec eloquendi 
observatio. Nam rerum perspicuitas quo modo prae- 

23 standa sit, diximus in praeceptis narrationis. Similis 
autem ratio est in omnibus. Nam si neque pauciora 
quam oportet neque plura neque inordinata aut 
indistincta dixerimus, erunt dilucida et negligenter 
quoque audientibus aperta ; quod et ipsum in consilio 

1 cum ductus, A : conductus, G : cum dictns, Spalding : 
viam A : vitam, G. This sentence is unintelligible. Halm 
reads cum dictus est caecus secundum vitam (G.) stare, which 
might conceivably be intended to mean ' as when the blind man 
was said to stand there to gain his living, ' a rare icse of vita. 

2 pervasitque, Badius : persuasitque, MSS. 

1 Like a wild beast devouring his prey. 
2oS 



BOOK VIII. ii. 19-23 

verse misuse of figures. Worst of all are the 20 
phrases which the Greeks call dhiavorjra, that is to 
say, expressions which, though their meaning is 
obvious enough on the surface, have a secret mean- 
ing, as for example in the phrase cum ductus est 
cnecus secundum viam stare, or where the man, who 
is supposed in the scholastic theme to have torn his 
oAvn limbs- with his teeth, is said to have lain upon 
himself. 1 Such expressions are regarded as ingenious, 21 
daring and eloquent, simply because of their ambi- 
guity, and quite a number of persons have become 
infected by the belief that a passage which requires 
a commentator must for that very reason be a 
masterpiece of elegance. Nay, there is even a class 
of hearer who find a special pleasure in such pas- 
sages ; for the fact that they can provide an answer 
to the riddle fills them with an ecstasy of self-con- 
gratulation, as if they had not merely heard the 
phrase, but invented it. 

For my own part, I regard clearness as the first 22 
essential of a good style : there must be propriety 
in our words, their order must be straightforward, 
the conclusion of the period must not be long post- 
poned, there must be nothing lacking and nothing 
superfluous. Thus our language will be approved 
by the learned and clear to the uneducated. I am 
speaking solely of clearness in style, as I have 
already dealt with clearness in the presentation 
of facts in the rules I laid down for the statement 
of the case. But the general method is the same 23 
in both. For if what we say is not less nor more 
than is required, and is clear and systematically 
arranged, the whole matter will be plain and obvious 
even to a not too attentive audience. For we must 

209 



QUINTILIAN 

est habendum, non semper tam esse acrem iudicis 
intentionem, ut obscuritatem apud se ipse discutiat 
et tenebris orationis inferat quoddam intelligentiae 
suae lumen, sed multis eum frequenter cogitationibus 
avocari, nisi tam clara fuerint, quae dicemus, ut in 
animum eius oratio, ut sol in oculos, etiamsi in earn 
24 non intendatur, incurrat. Quare non, ut intelligere 
possit, sed, ne omnino possit non intelligere, cur- 
andum. Propter quod etiam repetimus saepe, quae 
non satis percepisse eos qui cognoscunt putamus : 
Quae causa utique nostra culpa dicta obscurius est : ad 
planiora et communia magis verba dcscendimus ; cum 
id ipsum optime fiat, quod nos aliquid non optime 
fecisse simulamus. 

III. Venio nunc ad ornatum, in quo sine dubio 
plus quam in ceteris dicendi partibus sibi indulget 
orator. Nam emendate quidem ac lucide dicentium 
tenue praemium est, magisque ut vitiis carere quam 
ut aliquam magnam virtutem adeptus esse videaris. 
2 Inventio cum imperitis saepe communis, dispositio 
modicae doctrinae credi potest ; si quae sunt artes 
altiores, plerumque occultantur, ut artes sint ; deni- 
que omnia haec ad utilitatem causarum solam refe- 
renda sunt. Cultu vero atque ornatu se quoque 
210 



BOOK VIII. ii. 23-m. 2 

never forget that the attention of the judge is not 
always so keen that he will dispel obscurities with- 
out assistance, and bring the light of his intelligence 
to bear on the dark places of our speech. On the 
contrary, he will have many other thoughts to dis- 
tract him unless what we say is so clear that our 
words will thrust themselves into his mind even 
when he is not giving us his attention, just as the 
sunlight forces itself upon the eyes. Therefore 24 
our aim must be not to put him in a position 
to understand our argument, but to force him to 
understand it. Consequently we shall frequently 
repeat anything which we think the judge has 
failed to take in as he should. We shall say, for 
example, " I fear that this portion of our case has 
been somewhat obscurely stated : the fault is mine, 
and I will therefore re-state it in plainer and simpler 
language " ; for the pretended admission of a fault 
on our part creates an excellent impression. 

III. I now come to the subject of ornament, in 
which, more than in any other department, the orator 
undoubtedly allows himself the greatest indulgence. 
For a speaker wins but trifling praise if he does no 
more than speak with correctness and lucidity ; in 
fact his speech seems rather to be free from blemish 
than to have any positive merit. Even the un- 2 
trained often possess the gift of invention, and no 
great learning need be assumed for the satisfactory 
arrangement of our matter, while if any more 
recondite art is required, it is generally concealed, 
since unconcealed it would cease to be an art, while 
all these qualities are employed solelv to serve the 
interests of the actual case. On the other hand, by 
the employment of skilful ornament the orator 

211 



QUINTILIAN 

commendat ipse qui dicit et in ceteris indicium 
doctorum, in hoc vero etiam popularem laudem 
petit, nee fortibus modo, sed etiam fulgentibus armis 

3 proeliatur. An x in causa Cicero Cornelii consecutus 
esset docendo iudicem tantum et utiliter demum ac 
Latine perspicueque dicendo, ut populus Romanus 
admirationem suam non acclamatione tantum, sed 
etiam plausu confiteretur ? Sublimitas profecto et 
magnificentia et nitor et auctoritas expressit ilium 

4 fragorem. Nee tam insolita laus esset prosecuta 
dicentem, si usitata et ceteris similis fuisset oratio. 
Atque ego illos credo, qui aderant, nee sensisse quid 
facerent nee sponte iudicioque plausisse, sed velut 
mente captos et quo essent in loco ignaros erupisse 
in hunc voluptatis adfectum. 

5 Sed ne causae quidem parum confert idem hie 
orationis ornatus. Nam, qui libenter audiunt, et 
magis attendunt et facilius credunt, plerumque ipsa 
delectatione capiuntur, nonnunquam admiratione 
auferuntur. Nam et ferrum ipsum 2 adfert oculis 
terroris aliquid, et fulmina ipsa non tam nos con- 
funderent, si vis eorum tantum, non etiam ipse fulgor 

6 timeretur. Recteque Cicero his ipsis ad Brutum 

1 An, added by Spalding. 

2 ipsum, added by Christ. 

1 Now lost. 



BOOK VIII. m. 2-6 

commends himself at the same time, and whereas his 
other accomplishments appeal to the considered 
judgment of the learned, this gift appeals to the 
enthusiastic approval of the world at large, and the 
speaker who possesses it fights not merely with 
effective, but with flashing weapons. If in his defence 
of Cornelius Cicero had confined himself merely to 
instructing the judge and speaking in clear and idio- 
matic Latin without a thought beyond the interests 
of his case, would he ever have compelled the Roman 
people to proclaim their admiration not merely by 
acclamation, but by thunders of applause ? No, it 
was the sublimity and splendour, the brilliance and 
the weight of his eloquence that evoked such clamor- 
ous enthusiasm. Nor, again, would his words have 
been greeted with such extraordinary approbation if 
his speech had been like the ordinary speeches of 
every day. In my opinion the audience did not know 
what they were doing, their applause sprang neither 
from their judgment nor their will ; they were seized 
with a kind of frenzy and, unconscious of the place in 
which they stood, burst forth spontaneously into a 
perfect ecstasy of delight. 

But rhetorical ornament contributes not a little to 
the furtherance of our case as well. For when our 
audience find it a pleasure to listen, their attention 
and their readiness to believe what they hear are 
both alike increased, while they are generally filled 
with delight, and sometimes even transported by 
admiration. The flash of the sword in itself strikes 
something of terror to the eye, and we should be 
less alarmed by the thunderbolt if we feared its 
violence alone, and not its flash as well. Cicero 
was right when, in one of his letters l to Brutus, he 

213 



QUINTILIAN 

verbis quadam in epistola seribit, Nam eloquentiam, 
quae admiralionem non habet, nullam iudico. Eandem 
Aristoteles quoque petendam maxime putat. 

Sed hie ornatus (repetam enim) virilis et fortis et 
sanctus sit nee effeminatam levitatem et fueo emen- 

7 titum colorem amet, sanguine et viribus niteat. Hoc 
autem adeo verum est ut, cum in hac maxime parte 
sint vicina virtutibus vitia, etiam, qui vitiis utuntur, 
virtutum tamen iis nomen imponant. Quare nemo 
ex corruptis dicat me inimicum esse culte dicentibus. 
Non banc esse virtutem nego, sed illis earn non 

8 tribuo. An ego fundum cultiorem putem, in quo 
mihi quis ostenderit lilia et violas et anemonas, fontes 
surgentes, quam ubi plena messis aut graves fructu 
vites erunt? Sterilem platanum tonsasque myrtos 
quam maritam ulmum et uberes oleas praeoptaverim ? 
Habeant ilia divites licet, quid essent, si aliud nihil 

9 haberent? Nullusne ergo etiam frugiferis adhi- 
bendus est decor ? Quis negat ? Nam et in ordi- 
nem certaque intervalla redigam meas arbores. 
Quid illo quincunce speciosius qui, in quamcunque 
partem spectaveris, rectus est? Sed protinus in id 
quoque prodest, ut terrae sucum aequaliter trahat. 

10 Sur<rentia in altum cacumina oleae ferro coercebo ; 



1 llhet. in. ii. 5. 

2 In the introduction to this book, 19. 

8 Quincunx. The formation may be thus represented 



214 



BOOK VIII. in. 6-10 

wrote, " Eloquence which evokes no admiration is, 
in my opinion, unworthy of the name." Aristotle 1 
likewise thinks that the excitement of admiration 
should be one of our first aims. 

But such ornament must, as I have already said, 2 
be bold, manly and chaste, free from all effeminate 
smoothness and the false hues derived from artificial 
dyes, and must glow with health and vigour. So true 7 
is this, that although, where ornament is concerned, 
vice and virtue are never far apart, those who employ 
a vicious style of embellishment disguise their vices 
with the name of virtue. Therefore let none of our 
decadents accuse me of being an enemy to those 
who speak with grace and finish. I do not deny the 
existence of such a virtue, I merely deny that they 
possess it. Shall I regard a farm as a model of good 8 
cultivation because its owner shows me lilies and 
violets and anemones and fountains of living water 
in place of rich crops and vines bowed beneath their 
clusters ? Shall I prefer the barren plane and myrtles 
trimly clipped, to the fruitful olive and the elm that 
weds the vine ? No, let such luxuries delight the rich : 
but where would their wealth be if they had nought 
save these ? Again, is beauty an object of no con- 9 
sideration in the planting of fruit trees ? Certainly 
not ! For my trees must be planted in due order 
and at fixed intervals. What fairer sight is there 
than rows of trees planted in echelon 8 which present 
straight lines to the eye from whatever angle they be 
viewed ? But it has an additional advantage, since 
this form of plantation enables every tree to derive 
an equal share of moisture from the soil. When the 10 
tops of my olive trees rise too high, I lop them away, 
with the result that their growth expands laterally 

215 



QUINTILIAN 

in orbem se formosius fundet et protinus fructum 
ramis pluribus feret. Decentior equus, cuius ad- 
stricta ilia, sed idem velocior. Pulcher aspectu est 1 
athleta, cuius lacertos exercitatio expressit, idem 

1 1 certamini paratior. Nunquam vera species ab utili- 
tate dividitur. 

Sed hoc quidem discernere modici iudicii est. 
Illud observatione dignius, quod hie ipse honestus 
ornatus materiae genere esse debebit 2 variatus. 
Atque, ut a prima divisione ordiar, non idem demon- 
strativis et deliberativis et iudicialibus causis con- 
veniet. Namque illud genus ostentationi compo- 
situm solam petit audientium voluptatem, ideoque 
omnes dicendi artes aperit ornatumque orationis 
exponit, ut quod non insidietur nee ad victoriam sed 

12 ad solum finem laudis et gloriae tendat. Quare, 
quidquid erit sententiis populare, verbis nitidum, 
figuris iucundum, translationibus magnificum, compo- 
sitione elaboratum, velut institor quidam eloquentiae 
intuendum et paene pertractandum dabit. Nam 

13 eventus ad ipsum, non ad causam refertur. At ubi 
res agitur et vera dimicatio est, ultimus sit famae 
locus. Praeterea ne decet quidem, ubi maxima 
rerum momenta versantur, de verbis esse sollicitum. 



1 est, Halm : sit, MSS. 

* esse debebit, Halm: decidit, AG. 



2l6 



BOOK VIII. m. 10-13 

in a manner that is at once more pleasing to the eye 
and enables them to bear more fruit owing to the 
increase in the number of branches. A horse whose 
Hanks are compact is not only better to look upon, 
but swifter in speed. The athlete whose muscles 
have been formed by exercise is a joy to the eye, but 
he is also better fitted for the contests in which he 
must engage. In fact true beauty and usefulness 11 
always go hand in hand. 

It does not, however, require any special ability to 
discern the truth of this. It is more important to 
note that such seemly ornament must be varied to 
suit the nature of the material to which it is applied. 
To begin with the primary classification of oratory, 
the same form of ornament will not suit demon- 
strative, deliberative and forensic speeches. For the 
oratory of display aims solely at delighting the 
audience, and therefore develops all the resources of 
eloquence and deploys all its ornament, since it seeks 
not to steal its way into the mind nor to wrest the 
victory from its opponent, but aims solely at honour 
and glory. Consequently the orator, like the hawker 12 
who displays his wares, will set forth before his 
audience for their inspection, nay, almost for their 
handling, all his most attractive reflexions, all the 
brilliance that language and the charm that figures 
can supply, together with all the magnificence of 
metaphor and the elaborate art of composition that 
is at his disposal. For his success concerns himself, 
and not his cause. But when it is a question of facts, 13 
and he is confronted by the hard realities of battle, 
his last thought will be for his personal glory. Nay, 
it is even unseemly to trouble overmuch about words 
when the greatest interests are at stake. I would 

217 



QUINTILIAN 

Neque hoc eo pertinet, ut in his nullus sit ornatus, 
sed uti pressior et severior et minus confessus, prae- 

14 cipue materiae accommodatus. Nam et in suadendo 
suhlimius aliquid senatus, concitatius populus, et in 
iudiciis publicae capitalesque causae poscunt accu- 
ratius dicendi genus. At privatum consilium causas- 
que paucorum, ut frequenter accidit, calculorum 
purus sermo et dissimilis curae magis decuerit. An 
non pudeat certam creditam periodis postulare aut 
circa stillicidia adfici aut in mancipii redhibitione 
sudare ? 

15 Sed ad propositum. Et quoniam orationis tarn 
ornatus quam perspicuitas aut in singulis verbis est 
aut in pluribus positus, quid separata, quid iuncta 
exigant, consideremus. Quanquam enim rectissime 
traditum est, perspicuitatem propriis, ornatum trans- 
latis verbis magis egere, sciamus nihil ornatum esse 

1G quod sit improprium. Sed cum idem frequentissime 
plura significent (quod awww/xia vocatur), iam sunt 
aliis alia honestiora, sublimiora, nitidiora, iucundiora, 
vocaliora. Nam ut syllabae e litteris melius sonan- 
tibus clariores sunt, ita verba e syllabis magis vocalia 
et, quo plus quodque spiritus habet, auditu pulchrius. 
218 



BOOK VIII. in. 13-16 

not assert that such themes afford no scope for 
ornament, hut such ornament as is employed must 
he of a more severe, restrained and less ohvious 
character ; ahove all, it must be adapted to the 
matter in hand. For whereas in deliberative oratory 14 
the senate demand a certain loftiness and the people 
a certain impetuosity of eloquence, the public cases 
of the courts and those involving capital punishment 
demand a more exact style. On the other hand, in 
private deliberations and lawsuits about trifling sums 
of money (and there are not a few of these) it is more 
appropriate to employ simple and apparently un- 
studied language. For we should be ashamed to 
demand the repayment of a loan in rolling periods, or 
to display poignant emotion in a case concerned with 
water-droppings, or to work ourselves into a per- 
spiration over the return of a slave to the vendor. 
But I am wandering from the point. 

Since rhetorical ornament, like clearness, may 15 
reside either in individual words or groups of words, 
we must consider the requirements of both cases. 
For although the canon, that clearness mainly 
requires propriety of language and ornament the 
skilful use of metaphor, is perfectly sound, it is 
desirable that we should realise that without pro- 
priety ornament is impossible. But as several words IG 
may often have the same meaning (they are called 
synonyms), some will be more distinguished, sub- 
lime, brilliant, attractive or euphonious than others. 
For as those syllables are the most pleasing to the 
ear which are composed of the more euphonious 
letters, thus words composed of such syllables will 
sound better than others, and the more vowel sounds 
they contain the more attractive they will be to hear. 

219 



QUINTILIAN 

Et quod facit syllabarum, idem verborum quoque 
inter se copulatio, ut aliud alii iunctum melius sonet. 

17 Diversus tamen usus. Nam rebus atrocibus verba 
etiam ipso auditu aspera magis convenient. In uni- 
versum quidem optima simplicium creduntur, quae 
aut maxime exclamant aut sono sunt iucundissima. 
Et honesta quidem turpibus potiora semper nee sor- 

18 didis unquam in oratione erudita locus. Clara ilia 
atque sublimia plerumque materiae modo discernenda 
sunt. Quod alibi magnificum, tumidum alibi, et 
quae humilia circa res magnas, apta circa minores 
videntur. Ut autem in oratione nitida notabile 
humilius verbum et velut macula, ita a sermone 
tenui sublime nitidumque discordat fitque corrup- 

19 turn, quia in piano tumet. Quaedam non tarn ratione 
quam sensu iudicantur, ut illud, 

Caesa iungebant foedera porca, 
fecit elegans fictio nominis, quod si fuisset porco, vile 
erat. In quibusdam ratio manifesta est. Kisimus, 
et merito nuper poetam, qui dixerat 

Praetextam in cista mures rosere camilli. 

1 Aen. viii. C41. 

1 Camillus originally means a " young boy." 

220 



BOOK VIII. m. 16-19 

The same principle governs the linking of word with 
word ; some arrangements will sound better than 
others. But words require to be used in different 17 
ways. For example, horrible things are best de- 
scribed bv words that are actually harsh to the 
ear. But as a general rule it may be laid down 
that the best words, considered individually, are 
those which are fullest or most agreeable in sound. 
Again, elegant words are always to be preferred 
to those which are coarse, and there is no room 
for low words in the speech of a cultivated man. 
The choice of striking or sublime words will be 18 
determined by the matter in hand ; for a word that 
in one context is magnificent may be turgid in 
another, and words which are all too mean to 
describe great things may be suitable enough when 
applied to subjects of less importance. And just as 
a mean word embedded in a brilliant passage 
attracts special attention, like a spot on a bright 
surface, so if our style be of a plain character, 
sublime and brilliant words will seem incongruous 
and tasteless excrescences on a flat surface. In 19 
some cases instinct, and not reason, must supply 
the touchstone, as, for example, in the line : 1 

"A sow was slain to ratify their pacts." 

Here the poet, by inventing the word porca, suc- 
ceeded in producing an elegant impression, whereas 
if he had used the masculine porcus, the very reverse 
would have been the case. In some cases, however, 
the incongruity is obvious enough. It was only the 
other day that we laughed with good reason at the 
poet who wrote : 

"The youngling mice had gnawed 
Within its chest the purple-bordered gown. 2 " 



QUINTILIAN 

20 At Vergilii miramur illud, 

Saepe exiguus mus. 

Nam epitheton l proprium effecit, ne plus exspecta- 
remus, et casus singularis magis decuit, et clausula 
ipsa unius syllabae non usitata addidit gratiam. 
Imitatus est itaque utrumque Horatius, 

Nascetur ridiculus mus. 

21 Nee augenda semper oratio sed summittenda non- 
nunquam est. Vim rebus aliquando verborum ipsa 
humilitas adfert. An, cum dicet in Pisonem Cicero, 
Cum tibi tola cognatio serraco advehatur, incidisse 
videtur in sordidum nomen, non eo contemptum 
hominis, quern destructum volebat, auxisse ? Et 

22 alibi, Caput opponis, cum eo coruscans. 2 Unde in- 
terim gratus fit iocis decor, 3 qualis est ille apud M. 
Tullium Pusio, qui cum maiore sorore cubitabat, et, 
Flavius, qui cornicum oculos confixit, et pro Milone illud 
Hetis tu Rti/io, et Erucius Antoniaster. Id tamen in 
declamatoribus est notabilius laudarique me puero 
solebat, Da patri panem ; et in eodem, Etiam canem 

23 pascis. Res quidem praecipue in scholis anceps et 

1 Epitheton is followed by the words exiguus aptum, which 
are bracketed as a gloss by Christ. 

2 coruscans, IV. Freund: conificans, MSS. 

3 gratus fit iocis decor, Christ : grati idiotis de quo, AG. 

1 Georg. i. 181. 2 A. P. 139. 

8 Fr. 10. 4 pro L'ael. xv. 36. 

5 pro Mur. xi. 25. Our equivalent is "catch a weasel 
asleep." 

6 pro Mil. xxii. 60. Rufio, a slave name = red head. 

7 From the lost pro Vareno. "Erucius, Antonius' ape." 

8 A declamation turning on the law that sons must support 
their parents. 

222 



BOOK VIII. hi. 20-23 

On the other hand, we admire Virgil 1 when he 20 
says : 

" Oft hath the tiny mouse," etc. 

For here the epithet is appropriate and prevents 
our expecting too much, while the use of the singular 
instead of the plural, and the unusual monosyllabic 
conclusion of the line, both add to the pleasing effect. 
Horace 2 accordingly imitated Virgil in both these 
points, when he wrote, 

"The fruit shall be a paltry mouse." 

Again, our style need not always dwell on the 21 
heights : at times it is desirable that it should sink. 
For there are occasions when the very meanness of 
the words employed adds force to what we say. 
When Cicero, in his denunciation of Piso, 3 says, 
" When your whole family rolls up in a dray," do 
you think that his use of the word dray was accidental, 
and was not designedly used to increase his audience's 
contempt for the man he wished to bring to ruin : 
The same is true when he says elsewhere, " You put 
down your head and butt him." This device may also 22 
serve to carry off a jest, as in the passage of Cicero 
where he talks of the " little sprat of a boy who slept 
with his elder sister," * or where he speaks of" Flavius, 
who put out the eyes of crows," 5 or, again, in the 
pro Milone, 6 cries, " Hi, there ! Rufio ! " and talks of 
"Erucius Antoniaster." 7 On the other hand, this 
practice becomes more obtrusive when employed in 
the schools, like the phrase that was so much 
praised in my boyhood, U Give your father bread," or 
in the same declamation, " You feed even your dog." 8 
But such tricks do not always come off, especially in 23 

223 



QUINTILIAN 

frequenter causa risus, nunc utique, cum haec exerci- 
tatio procul a veritate seiuncta laboret incredibili 
verborum fastidio ac sibi magnam partem sermonis 
absciderit. 

24 Cum sint autem verba propria, ficta, translata, pro- 
priis dignitatem dat antiquitas. Namque et sancti- 
orem et magis admirabilem faciunt orationem, quibus 
non quilibet fuerit usurus, eoque ornamento acerrimi 

25 iudicii P. Vergilius unice est usus. Olli enim et 
quianam et moerus J et pone et pellacia 2 aspergunt 
illam, quae etiam in picturis est gratissima, vetustatis 
inimitabilem arti auctoritatem. Sed utendum modo, 
nee ex ultimis tenebris repetenda. Satis est vetus 
quaeso ; quid necesse est quaiso 3 dicere ? oppido 
quidem 4 usi sunt paulum tempore nostro superiores, 
vereor, ut iam nos ferat quisquam ; certe anlegerio, 
cuius eadem significatio est, nemo nisi ambitiosus 

25 utetur. Acrumnosum b quid opus est? tanquam 
parum sit, si dicatur quid horridum. Reor tolerabile, 
aulumo tragicum, prolem dicere inusitatum est, 6 pro- 
sapiam insulsum. Quid multa ? totus prope mutatus 

27 est sermo. Quaedam tamen adhuc vetera vetustate 

1 moerus, 0. Bibbeck: mus, AG. 

2 pellacia, Bibbeck : pollicerent or policent, MSS. 

3 quaiso, Gerlz: quam, MSS. 

* quidem, Halm : quam, MSS. 

8 aerumnosum, Zumpt: erumnas, AG. 

* dicere inusitatum est, Halm : dicendi versum ei, AG. 

1 Archaic for Mi. * Because. 

8 Archaic for murus (Aen. x. 24.). * Behind. 
8 Deceitfulness (Aen. ii. 90). 
6 quaeso = pray, oppido = quite, exactly. 

224 



BOOK VIII. hi. 23-27 

the schools, and often turn the laugh against the 
speaker, particularly in the present day, when de- 
clamation has become so far removed from reality 
and labours under such an extravagant fastidiousness 
in the choice of words that it has excluded a good 
half of the language from its vocabulary. 

Words are proper, newly-coined or metaphorical. In 24 
the case of proper words there is a special dignity 
conferred by antiquity, since old words, which not 
everyone would think of using, give our style a 
venerable and majestic air : this is a form of ornament 
of which Virgil, with his perfect taste, has made 
unique use. For his employment of words such as 25 
olli, 1 qaianam, 2 moerns, 3 pone* and pellacia b gives his 
work that impressive air of antiquity which is so 
attractive in pictures, but which no art of man can 
counterfeit. But we must not overdo it, and such 
words must not be dragged out from the deepest 
darkness of the past. Quaeso is old enough : what 
need for us to say quaiso ? 6 Oppido was still used by 
my older contemporaries, but I fear that no one 
would tolerate it now. At any rate, anlegerio, 7 which 
means the same, would certainly never be used by 
anyone who was not possessed with a passion for 
notoriety. What need have we of aeruninosum ? 8 It 26 
is surely enough to call a thing korridum. Reor mav 
be tolerated, autumo 9 smacks of tragedy, proles 10 has 
become a rarity, while prosapia u stamps the man 
who uses it as lacking taste. Need I say more ? 
Almost the whole language has changed. But there 27 
are still some old words that are endeared to us by 



7 Quite, very. 8 Wretched. • Assert. 

10 Offspring. n Stock, family. 



225 

I 



QUINTILIAN 

ipsa gratius nitent, quaedam et necessario interim 
sumuntur, ut nuncupare et fari; multa alia etiam 
audentius inseri possunt sed ita demum, si non 
appareat adfectatio, in quam mirifice Vergilius : 

28 Corinthiorum amalor iste verboruvi, 
Thuci/dides Britannus, Atticae febris, 

Tau Gallicum, al, min, et sil ut male elisit ; 1 
Ita omnia ista verba miscuit fratri. 

29 Cimber hie fuit, a quo fratrem necatum hoc Cieeronis 
dicto notatum est, Germanum Cimber occidit. Nee 
minus noto Sallustius epigrammate incessitur: 

Et verba antiqui mult um f urate Catonis, 
Crispe, Iugurlkinae conditor historiae. 

30 Odiosa cura ; nam et cuilibet facilis et hoc pessima, 
quod eius 2 studiosus non verba rebus aptabit, sed res 
extrinsecus arcesset, quibus haec verba conveniant. 

Fingere, ut primo libro dixi, Graecis magis conces- 
sum est, qui sonis etiam quibusdam et adfectibus non 
dubitaverunt nomina aptare, non alia libertate quam 
qua illi primi homines rebus appellationes dederunt. 

31 Nostri autem in iungendo aut in derivando paulum 

1 al min et sil ut male elisit, Schenlcl following Wagner : 
enim et spinet male illisit and the like, MSti. See Ausonius, 
Idyll xii. Grammaticomast 5. For sil Biicheler would read 
sphin. 

* eius, Gesner : rei, AG. 

1 Name, speak. 2 Galal. ii. 

8 Phil. XI. vi. 14. A pun on the two meanings of germanus, 
brother and German. * i. v. 70. 

226 



BOOK VIII. in. 27-31 

their antique sheen, while there are others that we 
cannot avoid using occasionally, such, for example, as 
nuncupare and fart 1 : there are yet others which it 
requires some daring to use, but which may still be 
employed so long as we avoid all appearance of that 
affectation which Virgil 2 has derided so cleverly : 

" Britain's Thucydides, whose mad Attic brain 28 

Loved word-amalgams like Corinthian bronze, 
First made a horrid blend of words from Gaul, 
Tau, al, min, sil and God knows how much else, 
Then mixed them in a potion for his brother ! " 

This was a certain Cimber who killed his brother, 29 
a fact which Cicero recorded in the words, a Cimber 
has killed his brother German." 3 

The epigram against Sallust is scarcely less well 
known : 

" Crispus, you, too, Jugurtha's fall who told, 
And filched such store of words from Cato old." 

It is a tiresome kind of affectation ; any one can 30 
practise it, and it is made all the worse by the fact 
that the man who catches the infection will not 
choose his words to suit his facts, but will drag in 
irrelevant facts to provide an opportunity for the use 
of such words. 

The coining of new words is, as I stated in the 
first book, 4 more permissible in Greek, for the 
Greeks did not hesitate to coin nouns to represent 
certain sounds and emotions, and in truth they were 
taking no greater liberty than was taken by the 
first men when they gave names to things. Our 31 
own writers have ventured on a few attempts at 
composition and derivation, but have not met with 

227 



QU1NTILIAN 

aliquid ausi vix in hoc satis recipiimtur. Nam me- 
mini iuvenis admodum inter Pomponium ac Senecam 
etiam praefationibus esse tractatum, an gradus elimi- 
nat in tragoedia dici oportuisset. At veteres ne 
expectorat quidem timuerunt ; et sane eiusdem notae 

32 est exanimat. In tractu et declinatione talia sunt, 
qualia apud Ciceronem bcatitas et beatitudo ; quae 
dura quidem sentit esse, verumtamen usu putat 
posse molliri. Nee a verbis modo, sed a nominibus 
quoque derivata sunt quaedam, ut a Cicerone Sulla- 

33 turil ab Asinio Fimbriatum et Figulalum. Multa ex 
Graeco formata nova ac plurima a Verginio 1 Flavo, 
quorum dura quaedam admodum videntur, ut queens 2 
et essentia; quae cur tantopere aspernemur nihil 
video, nisi quod iniqui iudices adversus nos sumus 
ideoque paupertate sermonis laboramus. Quaedam 

34 tamen perdurant. Nam et quae Vetera nunc sunt, 
fuerunt olim nova, et quaedam sunt in usu perquam 
recentia, ut Messala primus reatum, munerarium 
Augustus primus dixerunt. Piralicam quoque ut 
musicam et fabricam dici adhuc vetabant 3 mei prae- 
ceptores. Favorem et urbanum Cicero nova credit. 
Nam et in epistola ad Brutum Bum, inquit, amorem 
et eum, ut hoc verbo ular, favorem in consilium advo- 

1 Verginio, Spalding : Sergio, MSS. 

* queens, Balm : quae ens, MSS. 

3 vetabant, Halm : dubitabant, MSS. om. by A. 



1 Sc. "moves his steps beyond the threshold." 

2 " banishes from his heart." 3 Be Nat. B. I. xxxiv. 95. 

* ad AU. ix. x. 6. " Desires to be a second Sulla." 

6 Metamorphosed into Figulus. Presumably refers to 
Clusinius Figulus, see vii. ii. 26. 

• See ii. xiv. 2. 

228 



BOOK VIII. m. 31-34 

much success. I remember in my young days there 
was a dispute between Pomponius and Seneca which 
even found its way into the prefaces of their works, 
as to whether gracilis eliminal l was a phrase which 
ought to have been allowed in tragedy. But the 
ancients had no hesitation about using even expcctorat , 2 
and, after all, it presents exactly the same formation 
as exanimat. Of the coining of words by expansion 32 
and inflexion we have examples, such as the Cicero- 
nian 3 beatitas and beatitudo, forms which he feels to 
be somewhat harsh, though he thinks they may be 
softened by use. Derivatives may even be fashioned 
from proper names, quite apart from ordinary words, 
witness Sullaturit * in Cicero and Fiinbriatus and Figu- 
latus 5 in Asinius. Many new words have been 33 
coined in imitation of the Greeks, 6 more especially 
by Verginius Flavus, some of which, such as queens and 
essentia, are regarded as unduly harsh. But I see no 
reason why we should treat them with such contempt, 
except, perhaps, that we are highly self-critical and 
suffer in consequence from the poverty of our 
language. Some new formations do, however, succeed 
in establishing themselves. For words which now 34 
are old, once were new, and there are some words in 
use which are of quite recent origin, such as reatus, 1 
invented by Messala, and munerarius* invented by 
Augustus. So, too, my own teachers still persisted 
in banning the use of words, such as piratic a, musica 
and fabrica, while Cicero regards favor and urbanus 
as but newly introduced into the language. For in 
a letter to Brutus he says, eum amorer et cum, ut hoc 



The condition of an accused person. 
The giver of a gladiatorial show. 



22g 



QUINTILIAN 

35 cabo. Et ad Appium Pulchrum, Te, hominevi non 
solum sapientem verum eliam, ut mine loquimur, vrbanum. 
Idem putat a Terentio primum dictum esse obse- 
quium, Caecilius a Sisenna albente caelo. Cervicem 
videtur Hortensius primus dixisse, nam veteres 
pluraliter appellabant. Audendum itaque ; neque 
enim accedo Celso, qui ab oratore verba fingi vetat. 

36 Nam, cum sint eorum alia (ut dicit Cicero) nativa, id 
est, quae significata sunt primo sensu, alia reperta, 
quae ex his facta sunt, ut iam nobis ponere alia, 
quam quae illi rudes homines primique fecerunt, fas 
non sit, at derivare, flectere, coniungere, quod natis 

37 postea concessum est, quando desiit licere ? Sed, si 
quid periculosius finxisse videbimur, quibusdam re- 
mediis praemuniendum est : Ut ita dicam, Si licet 
dicere, Quodam modo, Permittite mihi sic uti. Quod 
idem etiam in iis, quae licentius translata erunt, 
proderit, nihilque non tuto dici potest, in quo non 
falli iudicium nostrum sollicitudine ipsa manifestum 
erit. Qua de re Graecum illud elegantissimum est, 
quo praecipitur irpoeirnT\r)<T<Ttiv rfj virepfioXr}. 

38 Translata probari nisi in contextu sermonis non 



1 This letter is lost : " I will -call that love and that favour, 
if I may use the word, to be my counsellors. " 

2 ad Fain. in. viii. 3. " You who are not merely wise, 
but, as we say nowadays, urbane." 

3 " When the sky grew white (at dawn)." 

4 Part Or. v. 16. 

s Ar. Rhet. in. vii. 9. 

230 



BOOK VIII. in. 34-38 

verbo utar, favorcm in consilium advocaho, 1 while to 35 
Appius Pulcher he writes, te hominem non solum sapi- 
entem, verum etiam, ut nunc loquimur, urbanum.* He 
also thinks that Terence was the first to use the 
word obsequium, while Caecilius asserts that Sisenna 
was the first to use the phrase albente caelo. 3 Hor- 
tensius seems to have been the first to use cervix in 
the singular, since the ancients confined themselves 
to the plural. We must not then be cowards, for I 
cannot agree with Celsus when he forbids orators to 
coin new words. For some words, as Cicero 4 says, 36 
are native, that is to say, are used in their original 
meaning, while others are derivative, that is to say, 
formed from the native. Granted then that we 
are not justified in coining entirely new words 
having no resemblance to the words invented by 
primitive man, I must still ask at what date we were 
first forbidden to form derivatives and to modify 
and compound words, processes which were un- 
doubtedly permitted to later generations of mankind. 
If, however, one of our inventions seems a little 37 
risky, we must take certain measures in advance to 
save it from censure, prefacing it by phrases such as 
"so to speak," "if I may say so," "in a certain 
sense," or "if you will allow me to make use of such 
a word." The same practice may be followed in the 
case of bold metaphors, and it is not too much to 
say that almost anything can be said with safety 
provided we show by the very fact of our anxiety 
that the word or phrase in question is not due to an 
error of judgment. The Greeks have a neat saying 
on this subject, advising us to be the first to blame 
our own hyperbole. 6 

The metaphorical use of words cannot be recom- 38 



QUINT1L1AN 

possunt. Itaque de singulis verbis satis dictum, 
quae, ut alio loco ostendi, per se nullam virtutem 
habent. Sed ne inornata sunt quidem, nisi cum sunt 
infra rei, de qua loquendum est, dignitatem, excepto 

39 si obscena nudis nominibus enuntientur. Quod 
viderint, qui non putant esse vitanda, quia nee sit 
vox ulla natura turpis et, si qua est rei deformitas, 
alia quoque appellatione quacunque ad intellectum 
eundem nihilominus perveniat. Ego Romani pudoris 
more contentus, ut iam respondi talibus, verecundiam 
silentio vindicabo. 

40 Iam hinc igitur ad rationem sermonis coniuncti 
transeamus. Cuius ornatus in haec duo prima divi- 
ditur, quam concipiamus elocutionem, quo modo 
efferamus. Nam primum est, ut liqueat, augere quid 
velimus an minuere, concitate dicere an moderate, 
laete an severe, abundanter an presse, aspere an 
leniter, magnifice an subtiliter, graviter an urbane. 

41 Turn, quo translationum 1 genere, quibus figuris, quali- 
bus sententiis, quo modo, qua postremo collocatione id, 
quod intendimus, efficere possimus. 

Ceterum dicturus, quibus ornetur oratio, prius ea, 
quae sunt huic contraria laudi, attingam ; nam prima 

42 virtus est vitio carere. Igitur ante omnia ne spere- 
mus ornatam orationem fore, quae probabilis non erit. 

1 translationum, II aim : translationem, A : translatione, G. 

1 I. v. 3. 
232 



BOOK VIII. hi. 38-42 

mended except in connected discourse. Enough has 
now been said on the subject of single words, which, 
as I have pointed out elsewhere, 1 have no intrinsic 
value of their own. On the other hand, there is no 
word which is intrinsically ugly unless it be beneath 
the dignity of the subject on which we have to 
speak, excepting always such words as are nakedly 
obscene. I would commend this remark to those 39 
who do not think it necessary to avoid obscenity on 
the ground that no word is indecent in itself and 
that, if a thing is revolting, its unpleasantness will 
be realised clearly enough by whatever name it is 
called. Accordingly, I shall content myself with 
following the good old rules of Roman modesty and, 
as I have already replied to such persons, shall 
vindicate the cause of decency by saying no more on 
this unpleasant subject. 

Let us now pass to consider connected discourse. 40 
Its adornment may be effected, primarily, in two 
ways ; that is to say, we must consider first our ideal 
of style, and secondly how we shall express this ideal 
in actual words. The first essential is to realise 
clearly what we wish to enhance or attenuate, to 
express with vigour or calm, in luxuriant or austere 
language, at length or with conciseness, with gentle- 
ness or asperity, magnificence or subtlety, gravity or 
wit. The next essential is to decide by what kind of 41 
metaphor, figures, reflexions, methods and arrange- 
ment we may best produce the effect which we 
desire. 

But, before I discuss ornament, I must first touch 
upon its opposite, since the first of all virtues is the 
avoidance of faults. Therefore we must not expect 42 
any speech to be ornate that is not, in the first place, 

233 



QUINTILIAN 

Probabile autem Cicero id genus dicit, quod non 
nimis est comptum. 1 Non quia corai expolirique 
non debeat (nam et haec ornatus pars est) sed quia 

43 vitium est ubique quod nimium est. Itaque vult 
esse auctoritatem in verbis, sententias vel graves vel 
aptas opinionibus hominum ac moribus. His enim 
salvis, licet assumere ea quibus illustrem fieri oratio- 
nem putat, delecta, translata, superlata, ad nomen 
adiuncta, duplicata et idem significantia atque ab 
ipsa actione atque ab imitation e rerum non 
abhorrentia. 

44 Sed quoniam vitia prius demonstrare aggressi 
sumus, ab hoc initium 2 sit, quod KaK(fx<^a.rov vocatur, 
sive mala consuetudine in obscenum intellectum 
sermo detortus est (ut duclare exercitus et patrare 
bella, apud Sallustium dicta sancte et antique riden- 
tibus, si dis placet ; quam culpam non scribentium 

45 quidem iudico sed legentium, tamen vitandam, qua- 
tenus verba honesta moribus perdidimus, et vincenti- 
bus iam 3 vitiis cedendum est) sive iunctura deformi- 
ter sonat, ut, si cam hominibus notis loqui nos dicimus, 
nisi hoc ipsum hominibus medium sit, in praefanda 

1 nimis est comptum, Cicero : nimis est dictum, AG. : 
plus minusve quam dicet (decet, edd.), codd. dctt. 

8 ab hoc initium, Balm: vel hoc initium, AG. : vel hoc 
vitium vulgo. 

3 iam, Spalding : etiam, AG. 

1 Part. Or., vi. 19. 

* ductare might mean ad libidinem abducere. patrare helium 
might mean paedicare formosum. 

234 



BOOK VIII. hi. 42-45 

acceptable. An acceptable style is defined by 
Cicero * as one which is not over-elegant : not that 
our style docs not require elegance and polish, 
which are essential parts of ornament, but that excess 
is always a vice. He desires, therefore, that our 43 
words should have a certain weight about them, and 
that our thoughts should be of a serious cast or, at 
anv rate, adapted to the opinions and character of 
mankind. These points once secured, we may 
proceed to employ those expressions which he 
regards as conferring distinction on style, that is to 
say, specially selected words and phrases, metaphor, 
hyperbole, appropriate epithets, repetitions, syno- 
nyms and all such language as may suit our case and 
provide an adequate representation of the facts. 

But since my first task is to point out the faults to 44 
be avoided, I will begin by calling attention to the 
fault known as KaAcc/i^arov, a term applied to the 
employment of language to which perverted usage 
has given an obscene meaning : take, for example, 
phrases such as ductare exercitus and patrare bellurn, 2 
which were employed by Sallust in their old and 
irreproachable sense, but, 1 regret to say, cause 
amusement in certain quarters to-day. This, how- 
ever, is not, in my opinion, the fault of the writer, but 
of his readers ; still it is one to be avoided, for we 45 
have perverted the purity of language by our own 
corruption, and there is no course left to us but to 
give ground before the v ictorious advance of . vi ce. 
The same term is also applied in the cases where an 
unfortunate collocation of words produces an obscene 
suggestion. For example, in the phrase cum homini- 
bus nods loqui, unless hominibus is placed between cum 
and notis, we shall commit ourselves to a phrase 

235 



QUINTILIAN 

videmur incidere, quia ultima prioris syllabae littera, 
quae exprimi nisi labris coeuntibus non potest, aut 
intersistere nos indecentissime cogit aut continuata 

46 cum insequente in naturam eius corrumpitur. Ali- 
aeque coniunctiones aliquid simile faciunt, quas 
persequi libenter est in eo vitio, quod vitandum 
dicimus, commorantis. Sed divisio quoque adfert 
eandem iniuriam pudori, ut si intercapedinis nomina- 

47 tivo casu quis utatur. Nee scripto modo id accidit, 
sed etiam sensu plerique obscene intelligere, nisi 
caveris, cupiunt (ut apud Ovidium Quacqi/e 1 latent 
meliora putat) et ex verbis, quae longissime ab ob- 
scenitate absunt, occasionem turpitudinis rapere. 
Siquidem Celsus Ka.K€/jL(f>iTov apud Vergilium putat: 

Incipiunt agitata tumescere. 
Quod si recipias, nihil loqui tutum est. 

48 Deformitati proximum est humilitatis vitium, 
Tonreivwo-w vocant, qua rei magnitudo vel dignitas 
minuitur : ut Saxea est verruca in summo montis vertice. 
Cui natura contrarium, sed errore par est, parvis dare 

si qua, MSS. of Ovid. 



1 i.e. pronouncing cunnotis. 

1 intercapedo, of which the last two syllables might give 
rise to unseemly laughter ; pedo = " break wind." 
3 Met. i. 502. 4 Georg. i. 357. 

6 From an unknown tragedian. 

236 



BOOK VIII. in. 45-48 

which will require some apology, since the final letter 
of the first syllable, which cannot be pronounced 
without closing the lips, will force us either to pause 
in a most unbecoming manner, or by assimilation to 
the 11 which follows 1 will produce a most objection- 
able suggestion. I might quote other collocations 46 
of words which are liable to the same objection, but 
to discuss them in detail would be to fall into that 
very fault which I have just said should be avoided. 
A similar offence against modesty may be caused by 
the division of words, as, for example, by the use of 
the nominative of intercapedinis. 2 And it is not 47 
merely in writing that this may occur, but you will 
find, unless you exercise the greatest care, that there 
are a number of persons who take pleasure in putting 
an indecent interpretation on words, thinking, as 
Ovid 3 says : 

"that whatsoe'er is hid is best of all." 

Nay, an obscene meaning may be extracted even 
from words which are as far removed from indecency 
as possible. Celsus, for example, detects an instance 
of Ka.KefjL<f>a.Tov in the Virgilian 4 phrase : 

incipiunt agitata tumescere ; 

but if this point of view be accepted, it will be risky 
to say anything at all. 

Next to indecency of expression comes meanness, 48 
styled Ta7T€«coo-is, when the grandeur or dignity of 
anything is diminished by the words used, as in the 
line : 

" There is a rocky wart upon the mountain's brow." 5 

The opposite fault, which is no less serious, consists 

237 



QUINTILIAN 

excedentia modum nomina, nisi cum ex industria 
risus inde captatur. Itaque nee parricidain nequam 
dixeris hominem nee deditum forte meretrici ne- 
farium; quia alterum parum, alterum nimium est. 

49 Proinde quaedam hebes, sordida, ieiuna, tristis, in- 
grata, vilis oratio est ; quae vitia facillime fient 
manifesta contrariis virtutibus. Nam primum acute-, 
secundum nitido, tertium copioso, deinceps hilari, 
iucundo, accurato diversum est. 

50 Vitari debet l et /AtiWis, cum sermoni deest aliquid, 
quo minus plenus sit ; quanquam id obscurae potius 
quam inornatae orationis est vitium. Sed hoc quoque, 
cum a prudentibus fit, schema dici solet, sicut 
TcurroAoyta, id est eiusdem verbi aut sermonis iteratio. 

51 Haec enim, quanquam non magnopere a summis 
auctoribus vitata, interim vitium videri potest, in 
quod saepe incidit etiam Cicero securus tarn parvae 
observationis, sicut hoc loco, Non solum igitur Mud 
iudicium iudicii simile, iudices, non fuit. Interim 
mutato nomine c7ravaA.?7t/us dicitur, atque est et ipsum 
inter schemata; quorum exempla illo loco quaerenda, 
quo virtutes erunt. 

62 Peior hac 6/xoet'Scta, quae nulla varietatis gratia 
levat taedium atque est tota coloris unius, qua 
maxime deprehenditur carens arte oratio ; eaque 
et in sententiis et in figuris et in compositione longe 

1 debet, added bij Halm. 



1 Pro Cluent. xxxv. 96. To bring out the effect criticised 
by Cicero, iudicium must be translated "judgment." But 
"trial" is required to give the correct sense. iiravaX-q^is 
= repetition. 

8 IX. ii. 

238 



BOOK VIII. hi. 48-52 

in calling small things by extravagant names, though 
such a practice is permissible when deliberately 
designed to raise a laugh. Consequently we must 
not call a parricide a scamp, nor a man who keeps a 
harlot a villain, since the first epithet is too weak 
and the second too strong. This fault will result in 49 
making our language dull, or coarse, jejune, heavy, 
unpleasing or slovenly, all of which faults are best 
realised by reference to the virtues which are their 
opposites, that is, point, polish, richness, liveliness, 
charm, and finish. 

We must also avoid /xctwcrt?, a term applied to 50 
meagreness and inadequacy of expression, although 
it is a fault which characterises an obscure style rather 
than one which lacks ornament. But meiosis may be 
deliberately employed, and is then called a figure, 
as also is tautology, which means the repetition of a 
word or phrase. The latter, though not avoided 51 
with special care even by the best authors, may 
sometimes be regarded as a fault : it is, in fact, a 
blemish into which Cicero not infrequently falls 
through indifference to such minor details : take, for 
example, the following passage, 1 "Judges, this 
judgment was not merely unlike a judgment." 
It is sometimes given another name, kiraid\r]ij/is, under 
which appellation it is ranked among figures, of 
which I shall give examples when I come to the 
discussion of stylistic virtues. 2 

A worse fault is 6/iotiScta, or sameness, a term 52 
applied to a style which has no variety to relieve 
its tedium, and which presents a uniform monotony 
of hue. This is one of the surest signs of lack of art, 
and produces a uniquely unpleasing effect, not merely 
on the mind, but on the ear, on account of its sarne- 

239 



QUINTILIAN 

non animis solum sed etiam auribus est ingratissima. 

53 Vitanda etiam 1 /xaKpokoyia, id est longior quam oportet 
sermo : ut apud T. Livium, Legati non impetrata pace 
retro domum, wide venerant, abiernnt. Sed huic vicina 
periphrasis virtus habetur. Est et TrXeovaa-/j.6<; vitium, 
cum supervacuis verbis oratio oneratur : Ego oculis 

54 meis vidi ; sat est eiiim vidi. Emendavit hoc etiam 
urbane in Hirtio Cicero, cui sapasim 2 cum decla- 
mans /ilium a malre decern mensibus in utero latum esse 
dixisset, Quid ? aliae, in quit, in perula 3 solent ferre ? 
Nonnunquam tamen illud genus, cuius exemplum 
priore loco posui, adfirmationis gratia adhibetur : 

Vocemque his auribus hausi. 

55 At vitium erit, quotiens otiosum fuerit et supererit, 
non cum adiicietur. Est etiam, quae Trepiepyia voca- 
tur, supervacua, ut sic dixerim, operositas, ut a 
diligenti curiosus et a religione superstitio distat. 
Atque, ut semel finiam, verbum omne, quod neque 
intellectum adiuvat neque ornatum, vitiosum dici 
potest. 

56 KaKo'^Xov, id est mala adfectatio, per omne dicendi 
genus peccat. Nam et tumida et pusilla et praedulcia 
et abundantia et arcessita et exultantia sub idem 

1 etiam added by Christ. 

2 cui sapasim cum, A : cusapastium, G, while equally 
"meaningless readings are given by later MSS. R. Unger 
suggested cum is Pasiphaam, Volkmann cum is apud ipsum. 

3 perula, I'asserat: penula, MSS. 

1 Fr. 62, Hertz. 

2 perula means "a small wallet." But it is noteworthy 
that in Apul. Met. V. xiv. it is used = uterus, and the double- 
entendre was probably current in Cicero's time. 

• Ae-n.. iv. 359. 

240 



BOOK VIII. in. 52-56 

ness of thought, the uniformity of its figu-es, and 
the monotony of its structure. We must also avoid 53 
macrology, that is, the employment of more words 
than are necessary, as, for instance, in the sentence 
of Livy, " The ambassadors, having failed to obtain 
peace, went back home, whence they had come." x 
On the other hand, periphrasis, which is akin to this 
blemish, is regarded as a virtue. Another fault is 
pleonasm, when we overload our style with a super- 
fluity of words, as in the phrase, " I saw it with 
my eyes," where "I saw it" would have been 
sufficient. Cicero passed a witty comment on a 54 
fault of this kind in a declamation of Hirtius when 
he said that a child had been carried for ten months 
in his mother's womb. "Oh," he said, "I suppose 
other women carry them in their bags." 2 Some- 
times, however, the form of pleonasm, of which I 
have just given an example, may have a pleasing 
effect when employed for the sake of emphasis, as 
in the Virgilian phrase 3 : 

" With mine own ears his voice I heard." 

But whenever the addition is not deliberate, but 55 
merely tame and redundant, it must be regarded as 
a fault. There is also a fault entitled Trepupyta. which 
I may perhaps translate by superfluous elaboration, 
which differs from its corresponding virtue much as 
fussiness differs from industry, and superstition from 
religion. Finally, every word which neither helps 
the sense nor the style may be regarded as faulty. 

Cacozelia, or perverse affectation, is a fault in every 56 
kind of style : for it includes all that is turgid, 
trivial, luscious, redundant, far-fetched or extrava- 
gant, while the same name is also applied to virtues 

241 



QUINTILIAN 

nomen cadunt. Denique KaKofyXov vocatur, quid- 
quid est ultra virtutem, quotiens ingenium iudicio 
caret et specie boni fallitur, omnium in eloquentia 
vitiorum pessimum. Nam cetera parum vitantur, 

57 hoc petitur. Est autem totuin in elocutione. Nam 
rerum vitia sunt stultum, commune, contrarium, 
supervacuum ; corrupta oratio in verbis maxime im- 
propriis, redundantibus, comprehensione obscura 
compositione fracta, vocum similium aut ambigua- 

58 rum puerili captatione consistit. Est autem omne 
KaKotrjXov utique falsum, etiamsi non omne falsum 
KdKotyXov' est enim quod l dicitur aliter, quam se 
natura habet et quam oportet et quam sat est. 
Totidem autem generibus corrumpitur oratio quot 
ornatur. Sed de hac parte et in alio nobis opere 
plenius dictum est et in hoc saepe tractatur et 
adhuc spargetur omnibus locis. Loquentes enim de 
ornatu subinde, quae sint vitanda similia virtutibus 
vitia, dicemus. 

59 Sunt inornata et haec : quod male dispositum est, id 
avoLKovofxrjTov, quod male figuratum, id do-x^a-rio-rov, 
quod male collocatum, id KaKocrvvOerov vocant. Sed 
de dispositione diximus; de figuris et compositione 
dicemus. SapSicrftos quoque appellatur quaedam mixta 
ex varia ratione linguarum oratio, ut si Atticis 
Dorica, Ionica, Aeolica etiam dicta confundas. 

1 I have added est enim quod as the simplest way of filling up 
an obvious gap. Victor gives cacozelon vero est quod dicitur. 

1 The lost De causis corruptae eloquent iae. 
242 



BOOK VIII. m. 56-59 

carried to excess, when the mind loses its critical 
sense and is misled by the false appearance of 
beauty, the worst of all offences against style, since 
other faults are due to carelessness, but this is 
deliberate. This form of affectation, however, affects 57 
style alone. For the employment of arguments which 
might equally well be advanced by the other side, 
or are foolish, inconsistent or superfluous, are all 
faults of matter, whereas corruption of style is 
revealed in the employment of improper or redundant 
words, in obscurity of meaning, effeminacy of rhythm, 
or in the childish search for similar or ambiguous 
expressions. Further, it always involves insincerity, 58 
even though all insincerity does not imply affectation. 
For it consists in saying something in an unnatural 
or unbecoming or superfluous manner. Style may, 
however, be corrupted in precisely the same number 
of ways that it may be adorned. But I have dis- 
cussed this subject at greater length in another 
work, 1 and have frequently called attention to it in 
this, while I shall have occasion to mention it con- 
tinually in the remaining books. For in dealing with 
ornament, I shall occasionally speak of faults which 
have to be avoided, but which are hard to distinguish 
from virtues. 

To these blemishes may be added faulty arrange- 59 
ment or avoLKovofjuqrov, the faulty use of figures or 
dcr^7]fia.TicrTov } and the faulty collocation of words 
or K.a.Ko<Tvv6(.Tov. But, as I have already discussed 
arrangement, I will confine myself to the considera- 
tion of figures and structure. There is also a fault 
known as SapSicr/xo?, which consists in the indis- 
criminate use of several different dialects, as, for 
instance, would result from mixing Doric, Ionic, and 

243 



QUINTILIAN 

60 Cui simile vitium est apud nos, si quis sublimia 
humilibus, Vetera novis, poetica vulgaribus misceat. 
Id enim tale monstrum, quale Horatius in prima 
parte libri de arte poetica fingit : 

Humano capiti cervicem pictor equinam 
lungere si velit, 

et cetera ex diversis naturis subiiciat. 

61 Ornatum est, quod perspicuo ac probabili plus est. 
Eius primi sunt gradus in eo quod velis concipiendo 
et 1 exprimendo, tertius, qui haec nitidiora faciat, 
quod proprie dixeris cultum. Itaque evapyeiav, cuius 
in praeceptis narrationis feci mentionem, quia plus 
est evidentia vel, ut alii dicunt, repraesentatio quam 
perspicuitas, et illud patet, hoc se quodammodo 

62 ostendit, inter ornamenta ponamus. Magna virtus 
est res de quibus loquimur clare atque, ut cerni 
videantur, enuntiare. Non enim satis efficit neque, 
ut debet, plene dominatur oratio, si usque ad aures 
valet atque ea sibi iudex, de quibus cognoscit, 
narrari credit, non exprimi et oculis mentis ostendi. 

63 Sed quoniam pluribus modis accipi solet non 
equidem in omnes earn particulas secabo, 2 quarum 

1 The plural primi gradus followed by tertius demands the 
addition of some other verb beside exprimendo. I have added 
concipiendo et. 

2 secabo, Regius : locabo, AG. 

1 A. P. 1. » iv. ii. 63. 

244 



BOOK VIII. in. 60-63 

even Aeolic words with Attic. A similar fault is 60 
found amongst ourselves, consisting in the indis- 
criminate mixture of grand words with mean, old 
with new, and poetic with colloquial, the result 
being a monstrous medley like that described by 
Horace in the opening portion of his Ars poetica, 1 

" If a painter choose 
To place a man's head on a horse's neck," 

and, he proceeds to say, should add other limbs from 
different animals. 

The ornate is something that goes beyond what 61 
is merely lucid and acceptable. It consists firstly 
in forming a clear conception of what we wish to 
say, secondly in giving this adequate expression, 
and thirdly in lending it additional brilliance, a 
process which may correctly be termed embellish- 
ment. Consequently we must place among ornaments 
that ivdpyeia which I mentioned in the rules which 
I laid down for the statement of facts, 2 because vivid 
illustration, or, as some prefer to call it, representa- 
tion, is something more than mere clearness, since 
the latter merely lets itself be seen, whereas the 
former thrusts itself upon our notice. It is a great 62 
gift to be able to set forth the facts on which 
we are speaking clearly and vividly. For oratory 
fails of its full effect, and does not assert itself 
as it should, if its appeal is merely to the hearing, 
and if the judge merely feels that the facts 
on which he has to give his decision are being 
narrated to him, and not displayed in their living 
truth to the eyes of the mind. But since different 63 
views have been held with regard to this art of 
representation, I shall not attempt to divide it into 

245 



QUINTILIAN 

ambitiose a quibusdam numerus augetur, sed maxime 
necessarias attingam. Est igitur unum genus, quo 
tota rerum imago quodammodo verbis depingitur : 

Constitit in digitos extemplo arrectus uterque 

et cetera, quae nobis illam pugilum congredientium 
faciem ita ostendunt, ut non clarior futura fuerit 

64 spectantibus. Plurimum in hoc genere sicut in 
ceteris eminet Cicero. An quisquam tarn procul 
a concipiendis imaginibus rerum abest, ut non, cum 
ilia in Verrem legit, Stetit soleatus praetor populi 
Romani cum pallio purpureo tnnicaque talari muliercula 
nixus in litore, non solum ipsos intueri videatur 
et locum et habitum, sed quaedam etiam ex iis, 

65 quae dicta non sunt, sibi ipse adstruat ? Ego certe 
mihi cernere videor et vultum et oculos et deformes 
utriusque blanditias et eorum qui aderant tacitam 

66 aversationem ac timidam verecundiam. Interim ex 
pluribus efficitur ilia quam conamur exprimere facies, 
ut est apud eundem (namque ad omnium ornandi 
virtutum exemplum vel unus sufficit) in descriptione 
convivii luxuriosi : Videbar videre alios intrantes, alios 
autem exeuntes, quosdam ex vino vacillantes, quosdam 

1 A en. v. 426. 2 v. xxxiii. 86. 

3 From the lost pro G'allio. 

246 



BOOK VIII. m. 63-66 

all its different departments, whose number is 
ostentatiously multiplied by certain writers, but 
shall content myself with touching on those which 
appear to me to be absolutely necessary. There is, 
then, to begin with, one form of vividness which con- 
sists in giving an actual word-picture of a scene, as 
in the passage beginning, 

"Forthwith each hero tiptoe stood erect." 1 

Other details follow which give us such a picture 
of the two boxers confronting each other for the 
fight, that it could not have been clearer had we 
been actual spectators. Cicero is supreme in this 64 
department, as in others. Is there anybody so in- 
capable of forming a mental picture of a scene that, 
when he reads the following passage from the 
Verrines, 2 he does not seem not merely to see the 
actors in the scene, the place itself and their very 
dress, but even to imagine to himself other details 
that the orator does not describe ? " There on the 
shore stood the praetor, the representative of the 
Roman people, with slippered feet, robed in a purple 
cloak, a tunic streaming to his heels, and leaning on 
the arm of this worthless woman." For my own 65 
part, I seem to see before my eyes his face, his eves, 
the unseemly blandishments of himself and his para- 
mour, the silent loathing and frightened shame of 
those who viewed the scene. At times, again, the 66 
picture which we endeavour to present is fuller in 
detail, as, for example, in the following description 
of a luxurious banquet, which is also from Cicero, 3 
since he by himself is capable of supplying admirable 
examples of every kind of oratorical ornament : " I 
seemed to see some entering, some leaving the room, 

247 



QUJNTILIAN 

hesterna ex polatione oscitanies. Humus erat immunda, 
lutulenta vino, coronis languidulis et spirits cooperta 

67 piscium. Quid plus videret qui intrasset ? Sic et 
urbium captarum crescit miseratio. Sine dubio enim, 
qui dicit expugnatam esse civitatem, complectitur 
omnia quaecunque talis fortuna recipit, sed in adfectus 

68 minus penetrat brevis hie velut nuntius. At si 
aperias haec, quae verbo uno inclusa erant, ap- 
parebunt effusae per domus ac templa flammae et 
ruentium tectorum fragor et ex diversis clamoribus 
unus quidam sonus, aliorum fuga incerta, alii ex- 
treme- complexu suorum cohaerentes et infantium 
feminarumque ploratus et male usque in ilium diem 

69 servati fato senes ; turn ilia profanorum sacrorumque 
direptio, efferentium praedas repetentiumque dis- 
cursus et acti ante suum quisque praedonem 
eatenati et conata retinere infantem suum mater et, 
sicubi maius lucrum est, pugna inter victores. 

70 Licet enim haec omnia, ut dixi, complectatur 
eversio, minus est tamen totum dicere quam omnia. 
Consequemur autem, ut manifesta sint, si fuerint 
versimilia ; et licebit etiam falso adfingere quidquid 
248 



BOOK VIII. in. 66-70 

some reeling under the influence of the wine, others 
yawning with ) r esterday's potations. The floor was 
foul with wine-smears, covered with wreaths half- 
withered and littered with fishbones." What more 67 
would any man have seen who had actually entered 
the room ? So, too, we may move our hearers to 
tears by the picture of a captured town. For the 
mere statement that the town was stormed, while 
no doubt it embraces all that such a calamity in- 
volves, has all the curtness of a dispatch, and fails 
to penetrate to the emotions of the hearer. But if 68 
we expand all that the one word " stormed " includes, 
we shall see the flames pouring from house and 
temple, and hear the crash of falling roofs and one 
confused clamour blent of many cries : we shall 
behold some in doubt whither to fly, others clinging 
to their nearest and dearest in one last embrace, 
while the wailing of women and children and the 
laments of old men that the cruelty of fate should 
have spared them to see that day will strike upon 
our ears. Then will come the pillage of treasure 69 
sacred and profane, the hurrying to and fro of the 
plunderers as they carry off" their booty or return to 
seek for more, the prisoners driven each before his 
own inhuman captor, the mother struggling to keep 
her child, and the victors fighting over the richest 
of the spoil. For though, as I have already said, 
the sack of a city includes all these things, it is less 
effective to tell the whole news at once than to 
recount it detail by detail. And we shall secure 70 
the vividness we seek, if only our descriptions give 
the impression of truth, nay, we may even add 
fictitious incidents of the type which commonly 
occur. The same vivid impression ma}' be produced 

249 



QUINTILIAN 

fieri solet. Continget eadem claritas etiam ex 
accidentibus : 

Mihi frigidus hoiror 

Membra quatit, gelidusque coit formidine sanguis. 
Et 

El trepidae vialres pressere ad pcctora natos. 

71 Atque huius summae, iudicio quidem meo, virtutis 
facillima est via. Naturam intueamur, hanc sequ- 
amur. Omnis eloquentia circa opera vitae est, 
ad se refert quisque quae audit, et id facillime 
accipiunt animi, quod agnoscunt. 

72 Praeclare vero ad inferendam rebus lucem repertae 
sunt similitudines ; quarum aliae sunt, quae proba- 
tions gratia inter argumenta ponuntur, aliae ad 
exprimendam rerurn imaginem compositae, quod est 
huius loci proprium : 

hide lupi ceu 
Raptores atra in nebula. 
Et 

Avi similis, quae circum lilora, circum 
Piscosos scopulos humilis volat aequora iuxta. 

73 Quo in genere id est praecipue custodiendum, ne 
id, quod similitudinis gratia adscivimus, aut ob- 
scurum sit aut ignotum. Debet enim, quod illus- 
trandae alterius rei gratia assumitur, ipsum esse 



1 Aen. iii. 29. * Aen. vii. 518. 

3 Aen. ii. 355. * ^en. iv. 254. 



250 



BOOK VIII. hi. 70-73 

also by the mention of the accidents of each 
situation : 

" Chill shudderings shake my limbs 
And all my blood is curdled cold with fear ; " 1 
or 

" And trembling mothers clasped 
Their children to their breast." 2 

Though the attainment of such effects is, in my 71 
opinion, the highest of all oratorical gifts, it is far 
from difficult of attainment. Fix your eyes on nature 
and follow her. All eloquence is concerned with 
the activities of life, while every man applies to 
himself what he hears from others, and the mind 
is always_re adiest to accept_what it recognises to_ 
be true to nature. 

The invention of similes has also provided an 72 
admirable means of illuminating our descriptions. 
Some of these are designed for insertion among 
our arguments to help our proof, while others are 
devised to make our pictures yet more vivid ; it is 
with this latter class of simile that I am now specially 
concerned. The following are good examples : — 

"Thence like fierce wolves beneath the cloud of 
night," 3 
or 

u Like the bird that flies 4 
Around the shore and the fish-haunted reef, 
Skimming the deep." 

In employing this form of ornament we must be 73 
especially careful that the subject chosen for our 
simile is neither obscure nor unfamiliar : for any- 
thing that is selected for the purpose of illuminating 

251 



QUINTILIAN 

clarius eo quod illuminat. Quare poetis quidem 
permittamus sane eiusmodi exempla : 

Qualis ubi hibernam Lyciam Xanthique jluenta 
Dcserit aid Dclum matemam in visit Apollo. 

Non idem oratorem decebit, ut occultis aperta 

74 demonstret. Sed illud quoque, de quo in argu- 
ments diximus, similitudinis genus ornat orationem 
facitque sublimem, floridam, iucundam, mirabilem. 
Nam quo quaeque longius petita est, hoc plus 

75 adfert novitatis atque inexspectata magis est. Ilia 
vulgaria videntur et utilia tantum ad conciliandam 
fidem : Ut terram cultu, sic animum disciplinis meliorem 
uberioremque fieri, et Ut medici abalienata morbis 
membra praecidant, ita turpes ac perniciosos, etiamsi 
nobis sangidne cohaereant, ampidandos. lam sublimius 
illud pro Archia ; Saxa atque solitudines voci re- 
spondent, besliae saepc immanes cantu Jlectuntur atque 

76 consistunt et cetera. Quod quidem genus a quibus- 
dam declamatoria maxime licentia corruptum est. 
Nam et falsis utuntur nee Hla iis, quibus similia 
videri volunt, applicant. Quorum utrumque in his 

1 Aen. iv. 14.*}. 2 v. xi. 22. 

3 Fro Arch. viii. 19. 

252 



BOOK VIII. in. 73-76 

something else must itself be clearer than that which 
it is designed to illustrate. Therefore while we may 
permit poets to employ such similes as : — 

"As when Apollo wintry Lycia leaves, 
And Xanthus' streams, or visits Delos' isle, 
His mother's home," a 

it would be quite unsuitable for an orator to illustrate 
something quite plain by such obscure allusions. 
But even the type of simile which I discussed in 74 
connexion with arguments 2 is an ornament to oratory, 
and serves to make it sublime, rich, attractive or 
striking, as the case may be. For the more remote 
the simile is from the subject to which it is applied, 
the greater will be the impression of novelty and the 
unexpected which it produces. The following type 75 
may be regarded as commonplace and useful onlv as 
helping to create an impression of sincerity : " As 
the soil is improved and rendered more fertile by 
culture, so is the mind by education," or "As 
physicians amputate mortified limbs, so must we 
lop away foul and dangerous criminals, even though 
they be bound to us by ties of blood." Far finer is 
the following from Cicero's 3 defence of Archias : 
" Rock and deserts reply to the voice of man, savage 
beasts are oft-times tamed by the power of music 
and stay their onslaught," and the rest. This type 76 
of simile has, however, sadly degenerated in the 
hands of some of our declaimers owing to the license 
of the schools. For they adopt false comparisons, 
and even then do not apply them as they should 
to the subjects to which they wish them to provide 
a parallel. Both these faults are exemplified in 
two similes which were on the lips of everyone 

*53 



QUINTILIAN 

est, quae me iuvene uhique cantari solebant, Mag- 
norum jlumitium nuvigabiles fontes sunt, et Generosioris 

77 arboris statim planta cum fructu est. In omni autem 
parabole aut praecedit similitudo, res sequitur, aut 
praecedit res et similitudo sequitur. Sed interim 
libera et separata est ; interim, quod longe optimum 
est, cum re, cuius est imago, connectitur, collatione 
invicem respondente, quod facit redditio contraria, 

78 quae dvra7ro8ocrts dicitur. Praecedit similitudo ilia, 
cuius modo feci mentionem : 

Inde lupi ceu 
Raplores atra in nebula. 

Sequitur in primo Georgicon post longam de bellis 
civilibus atque externis conquestionem : 

Ut, cum carceribus sese ejfudere quadrigae, 
Addunt in spatia ; et frusira retinacida tendens 
Fertur equis auriga, neque audit currus habenas. 

79 Sed hae sunt sine antapodosi. Redditio autem ilia 
rem utramque, quam comparat, velub subiicit oculis 
et pariter ostendit. Cuius praeclara apud Vergilium 
multa reperio exempla, sed oratoriis potius utendum 
est. Dicit Cicero pro Murena, Ut aiunt in Graecis 
artificibus eos auloedos esse, qui cilharoedi fieri non 
poluerint, sic apud nos videmus, qui oratores evadere non 



1 Aen. ii. 355. * Geury. i. 512. 

8 Pro Mur. xiii. 29. 



254 



BOOK VIII. hi. 76-79 

when I was a young man, " Even the sources of 
mighty rivers are navigable," and "The generous 
tree bears fruit while it is yet a sapling." In every 77 
comparison the simile either precedes or follows the 
subject which it illustrates. But sometimes it is 
free and detached, and sometimes, a far better 
arrangement, is attached to the subject which it 
illustrates, the correspondence between the resem- 
blances being exact, an effect produced by reciprocal 
representation, which the Greeks style avTair68o<ris. 
For example, the simile already quoted, 78 

"Thence like fierce wolves beneath the cloud of 
night," » 

precedes its subject. On the other hand, an example 
of the simile following its subject is to be found in 
the first Georgic, where, after the long lamentation 
over the wars civil and foreign that have afflicted 
Rome, there come the lines : 

"As when, their barriers down, the chariots speed 
Lap after lap ; in vain the charioteer 
Tightens the curb : his steeds ungovernable 
Sweep him away nor heeds the car the rein." 2 

There is, however, no antapodosis in these similes. 79 
Such reciproc al representation places both subjec ts of 
e grnpar lmm t>eTbi-e our very eyes, displaying them 
side by side. Virgil provides many remarkable ex- 
amples, but it will be better for me to quote from 
oratory. In the pro Murena Cicero 3 says, " As among 
Greek musicians (for so they say), only those turn 
flute-players that cannot play the lyre, so here at 
Rome we see that those who cannot acquire the art 
of oratory betake themselves to the study of the 

255 



QUINTILIAN 

80 potuerint, eos ad iuris studium devenire. Illud pro 
eodem iam paene poetico spiritu, sed tamen cum sua 
redditione, quod est ad ornatum accommodatius : 
Nam ui tempestates saepe certo aliquo caeli signo com- 
moventur, saepe improvisae nulla ex certa ratione ob.scura 
aliqua ex causa concilanlur, sic in hac comitiorum 
tempestate populari saepe intelligas, quo signo commota 
sit, saepe ita obscura est, ut sine causa excitata videatur. 

8 1 Sunt et illae breves, Vagi per silvas ritu ferarum, et 
illud Ciceronis in Clodium, Quo ex iudicio velut ex 
incendio nudus ejfugit. Quibus similia possunt eui- 
cunque etiam ex cotidiano sermone succurrere. 

Huic subiacet virtus non solum aperte ponendi rem 

82 ante oculos, sed circumcise atque velociter. Ac 
merito laudatur brevitas integra ; sed ea minus 
praestat, quotiens nihil dicit, nisi quod necesse est 
(fipaxyXoyiav vocant, quae reddetur inter schemata), 
est vero pulcherrima, cum plura paucis complectimur, 
quale Sallustii est, Mithridates corpore ingenti, perinde 
armatus. Hoc male imitantes sequitur obscuritas. 

83 Vicina praedictae sed amplior virtus est e/t^acrts, 

1 Pro Mur. xvii. 36. * Now lost. 

256 



BOOK VIII. iii. 79-83 

law." There is also another simile in the same 80 
speech, 1 which is almost worthy of a poet, but in 
virtue of its reciprocal representation is better adapted 
for ornament: "For as tempests are generally pre- 
ceded by some premonitory signs in the heaven, but 
often, on the other hand, break forth for some obscure 
reason without any warning whatsoever, so in the 
tempests which sway the people at our Roman 
elections we are not seldom in a position to discern 
their origin, and yet, on the other hand, it is fre- 
quently so obscure that the storm seems to have 
burst without any apparent cause." We find also 81 
shorter similes, such as " Wandering like wild beasts 
through the woods,'' or the passage from Cicero's 
speech against Clodius : 2 " He fled from the court 
like a man escaping naked from a fire." Similar 
examples from everyday speech will occur to 
everyone. 

Such comparisons reveal the gift not merely of 
placing a thing vividly before the eye, but of doing 
so with rapidity and without waste of detail. The 82 
praise awarded to perfect brevity is well-deserved ; 
but, on the other hand, brachyiogy, which I shall 
deal with when I come to speak of figures, that is 
to say, the brevity that says nothing more than what 
is absolutely necessary, is less effective, although it 
may be employed with admirable results when it 
expresses a great deal in a very few words, as in 
Sallust's description of Mithridates as "huge of 
stature, and armed to match." But unsuccessful 
attempts to imitate this form of terseness result 
merely in obscurity. 

A virtue which closely resembles the last, but 83 
is on a grander scale, is emphasis, which succeeds 

257 

VOL. III. K 



QUINTILIAN 

altiorem praebens intellectum quam quern verba per 
se ipsa declarant. Eius duae sunt species, altera, 
quae plus significat quam dicit, altera, quae etiam id 

84 quod non dicit. Prior est et apud Homerum, cum 
Menelaus Graios in equum descendisse ait (nam verbo 
uno magnitudinem eius ostendit), et apud Vergilium, 
Demissum lapsi per funem ; nam sic quoque altitudo 
demonstrata est. Idem, Cyclopa cum iacuisse dixit 
per antrum, prodigiosum illud corpus spatio loci men- 

85 sus est. Sequens positum in voce aut omnino 
suppressa aut etiam abscisa. Supprimitur vox, ut 
fecit pro Ligario Cicero : Quodsi in hac tanta fortuna 
bonitas tanta non esset, quam tu per te, per te inquam, 
obtines : intelligo, quid loquar. Tacuit enim illud, 
quod nihilominus accipimus, non deesse homines, qui 
ad crudelitatem eum impellant. Absciditur per 
airoo-noTrrjaiv' quae, quoniam est figura, reddetur suo 

86 loco. Est in vulgaribus quoque verbis emphasis : 
Virum esse oporlet, et Homo est Me, et Vivcndum est. 
Adeo similis est arti plerumque natura. 

Non tamen satis eloquentiae est, ea, de quibus 

1 Od. xi. 523. 2 Ami. ii. 262. * Jen. iii. 631. 

* v. 15: The passage goes on, "Then your victory 
would have brought bitter grief in its train. For how many 
of the victors would have wished you to be cruel !" Where 
then is the supprtssio? Quintilian is probably quoting from 
memory and has forgotten the context. 

* IX. ii. 54 ; iii. 60. 

258 



BOOK VIII. in. 83-86 

in revealing a deeper meaning than is actually 
expressed by the words. There are two kinds of 
emphasis : the one means more than it says, the 
other often means something which it does not 
actually say. An example of the former is found 84 
in Homer, 1 where he makes Menelaus say that the 
Greeks descended into the Wooden Horse, indicating 
its size by a single verb. Or again, there is the 
following example by Virgil : 2 

" Descending by a rope let down," 

a phrase which in a similar manner indicates the 
height of the horse. The same poet, 3 when he savs 
that the Cyclops lay stretched "throughout the 
cave," by taking the room occupied as the standard 
of measure, gives an impression of the giant's 
immense bulk. The second kind of emphasis con- 85 
sists either in the complete suppression of a word 
or in the deliberate omission to utter it. As an 
example of complete suppression I may quote the 
following passage from the pro Ligario,* where 
Cicero says: "But if your exalted position were 
not matched by your goodness of heart, a quality 
which is all your own, your very own — I know 
well enough what I am saying " Here he sup- 
presses the fact, which is none the less clear enough 
to us, that he does not lack counsellors who would 
incite him to cruelty. The omission of a word is pro- 
duced by aposiopesis, which, however, being a figure, 
shall be dealt with in its proper place. 5 Emphasis is 86 
also found in the phrases of every dav, such as " Be a 
man ! " or " He is but mortal," or " We must live ! " 
So like, as a rule, is nature to art. 

It is not, however, sufficient for eloquence to set 

*59 



QUINTILIAN 

dicat, clare atque evidenter ostendere ; sed sunt 

87 multi ac varii excolendae orationis modi. Nam ipsa 
ilia atpeXeia simplex et inadfectata hahet quendam 
purum, qualis etiam in feminis amatur, ornatum, et 
sunt quaedam velut e tenui diligentia circa pro- 
prietatem significationemque munditiae. Alia copia 

88 locuples, alia floribus laeta. Virium non unum 
genus ; nam, quidquid in suo genere satis effectum 
est, valet. Praecipua tamen eius opera SeiVwo-ts in 
exaggeranda indignitate et in ceteris altitudo quae- 
dam, (ftavTao-ia in concipiendis visionibus, i£epyaaia 
in efficiendo velut opere proposito, cui adiicitur 
iTTtiepyaaca, repetitio probationis eiusdem et cumu- 

89 lus ex abundanti, ivipytia. confinis his (est enim ab 
agendo dicta) et cuius propria sit virtus non esse, 
quae dicuntur, otiosa. Est et amarum quiddam, quod 
fere in contumelia est positum, quale Cassii : Quid 
fades, cum in bona tua invasero, hoc est, cum te docuero 
nescire maledicere? Et acre, ut illud Crassi, Ego te 
consulem putem, cum tu me non putes senatorem ? Sed 
vis oratoris omnis in augendo minuendoque consistit. 

1 Cassius Severus was famous for his powers of abuse. 
His opponent was abusive. Cassius says that he will take a 
leaf out of his book and show him what real abuse is. 

260 






BOOK VIII. in. 86-89 

forth its theme in brilliant and vivid language : 
there are many different ways of embellishing our 
style. For even that absolute and unaffected sim- 87 
plicity which the Greeks call d0c'A.eia has in it a 
certain chaste ornateness such as we admire also in 
women, while a minute accuracy in securing pro- 
priety and precision in our words likewise produces 
an impression of neatness and delicacy. Again 
copiousness may consist either in wealth of thought 
or luxuriance of language. Force, too, may be 88 
shown in different ways ; for there will always be 
force in anything that is in its own way effective. 
Its most important exhibitions are to be found in 
the following : SeiVwo-is, or a certain sublimity in the 
exaggerated denunciation of unworthy conduct, to 
mention no other topics ; (pavraa-ia, or imagination, 
which assists us to form mental pictures of things ; 
i$epyaaia, or finish, which produces completeness of 
effect ; iire$epyacria, an intensified form of the pre- 
ceding, which reasserts our proofs and clinches the 
argument by repetition ; and Ivlpyeia, or vigour, a 89 
near relative of all these qualities, which derives 
its name from action and finds its peculiar function 
in securing that nothing that we say is tame. 
Bitterness, which is generally employed in abuse, 
may be of service as in the following passage 
from Cassius : " What will you do when I invade 
your special province, that is, when I show that, 
as far as abuse is concerned, you are a mere 
ignoramus?" 1 Pungency also may be employed, 
as in the following remark of Crassus : " Shall 
I regard you as a consul, when you refuse to 
regard me as a senator ? " But the real power of 
oratory lies in enhancing or attenuating the force 

261 



QUINTILIAN 

Utrique parti totidem modi, ex quibus praecipuos 
attingemus ; reliqui similes erunt ; sunt autem positi 
90 in rebus et verbis. Sed, quae sit rerum inventio ac 
ratio, tractavimus ; nunc, quid elocutio attollat aut 
deprimat, dicendum. 

IV. Prima est igitur amplificandi vel minuendi 
species in ipso rei nomine : ut cum eum, qui sit caesus, 
occisum, eum, qui sit improbus, latronem, contraque 
eum, qui pulsavit, attigisse, qui vulneravit, laesisse 
dicimus. Utriusque pariter exemplum est pro M. 
Caelio : Si vidua libere, proterva petulanter, dives effuse, 
libidinosa meretricio more viveret, adulterum ego putarem, 
2 si qui hanc paulo liherius salutasset ? Nam et impudi- 
cara meretricem vocavit, et eum, cui longus cum ilia 
fuerat usus, Uberius salulasse. Hoc genus increscit 
ac fit manifestius, si ampliora verba cum ipsis nomini- 
bus, pro quibus ea posituri sumus, conferantur: ut 
Cicero in Verrem, Non enim furem sed ereptorem, non 
adulterum sed expugnatorem pudicitiae, non sacrilegum 
sed hostem sacrorum religionumque, non sicarium sed 

1 xvi. 38. * Verr. i. iii. 9. 

262 



BOOK VIII. hi. 89-iv. 2 

of words. Each of these departments has the same 
number of methods ; I shall touch on the more im- 
portant ; those omitted will be of a like character, 
while all are concerned either with words or things. 
I have, however, already dealt with the methods of 90 
invention and arrangement, and shall therefore now 
concern myself with the way in which style may 
elevate or depress the subject in hand. 

IV. The first method of amplification or attenuation 
is to be found in the actual word employed to 
describe a thing. For example, we may say that 
a man who was beaten was murdered, or that a dis- 
honest fellow is a robber, or, on the other hand, we 
may say that one who struck another merely touched 
him, and that one who wounded another merely hurt 
him. The following passage from the pro Caelio, 1 
provides examples of both : "If a widow lives 
freely, if being by nature bold she throws restraint 
to the winds, makes wealth an excuse for luxurv, 
and strong passions for playing the harlot, would 
this be a reason for my regarding a man who was 
somewhat free in his method of saluting her to be 
an adulterer?" For here he calls an immodest 2 
woman a harlot, and says that one who had long 
been her lover saluted her with a certain freedom. 
This sort of amplification may be strengthened 
and made more striking by pointing the com- 
parison between words of stronger meaning and 
those for which we propose to substitute them, as 
Cicero does in denouncing Verres : 2 " I have brought 
before you, judges, not a thief, but a plunderer ; 
not an adulterer, but a ravisher ; not a mere com- 
mitter of sacrilege, but the enemy of all religious 
observance and all holy things ; not an assassin, 

263 



QUINTILIAN 

criidelissimum carnificem civium sociorujnque in vestrum 

3 indicium adduximus. Illo enim modo ut sit multum, 
hoc etiam plus ut sit efficitur. Quattuor tamen 
maxime generibus video constare amplificationeru, 
incremento, comparatione, ratiocinatione, congerie. 

Incrementum est potentissimum, cum magna 
videntur etiam quae inferiora sunt. Id aut uno 
gradu fit aut pluribus et pervenit non modo ad 
summum sed interim quodammodo supra summum. 

4 Omnibus his sufficit vel unum Ciceronis exemplum : 
F acinus est vincire civem Romanum, scelus verberare, 
prope parricidium necare : quid dicam in crucem tollere ? 
Nam et, si tantum verberatus esset, uno gradu in- 
creverat, ponendo etiam id esse j'acinus, quod erat 

6 inferius ; et, si tantum occisus esset, per plures 
gradus ascenderat ; cum vero dixerit, prope parnci- 
dium necare, supra quod nihil est, adiecit quid dicam 
i?i crucem tollere ? Ita, cum id, quod maximum est, 
occupasset, necesse erat in eo, quod ultra est, verba 

6 deficere. Fit et aliter supra summum adiectio, ut 
apud Vergilium de Lauso : 

quo pulchrior alter 
Non fuit, excepto Laurentis corpore Tumi. 

Summum est enim, quo pulchrior alter non fuit ; huic 

1 Verr. V. lxvi. 170. * Aen. vii. 649. 

264 






BOOK VIII. iv. 2-6 

but a bloodthirsty butcher who has slain our fellow- 
citizens and our allies." In this passage the 3 
first epithets are bad enough, but are rendered 
still worse by those which follow. I consider, 
however, that there are four principal methods of 
amplification : augmentation, comparison, reasoning and 
accumulation. 

Of these, augmentation is most impressive when it 
lends grandeur even to comparative insignificance. 
This may be effected either by one step or by 
several, and may be carried not merely to the 
highest degree, but sometimes even beyond it. 
A single example from Cicero 1 will suffice to 4 
illustrate all these points. "It is a sin to bind a 
Roman citizen, a crime to scourge him, little short 
of the most unnatural murder to put him to death ; 
what then shall I call his crucifixion ? " If he had 
merely been scourged, we should have had but one 
step, indicated by the description even of the lesser 
offence as a sin, while if he had merely been killed, 5 
we should have had several more steps; but after 
saying that it was "little short of the most un- 
natural murder to put him to death," and mention- 
ing the worst of crimes, he adds, " What then shall 
I call his crucifixion?" Consequently, since he had 
already exhausted his vocabulary of crime, words 
must necessarily fail him to describe something still 
worse. There is a second method of passing be- 6 
yond the highest degree, exemplified in Virgil's 
description of Lausus : 2 

" Than whom there was not one more fair 
Saving Laurentian Turnus." 

For here the words "than whom there was not 

265 



QUINTILIAN 

7 deinde aliquid superpositum. Tertius quoque est 
modus, ad quern non per gradus itur et quod non 
est plus maximo, sed quo nihil maius est ; Matrem 
tuam cecidisli. Quid dicam amplius ? Matrem tuam 
cecidisti. Nam et hoc augendi genus est tantum 

8 aliquid efficere, ut non possit augeri. Crescit ovatio 
minus aperte, sed nescio an hoc ipso efficacius, cum 
citra distinctionem in contextu et cursu semper 
aliquid priore maius insequitHr : ut de vomitu in 
Antonium Cicero, In coetu veto populi Romani, negotium 
publicum gerens, magister equitum. Singula incremen- 
tum habent. Per se deforme vel non in coetu vomere, 
in coetu etiam non populi, populi etiam non Romani, 
vel si nullum negotium ageret, vel si non publicum, 

9 vel si non magister equitum. Sed alius divideret haec 
et circa singulos gradus moraretur ; hie in sublime 
etiam cucurrit et ad summum non pervenit nisu, 
sed impetu. 

Verum ut haec amplificatio in superiora tendit, 
ita, quae fit per comparationem, incrementum ex 
minoribus petit. Augendo enim, quod est infra, 

1 Phil. ii. xxv. 63. 
266 



BOOK VIII. iv. 6-9 

one more fair " give us the superlative, on which 
the poet proceeds to superimpose a still higher 
degree. There is also a third sort, which is not 1 
attained by gradation, a height which is not a 
degree beyond the superlative, but such that 
nothing greater can be conceived. " You beat 
your mother. What more need I say ? You beat 
your mother." For to make a thing so great as 
to be incapable of augmentation is in itself a kind 
of augmentation. It is also possible to heighten 8 
our style less obviously, but perhaps yet more effec- 
tively, by introducing a continuous and unbroken 
series in which each word is stronger than the last, 
as Cicero x does when he describes how Antony 
vomited " before an assembly of the Roman people, 
while performing a public duty, while Master of the 
Horse." Each phrase is more forcible than that 
which went before. Vomiting is an ugly thing in 
itself, even when there is no assembly to witness 
it ; it is ugly when there is such an assembly, even 
though it be not an assembly of the people ; ugly 
even though it be an assembly of the people and 
not the Roman people ; ugly even though he were 
engaged on no business at the time, even if his 
business were not public business, even if he were 
not Master of the Horse. Another might have 9 
broken up the series and lingered over each step 
in the ascending scale, but Cicero hastens to his 
climax and reaches the height not by laborious 
effort, but by the impetus of his speed. 

Just as this form of amplification rises to a climax, 
so, too, the form which depends on comparison seeks 
to rise from the less to the greater, since by raising 
what is below it must necessarily exalt that which 

267 



QUINT1LIAN 

necesse est extollat id quod supra positum est : ut 

10 idem atque in eodem loco, Si hoc iibi inter cenam et 
in Mis immanibus poculis tuis accidisset, quis non turpe 
duceret ? In coetu vero populi Romani — . Et in 
Catilinam : Servi mehercides mei si me isto pacto 
metuerent, ut te metuunt omnes cives tui, domum meam 

11 relinquendam putarem. Interim proposito velut simili 
exemplo effieiendum est, ut sit maius id quod a 
nobis exaggerandum est : ut idem pro Cluentio, 
cum exposuisset, Milesiam quandam a secundis here- 
dibus pro abortu pecuniam accepisse, Quanto est, 
inquit, Oppianicas in eadem iniuria maiore supplicio 
digitus ? Siquidem ilia, cum suo corpori vim atlulisset, 
se ipsa cruciavit ; hie autem idem Mud effecit per alieni 

12 corporis vim atque cruciatum. Nee putet quisquam 
hoc, quanquam est simile illi ex argumentis loco, 
quo maiora ex minoribus colliguntur, idem esse. 
Illic enim probatio petitur, hie amplificatio ; sicut in 
Oppianico non id agitur hac comparatione, ut ille 
male fecerit sed ut peius. Est tamen quanquam 
diversarum rerum quaedam vicinia. Repetam itaque 
hie quoque idem quo sum illic usus exemplum, sed 

13 non in eundem usum. Nam hoc mihi ostendendum 



1 Phi!. II. xxv. 63. * Phil. i. vii. 17. 

3 xi. 32. * cp. v. xiii. 24. 



268 



BOOK VIII. iv. 9-13 

is above, as, for example : in the following passage : * 
"If this had befallen you at the dinner-table in 10 
the midst of your amazing potations, who would 
not have thought it unseemly ? But it occurred at 
an assembly of the Roman people." Or take this 
passage from the speech against Catiline : 2 "In 
truth, if my slaves feared me as all your fellow- 
citizens fear you, I should think it wise to leave my 
house." At times, again, we may advance a parallel 11 
to make something which we desire to exaggerate 
seem greater than ever, as Cicero does in the pro 
Cluentio, 3 where, after telling a story of a woman 
of Miletus who took a bribe from the reversionary 
heirs to prevent the birth of her expected child, 
he cries, "How much greater is the punishment 
deserved by Oppianicus for the same offence ! For 
that woman, by doing violence to her own body 
did but torture herself, whereas he procured 
the same result by applying violence and torture 
to the body of another." I would not, however, 12 
have anyone think that this method is identical 
with that used in argument, where the greater is 
inferred from the less, although there is a certain 
resemblance between the two. For in the latter 
case we are aiming at proof, in the former at 
amplification ; for example, in the passage just cited 
about Oppianicus, the object of the comparison is 
not to show that his action was a crime, but that 
it was even worse than another crime. There is, 
however, a certain affinity between the two methods, 
and I will therefore repeat 4 a passage which I 
quoted there, although my present purpose is 
different. F or what I have now to demonstrate is 13 
that wh en amplification is our purpose we com-. 

269 



QUINTILIAN 

est, augendi gratia non tota modo totis, sed etiam 
partes partibus comparari : sicut hoc loco, An vero vir 
amplissimus P. Scipio, pontifex maximus, Ti. Gracchum 
mediocriter labefactantem statum rei publicae privatiis 
interfecil : Cat'dinam orbem terrae caede atque incendio 

14 vastare cupientem nos consules perferemus ? Hie et 
Catilina Graccho et status rei publicae orbi terrarum 
et mediocris labefactatio caedi et incendiis et vasta- 
tioni et privatus consulibus comparatur ; quae si 
quis dilatare velit, plenos singula locos habent. 

15 Quas dixi per ratiocinationem fieri amplificationes, 
viderimus an satis proprio verbo significaverim. Nee 
sum in hoc sollicitus, dum res ipsa volentibus discere 
appareat. Hoc sum tamen secutus, quod haec 
amplificatio alibi posita est alibi valet; ut aliud 
crescat aliud augetur, inde ad id, quod extolli 

16 volumus, ratione ducitur. Obiecturus Antonio Cicero 
raerum et vomitum, Tu, inquit, istis faucibiis, istis 
late?ibus, ista gladiatoria totius corporis firmitatt. Quid 
fauces et latera ad ebrietatem ? Minime sunt otiosa ; 
nam respicientes ad haec possumus aestimare, quan- 

1 Cat. I. i. 3. * Phil. ii. xxv. 63. 

270 



BOOK VIII. iv. 13-16 

pare not merely whole wit h wholejbut _part with 
part, as in the" Following passage : l -'Did that illus- 
trious eitizen, the pontifex maximus, Publius Scipio, 
acting merely in his private capacity, kill Tiberius 
Gracchus when he introduced but slight changes 
for the worse that did not seriously impair the 
constitution of the state, and shall we as consuls 
suffer Catiline to live, whose aim was to lay waste 
the whole world with fire and sword ? " Here 14 
Catiline is compared to Gracchus, the constitution 
of the state to the whole world, a slight change for 
the worse to fire and sword and desolation, and a 
private citizen to the consuls, all comparisons 
affording ample opportunity for further individual 
expansion, if anyone should desire so to do. 

With regard to the amplification produced by 15 
reasoning, we must consider whether reasoning quite 
expresses my meaning. I am not a stickler for 
exact terminology, provided the sense is clear to 
any serious student. My motive in using this term 
was, however, this, that this form of amplification 
produces its effect at a point other than that where 
it is actually introduced. One thing is magnified 
in order to effect a corresponding augmentation else- 
where, and it is by reasoning that our hearers are 
then led on from the first point to the second which 
we desire to emphasise. Cicero, when he is about 16 
to reproach Antony with his drunkenness and 
vomiting, says, 2 " You with such a throat, such 
flanks, such burly strength in every limb of your 
prize-fighter's body,'' etc. What have his throat 
and flanks to do with his drunkenness? The 
reference is far from pointless : for by looking at 
them we are enabled to estimate the quantity of 

271 



QUINTIUAN 

turn ille vini in Hippiae nuptiis exhauserit, quod ferre 
et concoquere *• non posset ilia corporis gladiatoria 
firmitate. Ergo, si ex alio colligitur aliud, nee im- 
pro])i*ium nee inusitatum nomen est ratiocinationis, 
ut quod ex eadem causa inter status quoque habeamus. 

17 Sic et ex insequentibus amplificatio ducitur, siquidem 
tanta vis fuit vini erumpentis, ut non casum adferret 
aut voluntatera sed necessitatem, ubi minime deceret, 
vomendi, et cibus non recens, ut accidere interim 
solet, redderetur, sed usque in posterum diem redun- 

18 daret. Idem hoc praestant, quae antecesserunt. 
Nam cum Aeolus a Iunone rogatus 

cavum conversa cuspide montcm 
Impulit in latus, ac venti velut agmine facto 
. . . ruunt, 

19 apparet, quanta sit futura tempestas. Quid? cum 
res atrocissimas quasque in summam ipsi extulimus 
invidiam elevamus consulto, quo graviora videantur 
quae seeutura sunt, ut a Cicerone factum est, cum 
ilia diceret, Levia sunt haec in hoc reo. Meium virgarum 
nauarchus nobilissimae civitatis prelio redemit : humanum 
est. Alius, ne securi ferirctur, pecuniam dedit : usitatum 

20 est. Nonne usus est ratiocinatione, 2 qua colligerent 

1 concoquere, Spalding : conquere, B : quod coquere, A. 
8 ratiocinatione, Regius : ratione, MSS. 

1 See in. vi. 43 sqq. vii. v. 2. 2 Aen. i. 81. 

8 Verr. 5, 44, 177. 

272 



BOOK VIII. iv. 16-20 

the wine which he drank at Hippias' wedding, and 
was unable to carry or digest in spite of the fact 
that his bodily strength was worthy of a prize- 
fighter. Accordingly if, in such a case, one thing is 
inferred from another, the term reasoning is neither 
improper nor extraordinary, since it has been 
applied on similar grounds to one of the bases. 1 
So, again, amplification results from subsequent 17 
events, since the violence with which the wine 
burst from him was such that the vomiting was 
not accidental nor voluntary, but a matter of 
necessity, at a moment when it was specially un- 
seemly, while the food was not recently swallowed, 
as is sometimes the case, but the residue of the revel 
of the preceding day. On the other hand, ampli- 18 
Jication may equally result from antecedent circum- 
stances ; for example, when Juno made her request 
to Aeolus, the latter 2 

" Turned his spear and smote 
The mountain's caverned side, and forth the winds 
Rushed in a throng," 

whereby the poet shows what a mighty tempest will 
ensue. Again, when we have depicted some horrible 19 
circumstance in such colours as to raise the detesta- 
tion of our audience to its height, we then proceed 
to make light of them in order that what is to follow 
may seem still more horrible: consider the following 
passage from Cicero : 3 " These are but trivial offences 
for so great a criminal. The captain of a warship 
from a famous city bought off* his threatened scourg- 
ing for a price : a humane concession ! Another 
paid down a sum of money to save his head from 
the axe : a perfectly ordinary circumstance ! " Does L'O 

273 



QUINTILIAN 

audientes, quantum illud esset quod inferebatur, cui 
comparata haec viderentur humana atque usitata? 
Sic quoque solet ex alio aliud augeri : ut cum 
Hannibalis bellicis laudibus ampliatur virtus Scipionis, 
et fortitudinem Gallorum Germanorumque miramur, 

21 quo sit maior C. Caesaris gloria. Illud quoque est ex 
relatione ad aliquid, quod non eius rei gratia dictum 
videtur, amplificationis genus. Non putant indignum 
Troiani principes, Graios Troianosque propter 
Helenae speciem tot mala tanto temporis spatio 
sustinere : quaenam igitur ilia forma credenda est ? 
Non enim hoc dicit Paris, qui rapuit, non aliquis 
iuvenis aut unus e vulgo, sed senes et prudentissimi 

22 et Priamo assidentes. Verum et ipse rex decennii 
bello exhaustus, amissis tot liberis, imminente summo 
discrimine, cui faciem illam, ex qua tot lacrimarum 
origo fluxisset, invisam atque abominandam esse 
oportebat, et audit haec et earn filiam appellans 
iuxta se locat et excusat etiam atque sibi esse 

23 malorum causam negat. Nee mihi videtur in Sym- 
posio Plato, cum Alcibiadem confitentem de se, quid 
a Socrate pati voluerit, narrat, ut ilium culparet, 
haec tradidisse, sed ut Socratis invictam continentiam 
ostenderet, quae corrumpi speciosissimi hominis tarn 

1 II. iii. 156. * 218b-219d. 

274 



BOOK VIII. iv. 20-23 

not the orator employ a process of reasoning to 
enable the audience to infer how great the implied 
crime must be when such actions were but humane 
and ordinary in comparison ? So, again, one thing 
may be magnified by allusion to another : the valour 
of Scipio is magnified by extolling the fame of 
Hannibal as a general, and we are asked to marvel 
at the courage of the Germans and the Gauls in 
order to enhance the glory of Gaius Caesar. There 21 
is a similar form of amplification which is effected by 
reference to something which appears to have been 
said with quite another purpose in view. The chiefs 
of Troy * think it no discredit that Trojan and Greek 
should endure so many woes for so many years all 
for the sake of Helen's beauty. How wondrous, 
then, must her beauty have been ! For it is not 
Paris, her ravisher, that says this ; it is not some 
youth or one of the common herd; no, it is the 
elders, the wisest of their folk, the counsellors of 
Priam. Nay, even the king himself, worn out by a 22 
ten years' war, which had cost him the loss of so many 
of his sons, and threatened to lay his kingdom in the 
dust, the man who, above all, should have loathed 
and detested her beauty, the source of all those 
tears, hears these words, calls her his daughter, and 
places her by his side, excuses her guilt, and denies 
that she is the cause of his sorrows. Again, when 23 
Plato in the Symposium 2 makes Alcibiades confess 
how he had wished Socrates to treat him, he does 
not, I think, record these facts with a view to 
blaming Alcibiades, but rather to show the un- 
conquerable self-control of Socrates, which would 
not yield even to the charms which the greatest 
beauty of his day so frankly placed at his disposal. 

275 



QUINTILIAN 

24 obvia voluntate non posset. Quin ex instrumento 
quoque heroum illorum magnitudo aestimanda 
nobis datur. Hue pertinet clipeus Aiacis et Pelias 
Achillis. Qua virtute egregie est usus in Cyclope 
Vergilius. Nam quod illud corpus mente concipiam, 
cuius 

Trunca manum pimis regit ? 

25 Quid ? cum vtx loricam duo multiplicem connixi humeris 
ferunt, quantus Demoleos, qui indutus ea 

cursu palantes Troas agebat ? 

Quid? M. Tullius de M. Antonii luxuria tantum 
fingere saltern potuisset, quantum ostendit dicendo, 
Conchyliatis Cn. Pompeii peristromatis servorum in cellis 
stratos lectos videres ? Conchyliata peristromata et 
Cn. Pompeii terunt servi in cellis : nihil dici potest 
ultra, et necesse est tamen infinito plus in domino 

26 cogitare. Est hoc simile illi, quod e/j.<£acris dicitur ; 
sed ilia ex verbo, hoc ex re coniecturam facit tanto- 
que plus valet, quanto res ipsa verbis est firmior. 



1 11. vii. 219. 2 //. xvi. 140. 3 Aen. iii. 659. 

* Aen. v. ?M. • Phil. ii. 27. 



276 



BOOK VIII. iv. 23-26 

We are even given the means of realising the 24 
extraordinary stature of the heroes of old by the 
description of their weapons, such as the shield of 
Ajax x and the spear-shaft of Achilles 2 hewn in the 
forests of Pelion. Virgil 3 also has made admirable 
use of this device in his description of the Cyclops. 
For what an image it gives us of the bulk of that 
body 

"Whose hand was propped by a branchless trunk of 
pine." 

So, too, what a giant must Demoleos * have been, 25 
whose 

" corselet manifold 
Scarce two men on their shoulders could uphold " 

And yet the hero buckled it upon him and 

" Drave the scattering Trojans at full speed." 

And again, Cicero 5 could hardly even have con- 
ceived of such luxury in Antony himself as he 
describes when he says, " You might see beds in 
the chambers of his slaves strewn with the purple 
coverlets that had once been Pompey's own." Slaves 
are using purple coverlets in their chambers, aye, 
and coverlets that had once been Pompey's ! No 
more, surely, can be said than this, and yet it leaves 
us to infer how infinitely greater was the luxury of 
their master. This form of amplification is near akin 26 
to emphasis : but emphasis derives its effect from 
the actual words, while in this case the effect is 
produced by inference from the facts, and is con- 
sequently far more impressive, inasmuch as facts are 
more impressive than words. 

277 



QUINTILIAN 

Potest adscribi amplificationi congeries quoque 
verborum ac sententiarum idem significantium. Nam, 
etiamsi non per gradus ascendant, tamen velut 

27 acervo quodamadlevantur : Quid enimtuus tile, Tubero, 
destrictus in acie Pharsalica gladius agebat ? cuius latus 
Me mucro petebat ? qui sensus erat armorum tuorum ? 
quae tua mens, oculi, manus, ardor animi ? quid 
cupiebas ? quid optabas ? Simile est hoc figurae, qnam 
crvvaOpota-fxov vocant ; sed illic plurium rerum est 
congeries, hie unius multiplicatio. Haec etiam 
crescere solet verbis omnibus altius atque altius 
insurgentibus : Aderat ianitor carceris, carnifex prae- 
toris, mors lerrorque sociorum et civium liotnanorum, 
lictor Sextius. 

28 Eadem fere est ratio minuendi. Nam totidem 
sunt ascendentibus quot descendentibus gradus. 
Ideoque uno ero exemplo contentus eius loci, quo 

Cicero de oratione Rulli haec dicit : Fauci tamen 

j 

qui proximi adstiterant, nescio quid ilium de lege agraria 
voluisse dicere suspicabantur. Quod si ad intellectum 
referas, minutio est, si ad obscuritatem, incrementurn. 

29 Scio posse videri quibusdam speciem amplificationis 
hyperbolen quoque, nam et haec in utramque partem 



1 Pro Lig. iii. 9. 2 " accumulation." 

3 Verr. v. xlv. 118. * Leg. Agr. n. v. 13. 



278 



BOOK VIII. iv. 26-29 

Accumulation of words and sentences identical in 
meaning may also be regarded under the head of 
amplification. For although the climax is not in 
this case reached by a series of steps, it is none the 
less attained by the piling up of words. Take the 
following example : l " What was that sword of yours 27 
doing, Tubero, the sword you drew on the field of 
Pharsalus ? Against whose body did you aim its 
point ? What meant those arms you bore ? Whither 
were your thoughts, your eyes, your hand, your fiery 
courage directed on that day ? What passion, what 
desires were yours? " This passage recalls the figure 
styled crvvaOpoicTfios 2 by the Greeks, but in that 
figure it is a number of different things that are 
accumulated, whereas in this passage all the ac- 
cumulated details have but one reference. The 
heightening of effect may also be produced by 
making the words rise to a climax. 3 "There stood 
the porter of the prison, the praetor's executioner, 
the death and terror of the citizens and allies of 
Rome, the lictor Sextius." 

Attenuation is effected by the same method, since 28 
there are as many degrees of descent as ascent. 
I shall therefore content myself with quoting but 
one example, namely, the words used by Cicero * to 
describe the speech of Rullus : " A few, however, who 
stood nearest to him suspected that he had intended 
to say something about the agrarian law." This pas- 
sage may be regarded as providing an example of 
attenuation or of augmentation, according as we con- 
sider its literal meaning or fix our attention on the 
obscurity attributed to Rullus. 

I know that some may perhaps regard hyperbole 29 
as a species of amplification, since hyperbole can be 

279 



QUINTILIAN 

valet ; sed quia excedit * hoc nomen in tropos, 
differenda est. Quos continuo subiungerem, nisi 
esset a ceteris separata ratio dicendi, [quae constat 
non propriis sed translatis]. 2 Demus ergo breviter 
hoc desiderio iam paene publico, ne omittamus eum, 
quem plerique praecipuura ac paene solum putant 
orationis ornatum. 

V. Sententiam veteres, quod animo sensissent, 
vocaverunt. Id cum est apud oratores frequentissi- 
mum, turn etiam in usu cotidiano quasdam reliquias 
habet ; nam et iuraturi ex aninii nostri sententia et 
gratulantes ex sententia dicimus. Non raro tamen et 
sic locuti sunt, ut sensa sua dicerent ; nam sensus 

2 corporis videbantur. Sed consuetudo iam tenuit, ut 
mente concepta sensus vocaremus, lumina autem 
praecipueque in clausulis posita sententias ; quae 
minus celebratae apud antiquos nostris temporibus 
modo carent. Ideoque mihi et de generibus earum 
et de usu arbitror pauca dicenda. 

3 Antiquissimae sunt, quae proprie, quamvis omnibus 
idem nomen sit, sententiae vocantur, quas Graeci 

1 excedit, B: excidit, A. 

2 Halm brackets quae . . . translatis as a gloss. The 
sense is unsatisfactory, but no satisfac'ory correction seems 
possible. 

1 See ch. vi. 
280 



BOOK VIII. iv. 29-Y. 3 

employed to create an effect in either direction. 
But as the name is also applied to one of the tropes, 
I must postpone its consideration for the present. 
I would proceed to the immediate discussion of this 
subject but for the fact that others have given 
separate treatment to this form of artifice, [which 
employs words not in their literal, but in a meta- 
phorical sense 1 ]. I shall therefore at this point 
indulge a desire now almost universal, and discuss 
a form of ornament which many regard as the chief, 
nay, almost the sole adornment of oratory. 

V. When the ancients used the word sententia, 
they meant a feeling, or opinion. The word is 
frequently used in this sense by orators, and traces 
of this meaning are still found even in the speech 
of every day. For when we are going to take an 
oath we use the phrase ex animi nostri sententia (in 
accordance with what we hold is the solemn truth), 
and when we offer congratulations, we say that we do 
so ex sententia (with all our heart). The ancients, in- 
deed, often expressed the same meaning by saying 
that they uttered their sensa ; for thev regarded 
sensus as referring merely to the senses of the body. 
But modern usage applies sensus to concepts of the 2 
mind, while sententia is applied to striking reflexions 
such as are more especially introduced at the close 
of our periods, a practice rare in earlier days, but 
carried even to excess in our own. Accordinglv, I 
think that I ought to say something of the various 
forms which such reflexions may take and the manner 
in which they should be used. 

Although all the different forms are included 3 
under the same name, the oldest type of sententia, 
and that in which the term is most correctly applied, 



QUINTILIAN 

yvuifxa<i appellant ; utrumque autem nomen ex eo 
acceperunt, quod similes sunt consiliis aut decretis. 
Est autem haec vox universalis, quae etiam citra 
comj)lexum causae possit esse laudabilis, interim ad 
rem tantum relata, ut Nihil est tarn populare quam 
bonitns, interim ad personam, quale est Afri Domitii, 
Princeps, qui valt omnia scire, necesse hahet multa ignos- 

4 cere. Hanc quidam partem enthymematis, quidam 
initium aut clausulam epichirematis esse dixerunt ; 
et est aliquando, non tamen semper. Illud verius 
esse earn aliquando simplicem, ut ea, quae supra 
dixi, aliquando ratione subiecta : Nam in omni certa- 
mine, qui opulentior est, etiamsi accipit iniuriam, tamen, 
quia plus potest, facere videtur ; nonnunquam duplicem : 

Obsequium amicos, Veritas odium parit. 

5 Sunt etiam, qui decern genera fecerint, sed eo modo, 
quo fieri vel plura possunt, per interrogationem, per 
comparationem, infitiationem, similitudinem, admira- 



1 Cic. pro Lig. xii. 37. 

* The premises of the enthymeme are simple, while those 
of the epichireme are supported by a reason. See v. xiv. 
8 Sail. Jug. 10. * Ter. Andr. i. i. 41. 

282 



BOOK VIII. v. 3-s 

is the aphorism, called yrw/*^ by the Greeks. Both 
the Greek and the Latin names are derived from 
the fact that such utterances resemble the decrees 
or resolutions of public bodies. The term, however, 
is of wide application (indeed, such reflexions may 
be deserving of praise even when they have no 
reference to any special context), and is used in 
various ways. Sometimes it refers merely to things, 
as in the sentence : " There is nothing that wins 
the affections of the people more than goodness of 
heart." x Occasionally, again, they may have a 
personal reference, as in the following utterance 
of Domitius Afer : " The prince who would know 
all, must needs ignore much." Some have called 4 
this form of reflexion a part of the enthynieme, others 
the major premise or conclusion of the epiehireme, as 
it sometimes, though not invariably, is. More correct 
is the statement that at times it is simple, as in the 
example just quoted, while at other times a reason 
for the statement may be added, 2 such as the follow- 
ing : 3 " For in every struggle, the stronger seems not 
to suffer wrong, even when this is actually the case, 
but to inflict it, simply in virtue of his superior 
power." Sometimes, again, it may be double, as in 
the statement that 

" Complaisance wins us friends, truth enmity." * 

There are some even who classify them under ten 5 
heads, though the principle on which they make 
this division is such that it would justify a still 
larger number : they class them as based on inter- 
rogation, comparison, denial, similarity, admiration, 
and the like, for they can be treated under every 

283 



QUINTILIAN 

tionem, et cetera huiusmodi ; per omnes enim figuras 
tractari potest, lllud notabile ex diversis : 

Mors misera non est, adittis ad mortem est miser. 

6 Ac rectae quidem sunt tales : 

Tarn deest avaro, quod habet, quam quod non habet. 

Sed maiorem vim accipiunt et mutatione figurae, ut 

Usque adeone mori miserum est ? 

acrius hoc enim quam per se, Mors wdsera non est. 
Et translatione a communi ad proprium ; nam, cum 
sit rectum, Nocere facile est, prodesse difficile, vehem- 
entius apud Ovidium Medea dicit, 

Servare potui ; perdere an possim, rogas ? 

7 Vertit ad personam Cicero : Nihil habet, Caesar, nee 
fortuna tua maius quam ut possis, nee natura melius 
quam ut velis servare quam plurimos. Ita, quae erant 
rerum, propria fecit hominis. In hoc genere custo- 
diendum est et id, quod ubique, ne crebrae sint, 
ne palam falsae (quales frequenter ab iis dicuntur, 



1 Author unknown. * Publil. Syr. Sent. 486. 

8 Aen. xii. 646. * In his lost tragedy, the Medea. 

* Pro Lig. xii. 38. 



284 



BOOK VIII. v. 5-7 

kind of figure. A striking type is that which is 
produced by opposition : 

" Death is not bitter, but the approach to death." 1 

Others are cast in a form of a direct statement, 6 
such as 

" The miser lacks 
That which he has no less than what he has 
not." 2 

But they acquire greater force by a change in the 
^figure employed, as in the following : 

" Is it so bitter, then, to die ? " 8 

For this is more vigorous than the simple statement, 
" Death is not bitter." A similar effect may be pro- 
duced by transference of the statement from the 
general to the particular. For example, although 
the direct statement Mould be, " To hurt is easy, 
but to do good is hard." Ovid 4 gives this reflexion 
increased force when he makes Medea say, 

" I had the power to save, and ask you then 
If I have power to ruin ? " 

Cicero 5 again gives the general statement a personal 7 
turn when he says : " Caesar, the splendour of your 
present fortune confers on you nothing greater than 
the power and nothing better than the will to save 
as many of your fellow-citizens as possible." For 
here he attributes to Caesar what was really at- 
tributable to the circumstances of his power. In 
this class of reflexion we must be careful, as always, 
not to employ them too frequently, nor at random, 
nor place them in the mouth of every kind of person, 

285 



QUINTILIAN 

qui haec KaOoXixa vocant, et, quidquid pro causa 
videtur, quasi indubitatum pronuntiant), et ne passim 

8 et a quocunque dicantur. Magis enim decet eos, in 
quibus est auctoritas, ut rei pondus etiam persona 
confirmet. Quis enim ferat puerum aut adolescen- 
tulum aut etiam ignobilem, si iudicet in dieendo et 
quodammodo praecipiat ? 

9 Enthymema quoque est omne quod mente concepi- 
mus ; proprie tamen dicitur, quae est sententia 
ex contrariis, propterea quod eminere inter eeteras 
videtur, ut Homerus poeta, urbs Roma. De hoc in 
argumentis satis dictum est. Non semper autem ad 

10 probationem adhibetur sed aliquando ad ornatum : 
Quorum igitur impunitas, Caesar, tuae clcmentiae laus 
est, eorvm te ipsorum ad crudelitatem acuet oratio ? Non 
quia sit ratio dissimilis, sed quia iam per alia, ut id 

11 iniustum appareret, effectum erat ; et addita in 
clausula est epiphonematis modo non tarn probatio 
quam extrema quasi insultatio. Est enim epiphonema 
rei narratae vel probatae summa acclamatio : 

Tanlae mnlis erat Romanam condere gentem ! 

Facere enim probus adolescens periadose quam perpeti 



1 See v. x. 2, and again, for greater detail, v. xiv. 1 (note 
at end), where an example of this type of sententia is given 
from the pro Milone (ch. 29) "You are sitting to avenge the 
death of one whom you would be unwilling to restore to life 
even if you thought it was in your power to restore it 1 " 

» Pro Lig. iv. 10. * Aen. i. 33. 

286 



BOOK VIII. v. 7-1 1 

while we must make certain that they are not 
untrue, as is so often the case with those speakers 
who style them reflexions of universal application and 
recklessly employ whatever seems to support their 
case as though its truth were beyond question. 
Such reflexions are hest suited to those speakers b 
whose authority is such that their character itself 
will lend weight to their words. For who would 
tolerate a boy, or a youth, or even a man of low 
birth who presumed to speak with all the authority 
of a judge and to thrust his precepts down our throats ? 

The term enthpneme may be applied to any concept £ 
of the mind, but in its strict sense means a reflexion 
drawn from contraries. Consequently, it has a 
supremacy among reflexions which we may com- 
pare to that of Homer among poets and Rome 
among cities. I have already said enough on this 10 
topic in dealing with arguments. 1 But the use of 
the enthymeme is not confined to proof, it may some- 
times be employed for the purpose of ornament, as 
in the following instance : 2 ** Caesar, shall the lan- 
guage of those whom it is your glory to have spared 
goad you to imitate their own cruelty ? " Cicero's 
motive in saying this is not that it introduces any 
fresh reason for clemency, but because he has already 
demonstrated by other arguments how unjust such 
conduct would be, while he adds it at the period's 1J 
close as an epiphonema, not by way of proof, but as 
a crowning insult to his opponents. For an epiphonema 
is an exclamation attached to the close of a statement 
or a proof by way of climax. Here are two examples : 

"Such toil it was to found the Roman race ! " 3 

and "The virtuous youth preferred to risk his life 

287 



QUINTILIAN 

1 2 turpiter maluit. Est et, quod appellatur a novis noeraa 
qua voce omnis intellectus accipi potest ; sed hoc 
nomine donarunt ea quae non dicunt, verum intelligi 
volunt : ut in eum, quem saepius a ludo redemerat 
soror, agentem cum ea talionis, quod ei pollicem 
dormienti recidisset, Eras dignus, ut haberes integrant 

13 manum, sic enim auditur ut depugnares. Vocatur 
aliquid et clausula; quae, si est quod conclusionem 
dicimus, et recta et quibusdam in partibus necessaria 
est: Quare prius de vestro facto fat eamini neccsse est, 
auam Ligarii culpam ullam reprehendatis. Sed nunc 
aliud volunt, ut omnis locus, omnis sensus in fine 

14 sermonis feriat aurem. Turpe autem ac prope nefas 
ducunt, respirare ullo loco, qui acclamationem non 
petierit. Inde minuti corruptique sensiculi et extra 
rem petiti ; neque enim possunt tarn multae bonae 
sententiae esse, quam necesse est multae sint 
clausulae. 

15 lam haec magis nova sententiarum genera. Ex 
inopinato : ut dixit Vibius Crispus in eum, qui, cum 
loricatus in foro ambularet, praetendebat id se metu 



1 Cic. pro Mil. iv. 9, cp. v. xi. 13. 

2 Pro Lig. i. 2. It is a conclusion in the logical sense. 
But clausula more commonly means " close, conclusion, 
cadence " of a period. Op. what follows. 

288 



BOOK VIII. v. n-15 

by slaying him to suffering such dishonour." 1 There 12 
is also what our modern rhetoricians call the noema, 
a term which may be taken to mean every kind of 
conception, but is employed by them in the special 
sense of things which they wish to be understood, 
though they are not actually said, as in the declama- 
tion where the sister defends herself against the 
brother whom she had often bought out from the 
gladiatorial school, when he brought an action 
against her demanding the infliction of a similar 
mutilation because she had cut off his thumb while 
he slept: "You deserved," she cries, "to have all 
your fingers," meaning thereby, " You deserved to 
be a gladiator all your days." There is also what 13 
is called a clausula. If this merely means a con- 
clusion, it is a perfectly correct and sometimes a 
necessary device, as in the following case : " You 
must, therefore, first confess your own offence before 
you accuse Ligarius of anything." 2 But to-day 
something more is meant, for our rhetoricians want 
every passage, every sentence to strike the ear by 
an impressive close. In fact, they think it a dis- 14 
grace, nay, almost a crime, to pause to breathe 
except at the end of a passage that is designed to 
call forth applause. The result is a number of tiny 
epigrams, affected, irrelevant and disjointed. For 
there are not enough striking reflexions in the world 
to provide a close to every period. 

The following forms of reflexion are even more 15 
modern. There is the type which depends on sur- 
prise for its effect, as, for example, when Vibius 
Crispus, in denouncing the man who wore a breast- 
plate when strolling in the forum and alleged that 
he did so because he feared for his life, cried, " Who 

289 



QUINTILIAN 

facere, Qtux tibi sic timere permisit ? Et insigniter 
Africanus apud Neronem de morte matris, Rogant te, 
Caesar, Galliae tuae, ut felicitatem tuam fortiter feras. 

16 Sunt etalio relata: ut Afer Domitius, cum Cloatillam 
defenderet, cui obiectum crimen, quod virum qui 
inter rebellantes fuerat sepelisset, remiserat Claudius, 
in epilogo filios eius adloquens, Matrem tamen, inquit, 

1 7 pueri sepelilote. Et aliunde petita, id est in alium 
locum ex alio translata. Pro Spatale Crispus, quam 
qui heredem amator instituerat decessit, cum 
haberet annos duodeviginti, Hominem divinum, qui 

18 sibi indulsit. Facit quasdam sententias sola gemi- 
natio, qualis est Senecae in eo scripto, quod Nero 
ad senatum misit occisa matre, cum se periclitatum 
videri vellet : Salvum me esse adhuc nee credo nee 
gai/deo. Melior, cum ex contrariis valet : Habeo 
quern jugiam ; quern sequar non habeo. Quid, quod 

19 miser, cum loqui non posset, tacere non poterat ? Ea 
vero fit pulcherrima, cum aliqua comparatione 
clarescit. Trachalus contra Spatalen : Placet hoc 
ergo, leges, diligentissimae pudoris custodes, decimas 
uxoribus dari, quarlas meretricibus ? 

1 The point is uncertain. Possibly, as Gesner suggests, 
the sons were accusing their mother. 

2 sibi indulsit would seem to mean his appointing S. his 
heir and then being kind enough to die so soon ! But the 
point is uncertain. * Cic. ad Att. vin. vii. 2. 

4 Probably from the lost in Piso?iem, Bince St. Jerome in a 
letter to Oceanus says postea vero Pisoniano vitio, cum loqui 
\xm posset, tacere non poterat. But here again the point is 
obscure. 

8 By the lex Julia et Papia Poppaea childless wives were 
only entitled to a tenth of their husband's estate. 

290 



BOOK VIII. v. 15-19 

gave you leave to be such a coward ? " Another 
instance is the striking remark made by Africanus 
to Nero with reference to the death of Agrippina : 
" Caesar, your provinces of Gaul entreat you to bear 
your good fortune with courage." Others are of 16 
an allusive type : for example, Domitius Afer, in his 
defence of Cloatilla, whom Claudius had pardoned 
when she was accused of having buried her husband, 
who had been one of the rebels, addressed her sons 
in his peroration with the words : " Nonetheless, it 
is your duty, boys, to give your mother burial." l 
Some, again, depend on the fact that they are 17 
transferred from one context to another Crispus, 
in his defence of Spatale, whose lover had made her 
his heir and then proceeded to die at the age 
of eighteen, remarked : " What a marvellous fellow 
to gratify his passion thus ! " 2 Another type of re- 18 
flexion may be produced by the doubling of a phrase, 
as in the letter written by Seneca for Nero to be sent 
to the senate on the occasion of his mother's death, 
with a view to creating the impression that he had 
been in serious danger : — " As yet I cannot believe 
or rejoice that 1 am safe." Better, however, is the 
type which relies for its effect on contrast of opposites, 
as " I know from whom to fly, but whom to follow 
1 know not ; " 3 or, " What of the fact that the poor 
wretch, though he could not speak, could not keep 19 
silence?" 4 But to produce the most striking effect 
this type should be given point by the introduction 
of a comparison, such as is made by Trachalus in his 
speech against Spatale, where he says : " Is it your 
pleasure, then, ye laws, the faithful guardians of 
chastity, that wives should receive a tithe 5 and 
harlots a quarter ? " 

291 



QUINTILIAN 

Sed horum quidem generum et bonae dici possunt 

20 et malae. Illae semper vitiosae ut a verbo : Patres 
conscripti, sic enim incipiendum est mihi, ut memineritis 
patrum. Peius ad hue, quo magis falsum est et 
longius petitum, contra eandem sororem gladiatoris, 

21 cuius modo feci mentionem, Ad digitum pugnavi. Est 
etiam generis eiusdem, nescio an vitiosissimum, 
quotiens verborum ambiguitas cum rerum falsa 
quadam similitudine iungitur. Clarum actorem l 
iuvenis audivi, cum lecta in capite cuiusdam ossa 
sententiae gratia tenenda matri dedisset : Infeli- 
cissima femina, nondum extulisti Jilium et iam ossa legisti. 

22 Ad hoc plerique minimis etiam inventiunculis 
gaudent, quae excussae risum habent, inventae facie 
ingenii blandiuntur. De eo, qui naufragus et ante 
agrorum sterilitate vexatus in scholis fingitur se 
suspendisse : Quern neque terra recipit nee mare, pendeat. 

23 Huic simile in illo, de quo supra dixi, cui pater sua 
membra laceranti venenum dedit : Qui haec edit, debet 
hoc bibere. Et in luxuriosum, qui airoKapripqa-Lv 
simulasse dicitur: Necte laqueum, habes, quodfaucibus 

1 actorem, Spalding : actorum, A : auctorem, other MSS. 

1 The exact meaning is uncertain. The allusion may he to 
the turning up of the thumb as a sign of defeat. See sect. 12. 

2 9 2 



BOOK VIII. v. 19-23 

In these instances, however, the reflexion may 
equally well be good or bad. On the other hand, 20 
there are some which will always be bad, such as 
those which turn on plav upon words, as in the 
following case : " Conscript fathers, for I must 
address you thus that you may remember the duty 
owed to fathers." Worse still, as being more unreal 
and far-fetched, is the remark made by the gladiator 
mentioned above in his prosecution of his sister : 
"I have fought to the last finger." 1 There is 21 
another similar type, which is perhaps the worst of 
all, where the play upon words is combined with a 
false comparison. When I was a young man I heard 
a distinguished pleader, after handing a mother some 
splinters of bone taken from the head of her son 
(which he did merely to provide an occasion for his 
epigram), cry : " Unhappiest of women, your son is 
not yet dead and yet you have gathered up his 
bones ! " Moreover, most of our orators delight in 22 
devices of the pettiest kind, which seriously con- 
sidered are merely ludicrous, but at the moment of 
their production flatter their authors by a superficial 
semblance of wit. Take, for instance, the exclamation 
from the scholastic theme, where a man, after being 
ruined by the barrenness of his land, is ship- 
wrecked and hangs himself: "Let him whom 
neither earth nor sea receives, hang in mid air." A 23 
similar absurdity is to be found in the declamation, 
to which I have already referred, in which a father 
poisons his son who insists on tearing his flesh with 
his teeth : " The man who eats such flesh, deserves 
such drink." Or again, take this passage from the 
theme of the luxurious man who is alleged to have 
pretended to starve himself to death : " Tie a noose 

293 



QUINTILIAN 

tuis irascaris ; sume venerium, decet luxurioxum bibendo 

24 mori. Alia vana, ut suadentis purpuratis, ut Alex- 
andrum Babylonis incendio sepeliant, Alexandrum 
xepelio ; hoc quixquam spectabit a tecto ? quasi vero id 
sit in re tota indignissimum. Alia nimia ut de 
Germanis dicentem quendam audivi, Caput nescin 
ubi imposilum ; et de viro forti, Bella umbone propellit. 

25 Sed finis non erit, si singulas corruptorum persequar 
formas. Illud potius, quod est magis necessarium. 

Duae sunt diversae opiniones, aliorum sententias 
solas paene spectantium, aliorum omnino damnan- 
tium ; quorum mihi neutrum admodum placet. 

26 Densitas earum obstat invicem ; ut in satis omnibus 
fructibusque arborum nihil ad iustam magnitudinem 
adolescere potest, quod loco in quern crescat caret, 
nee pictura, in qua nihil circumlitum est, eminet ; — 
ideoque artifices etiam, cum plura in unam tabulam 
opera contulerunt, spatiis distinguunt, ne umbrae in 

27 corpora cadant. Facit res eadem concisam quoque 
orationem ; subsistit enim omnis sententia, ideoque 
post earn utique aliud est initium. Unde soluta fere 

1 Is this a suggestion that the Germans are monsters 
"whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders" or that 
they are so tall that their heads are lost in the clouds ? 

2 94 



BOOK VIII. v. 23-27 

for yourself: you have good reason to be angry with 
your throat. Take poison : it is fit that a luxurious 
man should die of drink ! " Others are merely 24 
fatuous, such as the remark of the declaimer who 
urges the courtiers of Alexander to provide him with 
a tomb by burning down Babylon. " I am burying 
Alexander. Shall any man watch such a burial from 
his housetop ? " As if this were the climax of 
indignities ! Others fail from sheer extravagance. 
For example, I once heard a rhetorician who was 
declaiming about the Germans, say: "I know not 
where they carry their heads," 1 and again when 
belauding a hero, "He beats back whole wars with 
the boss of his shield." However, I shall never 25 
come to an end if I try to describe every possible 
form of this kind of absurdity. I will therefore turn 
to discuss a point of more importance. 

Rhetoricians are divided in opinion on this subject : 
some devote practically all their efforts to the 
elaboration of reflexions, while others condemn their 
employment altogether. I cannot agree entirely 
with either view. If they are crowded too thick 26 
together, such reflexions merely stand in each other's 
way, just as in the case of crops and the fruits of 
trees lack of room to grow results in a stunted 
development. Again in pictures a definite outline 
is required to throw objects into relief, and conse- 
quently artists who include a number of objects in 
the same design separate them by intervals sufficient 
to prevent one casting a shadow on the other. 
Further, this form of display breaks up our speeches 27 
into a number of detached sentences ; every reflexion 
is isolated, and consequently a fresh start is necessary 
after each. This produces a discontinuous style, since 

*95 



QUINTILIAN 

oratio et e singulis non membris sed frustis collata 
structura caret, cum ilia rotunda et undique circunv 

28 cisa insistere invicem nequeant. Praeter hoc etiam 
color ipse dicendi quamlibet clans, multis tamen ac 
variis velut maculis conspergitur. Porro, ut adfert 
lumen clavus purpurae in loco insertus, 1 ita certe 
neminem deceat intertexta pluribus notis vestis. 

29 Quare, licet haec et nitere et aliquatenus exstare 
videantur, tamen et lumina ilia non flammae, sed 
scintillis inter fumum emicantibus similia dixeris 
(quae ne apparent quidem, ubi tota lucet oratio, ut 
in sole sidera ipsa desinunt cerni) ; et, quae crebris 
parvisque conatibus se attollunt, inaequalia tantum 
et velut confragosa nee admirationem consequuntur 

30 eminentium et planorum gratiam perdunt. Hoc 
quoque accedit quod solas captanti sententias multas 
dicere necesse est leves, frigidas, ineptas. Non enim 
potest esse dilectus, ubi numero laboratur. Itaque 
videas et divisionem pro sententia poni et argumen- 
tum ; sit tantum in clausula nee 2 male pronuntietur. 

31 Occidisti uxorem ipse adulter; non f err em te, etiamsi 
repadiasses, divisio est. Vis scire, venerium esse amator- 
ium ? Viveret homo, nisi Mud bibisset, argumentum est. 

1 adferent lumen clavus et purpurae, B (adferunt, 
Spalding). 

2 clausula nee male, Halm : clausula et male, B : clausulae 
calce, A. 

296 



BOOK VIII. v. 27-31 

our language is composed not of a system of limbs, 
but of a series of fragments : for your nicely rounded 
and polished phrases are incapable of cohesion. 
Further, the colour, though bright enough, has no 28 
unity, but consists of a number of variegated splashes. 
A purple stripe appropriately applied lends brilliance 
to a dress, but a dress decorated with a quantity of 
patches can never be becoming to anybody. Where- 29 
fore, although these ornaments may seem to stand 
out with a certain glitter of their own, they are 
rather to be compared to sparks flashing through 
the smoke than to the actual brilliance of flame : 
they are, in fact, invisible when the language is of 
uniform splendour, just as the stars are invisible in 
the light of day. And where eloquence seeks to 
secure elevation by frequent small efforts, it merely 
produces an uneven and broken surface which fails 
to win the admiration due to outstanding objects 
and lacks the charm that may be found in a smooth 
surface. To this must be added the fact that those 30 
who devote themselves solely to the production of 
reflexions cannot avoid giving utterance to many that 
are trivial, flat or foolish. For their mere number 
will so embarrass their author that selection will be 
impossible. Consequently you will often find that 
such persons will produce a division or an argument as 
if it were an epigram, the only qualification necessary 
being that it should come toward the close of the 
period and be impressively delivered. "You killed 31 
your wife, though you were an adulterer yourself. I 
should loathe you even if you had only divorced her." 
Here we have a division. " Do you wish me to prove 
that a love-philtre is a poison ? The man would still 
be living, if he had not drunk it " This is an argu- 

297 



QUINTILIAN 

Nee multas plerique sententias dicunt, sed omnia 

32 tanquam sententias. Huic quibusdam contrarium 
studium, qui fugiunt ac reformidant oranem hanc 
in dicendo voluptatem, nihil probantes nisi planum 
et humile et sine conatu. Ita, dum timent, ne 
aliquando cadant, semper iacent. Quod enim 
tantum in sententia bona crimen est ? Non causae 
prodest? non iudicem movet? non dicentem com- 

33 mendat? Est quoddam genus, quo veteres non 
utebantur. Ad quam usque nos vocatis vetustatem ? 
Nam si illam extremam, multa Demosthenes, quae 
ante eum nemo. Quomodo potest probare Cice- 
ronem, qui nihil putet ex Catone Gracchisque 
mutandum ? Sed ante hos simplicior adhuc ratio 

34 loquendi fuit. Ego vero haec lumina orationis velut 
oculos quosdam esse eloquentiae credo. Sed neque 
oculos esse toto corpore velim, ne cetera membra 
officium suum perdant ; et, si necesse sit, veterem 
ilium horrorem dicendi malim quam istam novam 
licentiam. Sed patet media quaedam via, sicut in 
cultu victuque accessit aliquis citra reprehensionem 
nitor. Quare, sicut possumus, adiiciamus virtutibus ; 
298 



BOOK VIII. v. 31-34 

ment. There are, moreover, a number of speakers 
who not merely deliver many such epigrams, but 
utter everything as if it were an epigram. Against 32 
these persons, on the other hand, must be set those 
who shun and dread all ornament of this kind, approv- 
ing nothing that is not plain, humble and effortless, 
with the result that by their reluctance to climb for 
fear of falling they succeed merely in maintaining a 
perpetual flatness. What sin is there in a good 
epigram ? Does it not help our case, or move the 
judge, or commend the speaker to his audience ? 
It may be urged, perhaps, that it is a form of 3 3 
ornament eschewed by the ancients. What do you 
mean by antiquity ? If you go back to the earliest 
periods you will find that Demosthenes frequently 
employed methods that were known to none before 
him. How can we give our approval to Cicero, if we 
think that no change should be made from the 
methods of Cato and the Gracchi ? And yet before 
the Gracchi and Cato the style of oratory was simpler 
still. For my own part I regard these particular 34 
ornaments of oratory to be, as it were, the eyes of 
eloquence. On the other hand, I should not like to 
see the whole body full of eyes, for fear that it might 
cripple the functions of the other members, and, if I 
had no alternative, I should prefer the rudeness of 
ancient eloquence to the license of the moderns. 
But a middle course is open to us here no less than 
in the refinements of dress and mode of life, where 
there is a certain tasteful elegance that offends no 
one. Therefore let us as far as possible seek to in- 
crease the number of our virtues, although our first 
care must always be to keep ourselves free from 
vices, lest in seeking to make ourselves better than 

299 



QUINTILIAN 

prius tamen sit vitiis carere, ne, dum volumus esse 
meliores veteribus, simus tantum dissimiles. 
35 Reddam nunc, quam proximam partem dixeram 
esse de tropis, quos modos clarissimi nostrorum 
auctores vocant. Horum tradere praecepta et gram- 
matici solent. Sed a me, cum de illorum officio 
loquerer, dilata pars haec est, quia de ornatu 
orationis gravior videbatur locus et maiori operi 
reservandus. 

VI. Tropus est verbi vel sermonis a propria signifi- 
catione in aliam cum virtute mutatio. Circa quern 
inexplicabilis et grammaticis inter ipsos et philoso- 
pliis pugna est, quae sint genera, quae species, qui 

2 numerus, quis cuique subiiciatur. Nos omissis, quae 
nihil ad instruendum oratorem pertinent, cavillationi- 
bus, necessarios maxime atque in usum receptos 
exsequemur, haec modo in his adnotasse contenti, 
quosdam gratia significationis quosdam decoris 
assumi, et esse alios in verbis propriis alios in 
tralatis, vertique formas non verborum modo sed 

3 et sensuum et compositionis. Quare mihi videntur 
errasse, qui non alios crediderunt tropos, quam in 
quibus verbum pro verbo poneretur. Neque illud 
300 



BOOK VIII. v. 34-vi. 3 

the ancients we succeed merely in making ourselves 
unlike them. 

I will now proceed to the next subject for dis- 35 
cussion, which is, as I have said, that of tropes, or modes, 
as the most distinguished Roman rhetoricians call 
them. Rules for their use are given by the teachers 
of literature as well. But I postponed the discussion 
of the subject when I was dealing with literary 
education, because it seemed to me that the theme 
would have greater importance if handled in con- 
nexion with the ornaments of oratory, and that it 
ought to be reserved for treatment on a larger scale. 

VI. By a trope is meant the artistic alteration of 
a word or phrase from its proper meaning to another. 
This is a subject which has given rise to intermin- 
able disputes among the teachers of literature, who 
have quarrelled no less violently with the philo- 
sophers than among themselves over the problem of 
the genera and species into which tropes may be 
divided, their number and their correct classification. 
I propose to disregard such quibbles as in no wise 2 
concern the training of an orator, and to proceed 
to discuss those tropes which are most necessary and 
meet with most general acceptance, contenting 
myself merely with noting the fact that some tropes 
are employed to help out our meaning and others to 
adorn our style, that some arise from words used 
properly and others from words used metaphorically, 
and that the changes involved concern not merely 
individual words, but also our thoughts and the 
structure of our sentences. In view of these facts 3 
I regard those writers as mistaken who have held 
that tropes necessarily involved the substitution of 
word for word. And I do not ignore the fact that 

301 



QUINTILIAN 

ignoro, in iisdem fere, qui significandi gratia adhiben- 
tur, esse et ornatum ; sed non idem accidet contra, 
eruntque quidam tantum ad speciem accommodati. 

4 Incipiamus igitur ab eo, qui cum frequentissimus 
est turn longe pulcherrimus, translatione dico, quae 
jX€Ta<f>opa Graece vocatur. Quae quidem cum ita est 
ab ipsa nobis concessa natura, ut indocti quoque ac 
non sentientes ea frequenter utantur, turn ita 
iucunda atque nitida, ut in oratione quamlibet clara 

5 proprio tamen lumine eluceat. Neque enim vulgaris 
esse neque humilis nee insuavis apte x ac recte modo 
adscita potest. Copiam quoque sermonis auget per- 
mutando aut mutuando quae non habet, quodque 
est difficillimum, praestat ne ulli rei nomen deesse 
videatur. Transfertur ergo nomen aut verbum ex 
eo loco in quo proprium est, in eum in quo aut 
proprium deest aut translatum proprio melius est. 

6 Id facimus, aut quia necesse est aut quia signifi- 
cantius est aut (ut dixi) quia decentius. Ubi nihil 
horum praestabit, quod transferetur, improprium 
erit. Necessitate rustici gemrnam in vitibus (quid 
enim dicerent aliud ?), et sitire segetes et f rutins 
laborare ; necessitate nos durum hominem aut aspe- 
rum ; non enim proprium erat, quod daremus his 

7 adfectibus, nomen. lam incensum ira et injlammatum 

1 apte, added by Christ. 
302 



BOOK VIII. vi. 3-7 

as a rule the tropes employed to express our meaning 
involve ornament as well, though the converse is not 
the case, since there are some which are intended 
solely for the purpose of embellishment. 

Let us begin, then, with the commonest and by far 4 
the most beautiful of tropes, namely, metaphor , the S 
Greek term for our translatio. It is not merely so • 1. 
natural a turn of speech that it is often employed un- ^j^s^ 
consciously or by uneducated persons, but it is in itself < 
so attractive and elegant that however distinguished 
the language in which it is embedded it shines forth 
with a light that is all its own. For if it be correctly 5 
and appropriately applied, it is quite impossible 
for its effect to be commonplace, mean or unpleas- 
ing. It adds to the copiousness of languag e by the \ 4 
i nterchang e of words and by borrowing, and finally 
Riippeens in arrnmnlisliinor the sunrpniplv rliffinnll- ' 



succeeds in accomplishing the supremely difficult 
task of providing a name for everything. A noun 
or a verb is transferred from the^placejto which it s/ 
properly belongs to another where there is either no 
literal term or the transferred is better than the literal. 
We do this either because it is necessary or to make 6 
our meaning clearer or, as I have already said, to pro- 
duce a decorative effect. When it secures none of 
these results, our metaphor will be<^ut of place.- As 
an example of a necessary metaphorT may quote the 
following usages in vogue with peasants when they 
call a vinebud gemma, a gem (what other term is 
there which they could use ?), or speak of the crops 
being thirsty or the fruit suffering. For the same 
reason we speak of a hard or rough man, there being 
no literal term for these temperaments. On the 7 
other hand, when we say that a man is kindled to 
anger or on fire with greed or that he has fallen into 

3°3 



QUINTILIAN 

cupiditate et lapsum errore significandi gratia ; nihil 
enim horum suis verbis quam his arcessitis magis 
proprium erit. Ilia ad ornatum, lumen oratio?ds et 
generis claritatem et contionum procellas et elo- 
quentiae fulmina, ut Cicero pro Milone Clodium 
fontem gloriae eius vocat et alio loco segetem ac 

8 materiem. Quaedam etiam parum speciosa dictu per 
hanc explicantur : 

Hoc faciunt, nimio ne luxu obtunsior usus 
Sit genitali arvo et sulcos oblimet inerles. 

In totum autem metaphora brevior est similitudo, 
eoque distat, quod ilia comparatur rei quam volumus 

9 exprimere, haec pro ipsa re dicitur. Comparatio est^ 
cum dico fecisse quid hominem ut leonem ; translatio, 
cum dico de honiine, leo est. Huius vis omnis quad- 
ruplex maxime videtur : cum in rebus animalibus 
aliud pro alio ponitur, ut de agitatore, 

Gubernalor magna conlorsit equum vii 

aut ut Livius Scipionem a Catone adlatrari solitum 

10 refert. Inanima pro aliis generis eiusdem suniuntur, 

ut: 

Classique immittit habenas ; 

1 Pro Mil. xiii. 34, 3o. * Virg. Geory. iii. 1 

3 Probably from Ennius. 4 Liv. xxxvm. liv. 

6 Aen. vi. 1. 

3°4 



BOOK VIII. vi. 7-10 

error, we do so to enhance our meaning. For none 
of these things can be more literally described in its 
own words than in those which we import from 
elsewhere. But it is a purely ornamental metaphor 
when we speak of brilliance of style, splendour of 
birth, tempestuous public assemblies, thunderbolts of 
eloquence, to which I may add the phrase employed 
by Cicero x in his defence of Milo where he speaks 
of Clodius as the fountain, and in another place as 
the fertile field and material of his client's glory. It 
is even possible to express facts of a somewhat 
unseemly character by a judicious use of metaphor, 
as in the following passage : 2 

"This do they lest too much indulgence make 
The field of generation slothful grow 
And choke its idle furrows." 

On the whole metaphor is a shorter form of simile, 
while there is this further difference, that in the 
latter we compare some object to the thing which we 
wish to describe, whereas in the former this object is J 
actually substituted for the thing. It is a com-' 
parison when I say that a man did something like a 
lion, it is a metaphor when I say of him, He is a lion. 
Metaphors fall into four classes. In the first we 
substitute one living thing for another, as in the 
passage where the poet, speaking of a charioteer, 8 
says, 

" The steersman then 
With mighty effort wrenched his charger round." 

or when Livy 4 says that Scipio was continually 
barked at by Cato. Secondly, inanimate things may 10 
be substituted for inanimate, as in the Virgilian. 

" And gave his fleet the rein," 5 

3°5 



QUINTILIAN 

aut pro rebus animalibus inanima, 

Ferron an 1 fato moerus Argivom occidit? 

aut contra : 

Sedet 2 inscius alto 
Accipiens sonitum saxi de verlice pastor. 

11 Praecipueque ex his oritur mira sublimitas, quae 
audaci et proxime periculum translatione tolluntur, 
cum rebus sensu carentibus actum quendam et 
aminos danius, qualis est 

Pontem indignatus A raxes, 

12 et ilia Ciceronis, Quid enim iuus Me, Tubero, dcstrictus 
in acie Pharsalica gladius agebai ? Cuius lalus Me mucro 
petebat ? qui seusus erat armorum tuorum ? Duplicatur 
interim haec virtus, ut apud Vergilium, 

Ferrumque armare veneno. 

Nam et veneno armare et ferrum armare translatio est. 

13 Secantur haec in plures species 3 : ut a rationali ad 
rationale et item de irrationalibus, et haec invicem, 
quibus similis ratio est, et a toto et a partibus. Sed 
iam non pueris praecipimus, ut accepto genere 
species intelligere non possint. 

14 Ut modicus autem atque opportunus eius usus 

1 ferron, BiicJieler: ferro, MSS. : an, B: non, A. 
8 stupet, MSS. of Virgil. 
3 species, added by Daniel. 



1 From an unknown tragedian. 2 Aen. ii. 307. 

8 Aen. viii. 728. * Pro Liq. iii. 9. See vm. iv. 27. 

* Aen. ix. 773. 

306 



BOOK VIII. vi. 10-14 

or inanimate mav be substituted for animate, as in 

** Did the Argive bulwark fall bv sword or fate ? " * 

or animate for inanimate, as in the following lines : 

"The shepherd sits unknowing on the height 
Listening the roar from some far mountain 
brow." 2 

But, above all, effects of extraordinary sublimity are 1 1 
produced when the theme is exalted by a bold and 
almost hazardous metaphor and inanimate objects 
are given life and action, as in the phrase 

" Araxes ' flood that scorns a bridge," 3 

or in the passage of Cicero, 4 already quoted, where 12 
he cries, " What was that sword of yours doing, 
Tubero, the sword you drew on the field of 
Pharsalus ? Against whose body did you aim its 
point? What meant those arms you bore?" Some- 
times the effect is doubled, as in Virgil's. 

" And with venom arm the steel." 5 

For both " to arm the steel " and " to arm with 
venom " are metaphors. These four kinds of 13 
metaphor are further subdivided into a number of 
species, such as transference from rational beings 
to rational and from irrational to irrational and the 
reverse, in which the method is the same, and 
finally from the whole to its parts and from the 
parts to the whole. But I am not now teaching 
bovs : my readers are old enough to discover the 
species for themselves when once they have been 
given the genus. 

While a te mper ate and timely use of metaphor is 14 

307 



QUINTILIAN 

illustrat orationem, ita frequens et obscurat et 
taedio complet, continuus vero in allegorias et 
aenigmata exit. Sunt etiam quaedam et humiles 
translationes, ut id de quo modo dixi, Saxea est 

15 verruca, et sordidae. Non enim, si Cicero recte 
sentinam rei publicae dixit, foeditatem hominum signi- 
ficans, idcirco probem illud quoque veteris oratoris, 
Persecuisti rei publicae vomicas. Optimeque Cicero 
demonstrat cavendum, ne sit deformis translatio, 
(qualis est — nam ipsis eius utar exemplis — Castratam 
morte Africani rem publicum, et Stercus curiae Glauciam) 

16 ne nimio maior aut, quod saepius accidit, minor, ne 
dissimilis. Quorum exempla nimium frequenter 
deprehendet, qui scierit haec vitia esse. Sed copia 
quoque modum egressa vitiosa est, praecipue in 

17 eadem specie. Sunt et durae, id est a longinqua 

imilitudine ductae, ut capitis nives et 

Iuppiler hibemas cana nive conspuit Alpes. 

1 See vni. iii. 48. 2 In Cat. I. v. 12. 

a De Or. in. xli. 164. 

4 From Furius, an old epic poet of the second century 
(not Furius Bibaculus), cp. Hor. 8. n. v. 11. 

308 



BOOK VIII. vi. 14-17 

a real adornment to style, on the other hand, its . 
frequent use serves merely to obscure our language \ 
and weary our audience, while if we introduce them 
in one continuous series, our language will become 
allegori cal and enigmatic . There are also certain 
metaphors which fail from meanness, such as that 
of which I spoke above 1 : 

" There is a rocky wart upon the mountain's 
brow." 

or they may even be coarse. For it does not 
follow that because Cicero was perfectly justified 
in talking of "the sink of the state/' 2 when 
he desired to indicate the foulness of certain 
men, we can approve the following passage from 
an ancient orator : " You have lanced the boils 
of the state." Indeed Cicero 3 himself has demon- 15 
strated in the most admirable manner how impor- 
tant it is to avoid grossness in metaphor, such 
as is revealed by the following examples, which he 
quotes : — " The state was gelded by the death of 
Africanus," or " Glaucia, the excrement of the 
senate-house." He also points out that a metaphor 16 
must not be too great for its subject or, as is more 
frequently the case, too little, and that it must not 
be inappropriate. Anyone who realises that these 
are faults, will be able to detect instances of them 
only too frequently. But excess in the use of meta- 
phor is also a fault, more especially if they are of the 
same species. Metaphors may also be harsh, that is, ljT 
far-fetched, as in phrases like "the snows of the 
head " or 

"Jove with white snow the wintry Alps bespewed." 4 

309 



QUINTIL1AN 

In illo vero plurimum erroris, quod ea, quae poetis, 
qui et omnia ad voluptatem referunt et plurima 
vertere etiam ipsa metri necessitate coguntur, per- 
missa sunt, convenire quidam etiam prosae putant. 

18 At ego in agendo nee pastorem populi auctore 
Homero dixerim, nee volucres per aera nare?- licet 
hoc Vergilius in apibus ac Daedalo speciosissime sit 
usus. Metaphora enim aut vacantem occupare locum 
debet aut, si in alienum venit, plus valere eo quod 
expellet. 

1 9 Quod aliquanto etiam 2 magis de sjmecdoche dicam. 
Nam translatio permovendis animis plerumque et 
signandis rebus ac sub oculos subiiciendis reperta 
est. Haec variare sermonem potest, ut ex uno 
plures intelligamus, parte totum, specie genus, 
praecedentibus sequentia, vel omnia haec contra ; 

20 liberior poetis quam oratoribus. Nam prosa, ut 
mucronem pro gladio et tectum pro domo recipiet, ita 
non puppim pro navi nee abietem pro tabellis ; et 
rursus, ut pro gladio ferrnm, ita non pro equo 
quadrupedem. Maxime autem in orando valebit 

1 Per aera nare, Halm following Burmann : sperae 
sanare, G. : pennis remigare, A. 

i aliquanto etiam, Iiegius : aliquando pentiam, AG: paene 
etiam Obrecht. 

1 Georg. iv. 59. Aen. vi. 16 and 19. 
310 



BOOK VIII. vi. 17-20 

The worst errors of all, however, originate in the 
fact that some authors regard it as permissible to 
use even in prose any metapho rs that are allowed to -^^^ 
poets, in spite of the fact that the latter aim solely 
at pleasing their readers and are compelled in many 
cases to employ metaphor by sheer metrical neces- 
sity. For my own part I should not regard a phrase 18 
like " the shepherd of the people " as admissible in 
pleading, although it has the authority of Homer, 
nor would I venture to say that winged creatures 
"swim through the air," despite the fact that this 
metaphor has been most effectively employed by 
Virgil to describe the flight of bees and of Dae- 
dalus. 1 For metaphor should always either occupy 
I a^place) already vacant, or if it fills the room of some- fJL+ 
1 thing else, should be more impressive than that 
/ which it displaces. 

What I have said above applies perhaps with even 19 
greater force to synecdoche. For while metaphor is 
designed to move the feelings, give special dis- 
tinction to things and place them vividly before 
the eye, sipiecdoche has the power to give variety to 
our language by making us realise many things 
from one, the whole from a part, the genus from a 
species, things which follow from things which have 
preceded ; or, on the other hand, the whole pro- 
cedure may be reversed. It may, however, be more 
freely employed by poets than by orators. For 20 
while in prose it is perfectly correct to use vmcro, 
the point, for the whole sword, and tectum, roof, for a 
whole house, we may not employ puppis, stern, to 
describe a ship, nor abies, fir, to describe planks ; 
and again, though ferrum, the steel, may be used to 
indicate a sword, quadrupes cannot be used in the 

3" 



QUINTILIAN 

numerorum ilia libertas. Nam et Livius saepe sic 
dicit, Romanus proelio victor, cum Romanos vicisse 
significat ; et contra Cicero ad Brutum, Populo, 
inquit, imposuimus et oratores visi sumus, cum de se 

21 tantum loqueretur. Quod genus non orationis modo 
ornatus, sed etiam cotidiani sermonis usus recipit. 
Quidam synecdochen vocant et cum id in contextu 
sermonis quod tacetur accipimus ; verbum enim ex 
verbis intelligi, quod inter vitia ellipsis vocatur : 

Arcades ad porlas mere. 

22 Mihi hanc figuram esse magis placet ; illic ergo 
reddetur. Aliud etiam intelligitur ex alio : 

Aspice, aratra iugo referunt siisperisa invenci, 

unde apparet noctem appropinquare. Id nescio an 
oratori conveniat nisi in argumentando, cum rei 
signum est. Sed hoc ab elocutionis ratione distat. 

23 Nee procul ab hoc genere discedit metonymia, quae 
est nominis pro nomine positio, 1 sed, ut ait Cicero, 
hypallagen rhetores dicunt. Haec inventas ab 

1 The MSS. here inserts the words cuius vis est pro eo quod 
dicitur causam propter quam dicitur ponere ("the substitu- 
tion of the cause for which we say a thing in place of the 
thing to which we refer"). The words are expunged by 
Spalding as a manifest gloss, so clumsily worded as to be barely 
intelligible, but intended to mean " the substitution of cause 
for effect. " 

1 This letter is lost. 

2 Aen. xi. 142. A false explanation of the historic in- 
finitive as involving the omission of some such word as 
coeperunt. s Ed. ii. 66. * Oral, xxvii. 93. 

312 



BOOK VIII. vi. 20-23 

sense of horse. It is where numbers are concerned 
that synecdoche can be most freely employed in 
prose. For example, Livy frequently says, "The 
Roman won the day," when he means that the 
Romans were victorious ; on the other hand, Cicero 
in a letter to Brutus l says, " We have imposed on 
the people and are regarded as orators," when he is 
speaking of himself alone. This form of trope is 21 
not only a rhetorical ornament, but is frequently 
employed in everyday speech. Some also apply the 
term synecdoche when something is assumed which 
has not actually been expressed, since one word is 
then discovered from other words, as in the sentence, 

"The Arcadians to the gates began to rush;" 2 

when such omission creates a blemish, it is called an 
ellipse. For my own part, I prefer to regard this as 22 
a figure, and shall therefore discuss it under that 
head. Again, one thing may be suggested by 
another, as in the line, 

"Behold, the steers 
Bring back the plough suspended from the 
yoke," 3 

from which we infer the approach of night. I am 
not sure whether this is permissible to an orator 
except in arguments, when it serves as an indication 
of some fact. However, this has nothing to do with 
the question of style. 

It is but a short step from synecdoche to metonymy, 23 
which consists in the substitution of one name for 
another, and, as Cicero 4 tells us, is called hypallage 
by the rhetoricians. These devices are employed to 
indicate an invention by substituting the name of 

313 



QUINTILIAN 

inventore et subiectas res ab obtinentibus signi- 
ficat : ut 

Cererem corruptam undis, 
et 

receptus 
Terra Nepfunus classes Aquilonibtis arcet. 

24 Quod fit retrorsum durius. Refert autem in quantum 
hie tropus oratorem sequatur. Nam ut Vulcanum pro 
igne vulgo audimus, et vario Marte pugnatum eruditus 
est sermo, et Venerem quam coitum dixisse magis 
decet, ita Libcrum et Cererem pro vino et pane 
licentius quam ut fori severitas ferat. Sicut ex eo, 
quod continetur, usus recipit bene moratas urbes et 

25 poculum epotum et saeculum felix ; at id, quod contra 
est, raro audeat quis, nisi poeta : 

iam proxlmus ardet Ucalegon. 

Nisi forte hoc potius est, a possessore quod possidetur, 
ut hominem devorari, cuius patrimonium consumatur. 

26 Quo modo fiunt innumerabiles species. Huius enim 
sunt generis, cum ab Hannibale caesa apud Cannas 
sexaginta milia dicimus, et carmina Vergilii Vergilium ; 



1 Aen. i. 177. * A. P. 63. 

3 Aen. ii. 311. 



3M 



BOOK VIII. vi, 23-26 

the inventor, or a possession by substituting the 
name of the possessor. Virgil, for example, writes :* 

" Ceres by water spoiled," 

and Horace : 

"Neptune admitted to the land 
Protects the fleets from blasts of Aquilo." 2 

If, however, the process is reversed, the effect is 
harsh. But it is important to enquire to what 24 
extent tropes of this kind should be employed by 
the orator. For though we often hear u Vulcan " 
used for fire and to say vario Marie pugnalum est for 
"they fought with varying success" is elegant and 
idiomatic, while Venus is a more decent expression 
than coitus, it would be too bold for the severe style 
demanded in the courts to speak of Liber and Ceres 
when we mean bread and wine. Again, while usage 
permits us to substitute that which contains for that 
which is contained, as in phrases such as "civilised 
cities," or "a cup was drunk to the lees," or "a 
happy age," the converse procedure would rarely be 25 
ventured on by any save a poet : take, for example, 
the phrase : 

" Ucalegon burns next." 3 

It is, however, perhaps more permissible to describe 
what is possessed by reference to its possessor, as, 
for example, to say of a man whose estate is being 
squandered, ** the man is being eaten up." Of this 
form there are innumerable species. For example, 26 
we say " sixty thousand men were slain bv Hannibal 
at Cannae," and speak of " Virgil " when we mean 
"Virgil's poems"; again, we say that supplies have 

315 



QUINTILIAN 

venisse commeatus, qui adferantur ; sacrilegium de- 
prehensum, non sacrilegum ; armorum scientiam 
•27 habere, non artis. Illud quoque et poetis et oratori- 
bus frequens, quo id, quod efficit, ex eo, quod 
efficitur, ostendimus. Nam et carminum auctores, 

Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas, 
et 

Pallentesque habitant morli trislisque senectus, 

el orator praecipitevi iram, hilarem adolescentiam, segne 
oiium dicet. 

28 Est etiam huic tropo quaedam cum synecdoche 
vicinia. Nam, cum dico vultiw hominis pro vultu, dico 
pluraliter quod singulare est ; sed non id ago, ut 
unum ex multis intelligatur (nam id est manifestum), 
sed nomen immuto x ; et cum aurata tecta aurea, 
pusillum a vero discedo, quia non est nisi 2 pars aura- 
tura. Quae singula persequi minutioris est curae 
etiam non oratorem instruentibus. 

29 Antonomasia, quae aliquid pro nomine ponit, 
poetis utroque modo frequentissima, et per epitheton, 
quod detracto eo, cui apponitur, valet pro nomine, 
Tydides, Pelides : et ex his, quae in quoque sunt 
praecipua, 

Divum pater atque hominum rex ; 

1 immuto, early edd. :- malta, MSS. 

2 nisi added by Badius. 

1 Hor. Od. i. iv. 13. 2 Aen. vi. 275 

8 The son of Tydeus =Diomede, the son of Peleus = 
Achilles. * Aen. i. 65. 

316 



BOOK VIII. vi. 26-29 

"come," when they have been "brought," that a 
"sacrilege," and not a "sacrilegious man" has been 
detected, and that a man possesses a knowledge of 
"arms," not of "the art of arms." The type which 27 
indicates cause by effect is common both in poets 
and orators. As examples from poetry I may quote : 

"Pale death with equal foot knocks at the poor 
man's door " 1 
and 

"There pale diseases dwell and sad old age;"* 

while the orator will speak of "headlong anger," 
"cheerful youth " or "slothful ease." 

The following type of trope has also some kinship 28 
with synecdoche. For when I speak of a man's 
"looks" instead of his "look," I use the plural for 
the singular, but mv aim is not to enable one thing 
to be inferred from many (for the sense is clear 
enough), but I merely vary the form of the word. 
Again, when I call a "gilded roof" a " golden roof," 
I diverge a little from the truth, because gilding 
forms only a part of the roof. But to follow out 
these points is a task involving too much minute 
detail even for a work whose aim is not the 
training of an orator. 

Antonomasia, which substitutes something else for 29 
a proper name, is very common in poets : it may be 
done in two ways : by the substitution of an epithet 
as equivalent to the name which it replaces, such as 
"Tvdides," " Pelides," 3 or by indicating the most 
striking characteristics of an individual, as in the 
phrase 

" Father of gods and king of men," 4 

317 



QUINTILIAN 

et ex factis, quibus persona signatur, 

Thalamo quae fixa reliquit 
Impius. 

30 Oratoribus etiamsi rarus eius rei, nonnullus tamen 
usus est. Nam ut Tydiden et Peliden non dixerint, 
ita dixerint impios et parricidas ; eversorem quoque 
Carthaginis et Numantiae pro Scipione et Romanae 
eloquentiae principem pro Cicerone posuisse non 
dubitem. Ipse certe usus est hac libertate : Non 
multa peccas, inquit Me fortissimo viro senior magister ; 
neutrum enim nomen est positum et utrumque 
intelligitur. 

31 Onomatopoea quidem, id est fictio nominis, Graecis 
inter maximas habita virtutes, nobis vix permittitur. 
Et sunt plurima ita posita ab iis, qui sermonem primi 
fecerunt aptantes adfectibus vocem. Nam mugitus 

32 et sibilus et murmur inde venerunt. Deinde, tan- 
quam consummata l sint omnia, nihil generare au- 
demus ipsi, cum multa cotidie ab antiquis ficta 
moriantur. Vix ilia, quae TteTvoirjixiva vocant, quae 
ex vocibus in usum receptis quocunque modo de- 
clinantur, nobis permittiinus, qualia sunt Sullaturit 
et proscripturit ; atque laureati postes pro illo lauru 

1 consummata, Badius: consumpta, MSS. 



1 Aen. iv. 495. This third example does not correspond 
with the twofold division given by utroque and may be 
spurious. 

* Pro Muren. xxix. 60. The passage continues (a quotation 
from some old play) " But you have faults and I can correct 
them." Phoenix is addressing his pupil Achilles. 

8 Cic. ad Alt. ix. x. 6. 

3i8 



BOOK VIII. vi. 29-32 

or from acts clearly indicating the individual, as in 
the phrase, 

* The arms which he, the traitor, left 
Fixed on the chamber wall." * 

This form of trope is rare in oratory, but is occa- 30 
sionally employed, For although an orator would 
not say "Tydides" or " Pelides," he will speak of 
certain definite persons as "the impious parricides," 
while I should have no hesitation in speaking of 
Scipio as " the destroyer of Carthage and Numantia," 
or of Cicero as "the prince of Roman orators." 
Cicero himself, at any rate, availed himself of this 
licence, as, for example, in the following case : " Your 
faults are not many, said the old praeceptor to the 
hero," 2 where neither name is given, though both 
are clearlv understood. 

On the other hand, onomatopoea, that is to say, the 31 
creation of a word, although regarded with the 
highest approbation by the Greeks, is scarcely per- 
missible to a Roman. It is true that many words 
were created in this way by the original founders of 
the language, who adapted them to suit the sensation 
which they expressed. For instance, mugitus, lowing, 
sibilus. a hiss, and murmur owe their origin to this 
practice. But to-day we consider that all has been 32 
done that can be done in this line, and do not venture 
I on fresh creations, in spite of the fact that many 
(^of the words thus formed in antiquity are daily 
becoming obsolete. Indeed, we scarcely permit our- 
selves to use new derivatives, so they are called, 
which are formed in various ways from words in 
common use, such as Sullaturit, 3 " he wishes to be 
a second Sulla," or proscripturit, "he wishes to have 

319 



QU1NTILIAN 

33 coronati, ex eadem fictione sunt. Sed hoc feliciter 
evaluit * adoinoia et uio eo ferimus in Graecis 
ocoeludituinobono eo dure etiam iungere, arquitol- 
lentem et videre septentriones videmur *. 

34 Eo magis necessaria catachresis, quam recte dici- 
mus abusionem, quae non habentibus noraen suum 
accommodat quod in proximo est : sic 

Equum divina Pa Had is arte 
Aedificant, 

35 et apud Tragicos Aigialeo parentat 1 paler. Similia 2 
sunt haec : acetabula quidquid habent, et pi/xidc.s 
cuiuscunque materiae sunt, et parricida matris quo- 
que aut fratris interfector. Discernend unique est 
hoc totum a translatione 3 genus, quod abusio est, 
ubi nomen defuit, translatio, ubi aliud fuit. Nam 
poetae solent abusive etiam in his rebus, quibus 
nomina sua sunt, vicinis potius uti ; quod rarum in 

36 prosa est. Ilia quoque quidam catachresis volunt esse, 
cum pro temeritate virtus aut pro luxuria Uberalitas 
dicitur. A quibus ego quidem dissentio; namque in 

1 A <'«ialeo parentat, Gertz: aigialeo paretat, A G. 

2 Similia. Gfsner : mille, MSS. 

3 a translatione, Regius: translationis istud, MSS. 

1 This passage is too corrupt to admit of emendation or 
translation. There seem to be references to vio for eo and to 
arquitollens, for which cp. arquitenem. Septemtriones can 
hardly be selected for censure, as it is not uncommon. 

8 Aen. ii. xv. It is an abuse to say aedificant, which means 
literally " the}' make a house. 

320 



BOOK VIII. vi. 32-36 

a proscription," while laureati postes, " laurelled 
door-posts," for lauru coronati, "crowned with 
laurel," are similar formations. ****** 33 
* * * * * * * * * 1 

These facts make catachresis (of which abuse is a 34 
correct translation) all the more necessary. By this 
term is meant the practice of adapting the nearest 
available term to describe something for which no 
actual term exists, as in the line 

"A horse they build by Pallas' art divine,' 2 

or as in the expression found in tragedy, 

"To Aigialeus 
His sire bears funeral offerings," 3 

The following examples are of a similar character. 3". 
Flasks are called acetabular whatever they contain, 
and caskets pyxides, 5 of whatever material thev are 
made, while parricide includes the murder of a 
mother or a brother. We must be careful to 
distinguish between abuse and metaphor, since the 
former is employed where there is no proper term 
available, and the latter when there is another term 
available. As for poets, they indulge in the abuse 
of words even in cases where proper terms do exist, 
and substitute words of somewhat similar meaning. 
But this is rare in prose. Some, indeed, would give 3b 
the name of catachresis even to cases such as where 
we call temerity valour or prodigality liberality. 
I, however, cannot agree with them ; for in these 

3 Perhaps from the Medus of Pacuvius It is an abuse to 
use parental of funeral offerings made by father to son. 

4 Lit. vinegar flasks. ' i.e. made of boxwood. 

321 
VOL. III. M 



QU1NTIL1AN 

his non verbum pro verbo ponitur, sed res pro re. 
Neque enim quisquam putat luxuriam et liberalitatem 
idem significare; verum id quod fit alius luxuriam 
esse dicit, alius liberalitatem, quamvis neutri dubium 
sit haec esse diversa. 

37 Superest ex his, quae aliter significant, metalepsis, 
id est transumptio, quae ex alio tropo in alium velut 
viam praestat ; hie nisi in comoediis x et rarissimus 
et improbissimus, Graecis tamen frequentior, qui 
Centaurum qui Xeipwv est "Ho-o-ora et insulas o£ttas 
6oa<;' 2 dicunt. Nos quis ferat, si Verrem suem aut 

38 Aelium Catum doctum nominemus? Est enim haec 
in metalepsi natura, ut inter id quod transfertur et 
in quod transfertur 3 sit medius quidam gradus, 
nihil ipse significans sed praebens transitum ; quern 
tropum magis adfectamus, ut habere videamur, quam 
ullo in loco desideramus. Nam id eius frequentissi- 
mum exemplum est cano canto, canto dico ; ita cano, 

39 dico. Interest medium illud canto. Nee diutius in 
eo morandum ; nihil enim usus admodum video nisi, 4 
ut dixi, in comoediis. 

40 Cetera iam non significandi gratia sed ad ornandam 
et augendam orationem assumuntur. Ornat enim 
epitheton, quod recte dicimus appositum, a nonnullis 

1 I have added hie nisi in comoediis, cp. 39 below. 

2 Centaurum, Regius: scient aurum, AG. : "Ho-<rova, Meister: 
hoccona, AG. : insulas oxias thoas, cod. Par. 7530: insulam 
EM^IACQOAC, AG. 

3 et in quod transfertur, Halm : et in quo transfertur, 
rod. Par. 7530 : om. A G. 

4 nihil enim . . . nisi, Eegins: innisi . . . nihil, AG. 

1 xtlpw an d fica-oiv both mean inferior. 

* cp. Od. xv. 298. @o6s is used elsewhere to express 
sharpness. 8 Verres = boar ; Catus=wise. 

* fn the sense of to repeat. 

322 



BOOK VIII. vi. 36-40 

instances word is not substituted for word, but thing 
for thing, since no one regards prodigality and liber- 
ality as meaning the same, but one man calls certain 
actions liberal and another prodigal, although neither 
for a moment doubts the difference between the two 
qualities. 

There is but one of the tropes involving change of 37 
meaning which remains to be discussed, namely, 
metalepsis or transumption. which provides a transition 
from one trope to another. It is (if we except 
comedy) but rarely used in Latin, and is by no means 
to be commended, though it is not infrequently 
employed by the Greeks, who, for example, call Xeipwv 
the centaur "Hcrcrwv 1 and substitute the epithet 6oai 
(swift) for 6£eiai 2 in referring to sharp-pointed 
islands. But who would endure a Roman if he 
called Verres sits 3 or changed the name of Aelius 
Catus to Aelius doitus ? It is the nature of metalepsis 38 
to form a kind of intermediate step between the 
term transferred and the thing to which it is trans- 
ferred, having no meaning in itself, but merely 
providing a transition. It is a trope with which to 
claim acquaintance, rather than one which we are 
ever likely to require to use. The commonest 
example is the following : cano is a synonym 
for canto and canto* for dico, therefore cano is a 
synonym for dico, the intermediate step being pro- 
vided by canto. We need not waste any more time 39 
over it. I can see no use in it except, as I have 
already said, in comedy. 

The remaining tropes are employed solely to 40 
adorn and enhance our style without any reference 
to the meaning. For the epithet, of which the correct 
translation is appositum, though some call it sequent, 

3 2 3 



QUINTILIAN 

sequens dicitur. Eo poetae et frequentius et liberius 
utuntur. Namque illis satis est convenire id verbo, 
cui apponitur, itaque et denies albos et humida vina in 
iis non reprehendemus ; apud oratorem, nisi aliquid 
efficitur, redundat. Turn autem efficitur, si sine illo, 
quod dicitur, minus est : qualia sunt scelus abomi- 

41 nandum, o deformem libidinem. Exornatur autem res 
tota maxime trauslationibus, Cupiditas effrenata et 
Insanae stibslructiones. Et solet fieri aliis adiunctis 
epitheton tropus, ut apud Vergilium Turpis egestas 
et Tristis senectus. Verumtamen talis est ratio 
huiusce virtutis, ut sine appositis nuda sit et velut 

42 incompta oratio, oneretur tamen multis. Nam fit 
longa et impedita, ut [in quaestionibus] earn iudices \ 
similem agmini totidem lixas habenti quot milites, 
cui et numerus est duplex nee duplum virium ; 
quanquam non singula modo sed etiam plura verba 
apponi solent : ut 

Coniugio Anchise Veneris dignale superbo. 

43 Sed hoc quocunque modo : duo vero 2 uni apposita ne 
versum quidem decuerint. Sunt autem, quibus non 
videatur hie omnino tropus, quia nihil vertat. Nee 

1 iudices, vulgo : iungas, MSS. in quaestionibus is clearly 
corrupt. 

2 quocunque . . . vero, Spalding : quoque . . . verba, 

MSB: 

1 Georg. m. 364. • Cic. in Cat. I. x. 25. 

* Pro Mil. xx. 53. 

4 Aen. vi. 276 and 275. Here the addition is metonymy, 
turpis and tristis both substituting effect in place of cause : 
cp. § 27. 

8 Aen. iii. 475. I have translated 476 (cura deum, bis 
Pergameis erepte minis) as well to bring out Quintilian's mean- 
ing. Quintilian assumes the rest of quotation to be known. 

3^4 



BOOK VIII. vi. 40-43 

is clearly an ornament. Poets employ it with special 
frequency and freedom, since for them it is sufficient 
that the epithet should suit the word to which it is 
applied : consequently we shall not blame them 
when they speak of " white teeth " or " liquid 
wine." J But in oratory an epithet is redundant 
unless it has some point. Now it will only have 
point when it adds something to the meaning, as for 
instance in the following: "O abominable crime, O 
hideous lust!" But its decorative effect is greatest 41 
when it is metaphorical, as in the phrases " unbridled 
greed" 2 or "those mad piles of masonry." 3 The 
epithet is generally made into a trope by the addition 
of something to it, as when Virgil speaks of "dis- 
graceful povertv " or "sad old age." 4 But the nature 
of this form of embellishment is such that, while 
style is bare and inelegant without any epithets 
at all, it is overloaded when a large number are 
employed. For then it becomes long-winded and 42 
cumbrous, in fact you might compare it to an army 
with as many camp-followers as soldiers, an army, that 
is to say, which has doubled its numbers without 
doubling its strength. None the less, not merely 
single epithets are employed, but we may find a 
number of them together, as in the following passage 
from Virgil : 5 

" Anchises, worthy deigned 
Of Venus ' glorious bed, [beloved of heaven, 
Twice rescued from the wreck of Pergamum.] " 

Be this as it may, two epithets directly attached 43 
to one noun are unbecoming even in verse. There 
are some writers who refuse to regard an epithet as a 
trope, on the ground that it involves no change. It 

325 



QU1NTILIAN 

est semper, 1 sed id quod est 2 apposituin, si a proprio 
diviseris, per se significat et facit antonomasiam. 
Nam si dicas, Me qui Numantiatn et Carthaginem evertil, 
antonomasia est ; si adieceris Scipio, appositum. Non 
potest ergo esse seiunctum. 3 

44 Allegoria, quam inversionem interpretantur, aut 
aliud verbis aliud sensu ostendit aut etiam interim 
contrarium. Prius fit genus plerumque continuatis 
translationibus, ut 

navis, referent in mare te novi 
Fluctus ; o quid agis ? for liter occupa 
Portum, 

totusque ille Horatii locus, quo navem pro re publica, 
fluctus et tempestates pro bellis civilibus, portum pro 

45 pace atque concordia dicit. Tale Lucretii 

A via Pieridum peragro loca, 
et Vergilii 

Sed nos immensum spatio confecimus aequor, 
El iam tempus equum fumantia solvere col/a. 

46 Sine translatione vero in Bucolicis 

Cerle equidem audieram, qua se subducere colles 
[ncipiunt mollique iugum demitlere clivo 
Usque ad aquam et veleris iam fracta cacumina fagi, 
Omnia carminibus vestrum servasse Menalcan. 

1 nee, Spalding : necesse, MSS. 

8 sed id quod est, cod. Paris 7530 : sed cum id est AG. 

3 seiunctum, Christ : iunctum, MSS. 

1 Hor. Od. i. xiv. 1. * Liter, iv. 1. 

3 Georg. n. 541. * Buc. ix. 7. 

326 



BOOK VI II. w. 43-46 

is not always a trope, but if separated from the word to 
which it belongs, it has a significance of its own and 
forms an antonumasia. For if vou say, " The man 
who destroyed Numantia and Carthage," it will 
be an antonomasia, whereas, if you add the word 
"Scipio," the phrase will be an epithet. An epithet 
therefore cannot stand by itself. 

Allegory, which is translated in Latin by inversio, 44 
either presents one thing in words and another in 
meaning, or else something absolutely opposed to the 
meaning of the words. The first type is generally pro- ' 
duced by a series of metaphors. Take as an example : 

"O ship, new waves will bear thee back to sea. 1 
What dost thou ? Make the haven, come what 
may," 

and the rest of the ode, in which Horace represents 
the state under the semblance of a ship, the civil 
wars as tempests, and peace and good- will as the 
haven. Such, again, is the claim of Lucretius : * 45 

" Pierian fields I range untrod by man," 

and such again the passage where Virgil savs, 

" But now 
A mighty length of plain we have travelled o'er ; 
'Tis time to loose our horses' steaming necks." 3 

On the other hand, in the Bucolics * he introduces 46 
an allegory without any metaphor : 

"Truth, I had heard 
Your loved Menalcas by his songs had saved 
All those fair acres, where the hills begin 
To sink and droop their ridge with easy slope 
Down to the waterside and that old beech 
With splintered crest." 

3 2 7 



QUINTILIAN 

47 Hoc enim loco praeter nomen cetera propviis decisa 
sunt verbis, verum non pastor Menalcas, sed Vergi- 
lius est intelligendus. Habet usum talis allegoriae 
frequenter oratio, sed raro totius ; plerumque apertis 
permixta est. Tota apud Ciceronem talis est : Hoc 
miror, hoc queror, qucmquam hominem Ha pcssumdare 
alterum velle, id eiiatn riavem perforet, in qua ipse naviget. 

48 Illud commixtum frequentissimum : Equidem cetcras 
iempestates el procellas in Mis dumtaxat jluctibus contio- 
num senij.er Miloni pulavi esse subcundas. Nisi adie- 
cisset dumtaxat jluctibus contionum, esset allegoria ; 
nunc earn miscuit. Quo in genere et species ex 

49 arcessitis verbis venit et intellectus ex propriis. 
Illud vero longe speciosissimum genus orationis, in 
quo trium permixta est gratia, similitudinis, alle- 
goriae, translationis : Quod f return, quern Euripum, tot 
motus, lantas, tarn varias habere creditis agitationes, 
commutationes, Jluctus, quantas perturbationes et quanlos 
aestus habet ratio comitiorum ? Dies intermissus unus 
aut nox interposita saepe et perturbat ovinia et totam 
opinionem parva nonnunquam commutat aura rumoris. 

50 Nam id quoque in primis est custodiendum ut, quo 



1 From an unknown speech. * Pro Mil. ii, 5. 

8 Pro Mur. xvii. 35. 



328 



BOOK VIII. vi. 47-50 

For in this passage, with the exception of the 47 
proper name, the words bear no more than their 
literal meaning. But the name does not simply de- 
note the shepherd Menalcas, but is a pseudonym for 
Virgil himself. Oratory makes frequent use of such 
allegory, but generally with this modification, that 
there is an admixture of plain speaking. We get 
allegory pure and unadulterated in the following 
passage of Cicero : l " What I marvel at and complain 
of is this, that there should exist any man so set on 
destroying his enemy as to scuttle the ship on which 
he himself is sailing." The following is an example 48 
of the commonest type, namely, the mixed allegory : 2 
'.* I always thought that Milo would have other storms 
and tempests to weather, at least in the troubled 
waters of political meetings." Had he not added 
the words "at least in the troubled waters of politi- 
cal meetings," we should have had pure allegory: 
their addition, however, converted it into a mixed 
allegory. In this type of allegory the ornamental 
element is provided by the metaphorical words and 
the meaning is indicated by those which are used 
literally. But far the most ornamental effect is pro- 49 
duced by the artistic admixture of simile, metaphor 
and allegory, as in the following example : 3 " What 
strait, what tide-race, think you, is full of so many 
conflicting motions or vexed by such a variety of 
eddies, waves and fluctuations, as confuse our popular 
elections with their wild ebb and flow ? The passing 
of one day, or the interval of a single night, will 
often throw everything into confusion, and one little 
breath of rumour will sometimes turn the whole 
trend of opinion. " For it is all-important to follow 50 
the principle illustrated by this passage and never to 

329 



QUINTILIAN 

ex genere coeperis translations, hoc desinas. Multi 
autem, cum initium a tempestate sumpserunt, incen- 
dio aut ruina finiunt ; quae est inconsequentia rerum 

51 foedissima. Ceterum allegoria parvis quoque ingeniis 
et cotidiano sermoni frequentissime servit. Nam ilia 
in agendis causis iam detrita, Pedem conferre et lugu- 
lum petere et Sanguinem mittere, inde sunt, nee oft'end- 
unt tamen. Est enim grata in eloquendo novitas et 
emutatio, et magis inopinata delectant. Ideoque iam 
in his amisimus modum et gratiam rei nimia capta- 

52 tione consumpsimus. Est in exemplis allegoria, si 
non praedicta ratione ponantur. Nam ut Dionysium 
Corinthi esse, quo Graeci omnes utuntur, ita plurima 
similia dici possunt. Sed allegoria, quae est obscurior, 
aenigma dicitur ; vitium meo quidem iudicio, si qui- 
dem dicere dilucide virtus ; quo tamen et poetae 
utuntur : 

Die, quibus i?i terris, et ens mihi magnus Apollo, 
Tres pateat caeli spatium non amplius ulnas 2 

53 et oratores nonnunquam, ut Caelius quadrantariam 
Clytaemnestram, et in triclinio coam, in cubiculo nolam. 
Namque et nunc quidem solvuntur et turn erant 



1 The allusion must be to the fact that Dionysius II, 
tyrant of Syracuse, on his expulsion from the throne, 
migrated to Corinth and set up as a schoolmaster. Its 
application is uncertain, but it would obviously be a way of 
saying "How are the mighty fallen !" 

2 Eel. iii. 104 ; the solution is lost. 

8 The references are to the licentious character of Clodia. 
Coa was probably intended to suggest coitus, while nolo, is best 
derived from nolle, and is to be regarded as the opposite of 



33° 



BOOK VIII. vi. 50-53 

mix your metaphors. But there are many who, after 
beginning with a tempest, will end with a fire or a 
falling house, with the result that they produce a 
hideously incongruous effect. For the rest, allegory 51 
is often used by men of little ability and in the 
conversation of everyday life. For those hackneyed 
phrases of forensic pleading, " to fight hand to hand," 
"to attack the throat," or "to let blood" are all of 
them allegorical, although they do not strike the 
attention : for it is novelty and change that please 
in oratory, and what is unexpected always gives special 
delight. Consequently we have thrown all restraint 
to the wind in such matters, and have destroyed the 
charm of language by the extravagant efforts which 
we have made to attain it. Illustrative examples also 52 
involve allegory if not preceded by an explanation ; 
for there are numbers of sayings available for use like 
the " Dionysius is at Corinth," x which is such a 
favourite with the Greeks. When,however,an allegory 
is too obscure, we call it a riddle : such riddles are, 
in my opinion, to be regarded as blemishes, in view of 
the fact that lucidity is a virtue ; nevertheless they 
are used by poets, as, for example, by Virgil 2 in the 
following lines : 

" Say in what land, and if thou tell me true, 
I'll hold thee as Apollo's oracle, 
Three ells will measure all the arch of heaven." 

Even orators sometimes use them, as when Caelius 3 53 
speaks of the " Clytemnestra who sold her favours 
for a farthing, who was a Coan in the dining-room 
and a Nolan in her bedroom." For although we 
know the answers, and although they were better 
known at the time when the words were uttered, 

33 « 



QUINTILIAN 

notiora, cum dicerentur ; aenigmata sunt tamen, 
nam et cetera l si quis interpretetur, intelligas. 

54 In eo vero genere, quo contraria ostenduntur, 
ironia est; illusionem vocant. Quae aut pronuntia- 
tione intelligitur aut persona aut rei natura; nam, si 
qua earum verbis dissentit, apparet diversam esse 

55 orationi voluntatem. Quanquam in plurimis id 
tropis accidit, ut intersit, quid de quoque dicatur, 
quia quod dicitur alibi verum est Et laudis adsimu- 
latione 2 detrahere et vituperationis laudare con- 
cessum est : Quod C. Verres, praetor urbanus, homo 
sanctus et diligens, subsortitionem eius in codice non 
haberet. Et contra : Oratores visi sumus et populo 

56 imposirimus. Aliquando cum in risu quodam contraria 
dicuntur iis quae intelligi volunt : quale est in 
Clodium, Integritas tua te putgavit, mihi crede, pudor 

67 eripuit, vita anteacta servavit. Praeter haec usus est 
allegoriae, ut tristia dicamus mollioribus 3 verbis 
urbanitatis 4 gratia aut quaedam contrariis significe- 
mus aliud textum spectaco et enumeravimus. 5 Haec 
si quis ignorat, quibus Graeci nominibus appellent, 

1 nam et cetera, Christ : non et cetera, AG. 

1 adsimulatione, Spalding: autem simulatione, AG. 

3 mollioribus, Werlhof: melioribus, MSS. 

* urbanitatis, G-sner : aut bonae rei, MSS. 

8 I have printed the reading of A, from which the others 
differ but little. 

1 Cic. Pro Cluent. xxxiii. 91. * cp. §20. 

* From the lost speech in Clodium et Curionem. 

4 The passage is hopelessly corrupt. The concluding 
portion of the sentence must have referred to the use of 
proverbs, of which it may have contained an example. This 
is clear from the next sentence. Sarcasm, urbane wit and 
contradiction are covered by the first three clauses, but there 
has been no allusion to proverbs such as xapotfila demands. 

33 2 



BOOK VIII. vi. 53-57 

they are riddles for all that ; and other riddles are, 
after all, intelligible if you can get someone to explain 
them. 

On the other hand, that class of allegory in which 54 
the meaning is contrary to that suggested by the 
words, involve an element of irony, or, as our 
rhetoricians call it, illusio. This is made evident to 
the understanding either by the delivery, the char- 
acter of the speaker or the nature of the subject. 
For if any one of these three is out of keeping with 
the words, it at once becomes clear that the inten- 
tion of the speaker is other than what he actually 
says In the majority of tropes it is, however, 55 
important to bear in mind not merely what is said, 
but about whom it is said, since what is said may 
in another context be literally true. It is per- 
missible to censure with counterfeited praise and 
praise under a pretence of blame. The following will 
serve as an example of the first. 1 " Since Gaius 
Verres, the urban praetor, being a man of energy and 
blameless character, had no record in his register of 
this substitution of this man for another on the panel." 
As an example of the reverse process we may take 
the following : 2 " We are regarded as orators and 
have imposed on the people." Sometimes, again, 56 
we may speak in mockery when we say the opposite 
of what we desire to be understood, as in Cicero's 
denunciation of Clodius 3 : " Believe me, your well- 
known integrity has cleared you of all blame, your 
modesty has saved you, your past life has been your 
salvation." Further, we may employ allegory, and 57 
disguise bitter taunts in gentle words 1 y way of wit, 
or we may indicate our meaning by saving exactly 
the contrary or . . . 4 If the Greek names for these 

333 



QUINTILIAN 

<ra/3/cao7xov, doreitrfiov, avricppao-w, Tra.poifx.iav dici sciat. 

58 Sunt etiam, qui haec non species allegoriae sed ipsa 
tropos dicant ; acri quidem ratione, quod ilia obscurior 
sit, in his omnibus aperte appareat quid velimus. 
Cui accedit hoc quoque, quod genus, cum dividitur 
in species, nihil habet proprium, ut arbor pinus et 
olea et cupressus, et ipsius per se nulla proprietas ; 
allegoria vero habet aliquid proprium. Quod quo 
modo fieri potest, nisi ipsa species est ? Sed utentium 

59 nihil refert. Adiicitur his p.vKTrjpia/Jib<i, dissimulatus 
quidam sed non latens derisus. 

Pluribus autem verbis cum id, quod uno aut pauci- 
oribus certe dici potest, explicatur, vepicppaatv vocant, 
circuitum quendam eloqueudi, qui nonnunquam ne- 
cessitatem habet, quotiens dictu deformia operit : ut 

60 Sallustius, Ad requisita naturae. Interim ornatum 
petit solum, qui est apud poetas frequentissimus : 

Tempus erat, quo prima quies mortalibus aegris 
Incipit et dono divum gratissima serpit. 

61 Et apud oratores non rarus, semper tamen adstrictior. 



1 Presumably from the Histories. 
* Am. ii. 268. 



334 



BOOK VIII. vi. 57-61 

methods are unfamiliar to any of my readers, I would 
remind him that they are crap«acr/xos, do-TtiV/zo?, 
a.vTi<t>pa.o-LS and TrapoL/xia (sarcasrn, urbane wit, contra- 
diction and proverbs). There are, however, some 58 
writers who deny that these are species of allegory, 
and assert that they are actually (ropes in themselves : 
for they argue shrewdly that allegory involves an 
element of obscurity, whereas in all these cases our 
meaning is perfectly obvious. To this may be added 
the fact that when a genus is divided into species, it 
ceases to have any peculiar properties of its own : for 
example, we may divide tree into its species, pine, 
olive, cypress, etc., leaving it no properties of its own, 
whereas allegory always has some property peculiar 
to itself. The only explanation of this fact is that 
it is itself a species. But this, of course, is a matter 
of indifference to those that use it. To these the 59 
Greeks add fivKT-qpKTjxos, or mockery under the 
thinnest of disguises. 

When we use a number of words to describe some- 
thing for which one, or at any rate only a few words 
of description would suffice, it is called jyeriphrasi.s, 
that is, a circuitous mode of speech. It is sometimes 
necessary, being of special service when it conceals 
something which would be indecent, if expressed in 
so many words : compare the phrase " To meet the 
demands of nature " from Sallust. 1 But at times it 60 
is employed solely for decorative effect, a practice 
most frequent among the poets : 

" Now was the time 
When the first sleep to weary mortals comes 
Stealing its way, the sweetest boon of heaven." 2 

Still it is far from uncommon even in oratory, though 6 1 

335 



QU1NTILIAN 

Quidquid enim significari brevius potest et cum 
ornatu latius ostenditur, 7rep(.'<£pao-is est, cui nomen 
Latine datum est non sane aptum orationis virtuti 
circumlocutio. Verum hoc ut, cum decorem habet, 
periphrasis, ita, cum in vitium incidit, irepta-a-oXoyta 
dicitur. Obstat enim quidquid non adiuvat. 

62 Hyperbaton quoque, id est verbi transgressionem, 
quoniam frequenter ratio compositionis l et decor 
poscit, non immerito inter virtutes habemus. Fit 
enim frequentissime aspera et dura et dissoluta et 
hians oratio, si ad necessitatem ordinis sui verba 
redigantur et, ut quodque oritur, ita proximis, etiamsi 

63 vinciri non potest, adligetur. DifFerenda igitur quae- 
dam et praesumenda, atque ut in structuris lapidum 
impolitorum loco, quo convenit, quodque ponendum. 
Non enim recidere ea nee polire possumus, quo 
coagmentata se magis iungant, sed utendum iis, 

64 qualia sunt, eligendaeque sedes. Nee aliud potest 
sermonem facere numerosum quam opportuna ordinis 
per mutatio ; neque alio ceris Platonis inventa sunt 
quattuor ilia verba, quibus in illo pulcherrimo operum 
in I'iraeeum se descendisse significat, plurimis modis 

65 scripta, quam 2 quod eum quoque maxime numero- 
sum 3 facere experiretur. Verum id cum in duobus 
verbis fit, avacn po<pr] dicitur, reversio quaedam : 

1 compositionis, Daniel : comparationis, MSS. 

2 quam, inserted by Rcjivs. 

3 The sentence can hardly be correct as it stands in the 
MSS. I have inserted numerosum as being the simplest 
improvement available. 

1 At the beginning of the Republic. Kari^vv \^ «'* 
Hapaia. 

33° 



BOOK VIII. vi. 61-65 

in such cases it is always used with greater restraint. 
For whatever might have been expressed with greater 
brevity, but is expanded for purposes of ornament, is 
a. periphrasis, to which we give the name circumlocution, 
though it is a term scarcely suitable to describe one 
of the virtues of oratory. But it is only called peri- 
phrasis so long as it produces a decorative effect : 
when it passes into excess, it is known as perissology : 
for whatever is not a help, is a positive hindrance. 

Again, hi/perbaton, that is, the transposition of a 62 
word, is often demanded by the structure of the 
sentence and the claims of elegance, and is con- 
sequently counted among the ornaments of stvle. 
For our language would often be harsh, rough, limp 
or disjointed, if the words were always arranged in 
their natural order and attached each to each just 
as they occur, despite the fact that there is no real 
bond of union. Consequently some words require 
to be postponed, others to be anticipated, each 
being set in its appropriate place. For we are like 63 
those who build a wall of unhewn stone : we cannot 
hew or polish our words in order to make them fit 
more compactly, and so we must take them as they 
are and choose suitable positions for them. Further, 64 
it is impossible to make our prose rhythmical except 
by artistic alterations in the order of words, and 
the reason why those four words in which Plato l 
in the noblest of his works states that he had gone 
down to the Piraeus were found written in a number 
of different orders upon his wax tablets, was simply 
that he desired to make the rhythm as perfect as 
possible. When, however, the transposition is con- 65 
fined to two words only, it is called atiastrophe, that 
is, a reversal of order. This occurs in evervday 

337 



QUINTILIAN 

qualia sunt vulgo, mecum, secum, apud oratores et 
historicos quibus de rebus. At cum decoris gratia 
traiicitur l longius verbum, proprie hyperbati tenet 
nomen : Animadverti, iudices, omnem accusatoris orati- 
onem in duns divisam esse partes. Nam in duai paries 
divisam esse rectum erat, sed durum et incomptum. 

66 Poetae quidem etiam verborum divisione faciunt 
transgressionem : 

Hyperboreo septem subieeta Uioni, 
quod oratio nequaquam recipiet. Atqui est propter 
quod dici tropus possit, quia componendus est e 

67 duobus intellectus. Alioqui, ubi nihil ex significa- 
tione mutatum est et structura sola variatur, figura 
potius verborum dici potest, sicut multi existimarunt. 
Longis autem hyperbatis et confusis quae vitia 
aecidunt, suo loco diximus. 

Hyperbolen audacioris ornatus summo loco posui. 
Est haec decens veri 2 superiectio ; virtus eius ex 
diverso par augendi atque minuendi ; fit pluribus 

68 modis. Aut enim plus facto dicimus, ut Vomens 

frustis esculeiitis gremium statin et lotum tribunal implevit, 

et 

Geminique minanlur 

In caelum scopuli ; 

1 traiicitur, Spalding : trahitur, AG. 

2 decens veri, Spalding : decensuris, G. i demensuris, 
A (2nd hand). 

1 Gic.pro Cluenl. i. 1. 2 Georg. iii. 381. 

8 viii. ii. 14. * Phil. ii. xxv. 63. 

6 Aen. i. 162. 

338 



BOOK VIII. vi. 65-68 

speech in mecum and secum, while in orators and 
historians we meet with it in the phrase quibus de 
rebus. It is the transposition of a word to some 
distance from its original place, in order to secure 
an ornamental effect, that is strictly called hyper- 
balon : the following passage will provide an example : 
animadverti, iudices, omnem accusatoris orationem in duas 
divisatji esse partes. 1 (" I noted, gentlemen, that the 
speech of the accuser was divided into two parts.") 
In this case the strictly correct order would he in duas 
partes divisam esse, hut this would have been harsh 
and ugly. The poets even go so far as to secure 66 
this effect by the division of words, as in the line : 

Hyperboreo septem subiecta trioni 2 
(" Under the Hyperborean Wain "), 

a licence wholly inadmissible in orator}-. Still there 
is good reason for calling such a transposition a trope, 
since the meaning is not complete until the two words 
have been put together. On the other hand, when 67 
the transposition makes no alteration in the sense, and 
merely produces a variation in the structure, it is rather 
to be called a verbal Jtgure, as indeed many authorities 
have held. Of the faults resulting from long or con- 
fused hyperbatal have spoken in the appropriate place. 3 
I have kept hyperbole to the last, on the ground of 
its boldness. It means an elegant straining of the 
truth, and may be employed indifferently for ex- 
aggeration or attenuation. It can be used in various 
ways. We may say more than the actual facts, as 68 
when Cicero says, 4 " He vomited and filled his lap 
and the whole tribunal with fragments of food, or 
when Virgil speaks of 

"Twin rocks that threaten heaven."* 

339 



QUINTILIAN 

aut res per similitudinem attollimus, 

Credos innare revulsas Cycladas ; 

69 aut per comparationem, ut 

Fulmviis ocior alis ; 

aut signis quasi quibusdam, 

Ilia vel intactae segetis per stmima volaret 
Gramina nee teneras cursu laesisset aristas ; 

70 vel translatione, ut ipsum illud volaret. Crescit interim 
hyperbole alia insuper addita, ut Cicero in Antonium 
dicet, Quae Charybdis tarn vorax ? Charybdin dico ? 
quae sijuil, j'uit animal unnm : Oceanus, medius /idiu.s, 
vix videtur tot res, tarn dissipalas, tarn dislantibus in 

71 loci* posit as, tarn cito absorbere potuLsxc. Exquisitam 
vero figuram huius rei deprehendisse apud principem 
Lvricorum Pindarum videor in libro, quem imcripsit 
vjxvovs. Is namque Herculis impetum adversus Mcro- 
pas, qui in insula Coo dicuntur habitasse, non igni 
nee ventis nee mari, sed fulmini dicit similem f'uisse, 

72 ut ilia minora, hoc par esset. Quod imitatus Cicero 



1 Aen. viii. 691. * Aen. v. 319. 

» A en. vii. 808. * Phil. II. xxvii. 67. 

• A lost work. 

34° 



BOOK VIII. vi. 68-72 

Again, we may exalt our theme by the use of simile, 
as in the phrase : 

" Thou wouldst have deemed 
That Cyclad isles uprooted swam the deep." l 

Or we may produce the same result by introducing 69 
a comparison, as in the phrase : 

"Swifter than the levin's wings ;" 2 

or by the use of indications, as in the lines : 

"She would fly 
Even o'er the tops of the unsickled corn, 
Nor as she ran would bruise the tender ears." 8 

Or we may employ a metaphor, as the verb to Jiy is 
employed in the passage just quoted. Sometimes, 70 
again, one hyperbole may be heightened by the 
addition of another, as when Cicero in denouncing 
Antony says: 4 "What Charybdis was ever so 
voracious ? Charybdis, do I say ? Nay, if Charybdis 
ever existed, she was but a single monster. By 
heaven, even Ocean's self, methinks, could scarce 
have engulfed so many things, so widely scattered 
in such distant places, in such a twinkling of the 
eye." I think, too, that I am right in saying that 71 
I noted a brilliant example of the same kind in the 
Hymns 5 of P indar, the prince of lyric poets. For 
when he describes the onslaught made by Hercules 
upon the Meropes, the legendary inhabitants of the 
island of Cos, he speaks of the hero as like not to 
tire, winds or sea, but to the thunderbolt, making 
the latter the only true equivalent of his speed and 
power, the former being treated as quite inadequate. 
Cicero has imitated his method in the following 72 

34' 



QUINTILIAN 

ilia composuit in Verrem Versabalur in Sicilia fongo 
intervallo alter non Dionysius Me nee Phalaris (tulit enim 
ilia quondam insula mullos et ci'udeles tyrannos), seel 
quoddam novum monstrum ex vetere ilia immanitate, 
quae in isdem versata loots dicitur, Non enim Charybdin 
tarn infestam neque Scyllam navibus quam islam in eodem 

73 freto firisse arbitror. Nee pauciora sunt genera 
minuendi : 

Vix ossibus haerent, 

et quod Cicero in quodam ioculari libello, 

Fundum Vetto vocat, quern possit mittere funda ; 
Ni tamen exciderit, qua cava funda patet. 

Sed huius quoque rei servetur mensura quaedam. 
Quamvis est enim omnis hyperbole ultra fidem, non 
tamen esse debet ultra modum, nee alia via magis in 

74 KaKo£r)\iav itur. Piget referre plurima hinc orta vitia, 
cum praesertim minime sint ignota et obscura. 
Monere satis est mentiri hyperbolen nee ita, ut 
mendacio fallere velit. Quo magis intuendum est, 
quousque deceat extollere quod nobis non creditur. 
Pervenit haec res frequentissime ad risum ; qui si 



1 v. lvi. 145. 

* Ed. iii. 103. Describing a flock of starved sheep. 

3 Unknown. 



342 



BOOK VIII. vi. 72-74 

passage from the Verrines : l " After long lapse of 
years the Sicilians saw dwelling in their midst, not 
a second Dionysius or Phalaris (for that island has 
produced many a cruel tyrant in years gone by), but 
a new monster with all the old ferocity once familiar 
to those regions. For, to my thinking, neither Scylla 
nor Charybdis were ever such foes as he to the ships 
that sailed those same narrow seas." The methods 73 
of hyperbole by attenuation are the same in number. 
Compare the Virgilian 2 

" Scarce cling they to their bones," 

or the lines from a humorous work 3 of Cicero's, 

** Fundum Velio vocat quem possit mittere funda ; 
Ni tamen exciderit, qua cava funda patet." 

" Vetto gives the name of farm to an estate which 
might easily be hurled from a sling, though it 
might well fall through the hole in the hollow 
sling, so small is it." 

But even here a certain proportion must be observed. 
For although every hyperbole involves the incredible, 
it must not go too far in this direction, which 
provides the easiest road to extravagant affectation. 
I shrink from recording the faults to which the lack 74 
of this sense of proportion has given rise, more 
especially as they are so well known and obvious. 
It is enough to say that hyperbole lies, though 
without any intention to deceive. We must there- 
fore be all the more careful to consider how far we 
may go in exaggerating facts which our audience 
may refuse to believe. Again, hyperbole will often 
cause a laugh. If that was what the orator desired, 

343 



QUINTIL1AN 

captatus est, urbanitatis, sin aliter, stultitiae nomen 

75 assequitur. Est auteni in usu vulgo quoque et inter 
ineruditos et apud rusticos, videlicet quia natura 
est omnibus augendi res vel minuendi cupiditas 
insita, nee quisquam vero contentus est. Sed igno- 

76 scitur, quia non adfirmamus. Turn est hyperbole 
virtus, cum res ipsa, de qua loquendum est, naturalem 
modum excessit. Conceditur enim amplius dicere, 
quia dici, quantum est, non potest, meliusque ultra 
quam citra stat oratio. Sed de hoc satis, quia 
eundem locum plenius in eo libro, quo causas 
corruptae eloquentiae reddebamus, tractavimus. 



344 



BOOK VIII. vi. 74-76 

we may give him credit for wit ; otherwise we can 
only call him a fool. Hyperbole is employed even 75 
by peasants and uneducated persons, for the good 
reason that everybody has an innate passion for 
exaggeration or attenuation of actual facts, and no 
one is ever contented with the simple truth. But 
such disregard of truth is pardonable, for it does not 
involve the definite assertion of the thing that is not. 
Hyperbole is, moreover, a virtue, when the subject 76 
on which we have to speak is abnormal. For we are 
allowed to amplify, when the magnitude of the facts 
passes all words, and in such circumstances our 
language will be more effective if it goes beyond 
the truth than if it falls short of it. However, I 
have said enough on this topic, since I have already 
dealt with it in my work on the causes of the decline 
of oratory. 



345 



BOOK IX 



LIBER IX 

I. Cum sit proximo libro de tropis dictum, sequitur 
pertinens ad figuras, quae <r\rifixvTa Graece vocantur, 

2 locus ipsa rei natura coniunctus superiori. Nam 
plerique has tropos esse existimaverunt, quia, sive ex 
hoc duxerint nomen, quod sint formati quodam modo, 
sive ex eo, quod vertant orationem, unde et motus 
dicuntur, fatendum erit esse utrumque eorum etiam 
in figuris, usus quoque est idem : nam et vim rebus 
adiiciunt et gratiam praestant. Nee desunt qui tropis 
figurarum nomen imponant, quorum est C. Artorius 

3 Proculus. Quin adeo similitudo manifesta est, ut 
ea discernere non sit in promptu. Nam quo modo 
quaedam in his species plane distant, manente tamen 
generaliter ilia societate, quod utraque res de recta 
et simplici ratione cum aliqua dicendi virtute deflecti- 
tur, ita quaedam perquam tenui limite dividuntur, ut 
cum ironia tarn inter figuras sententiae quam inter 
tropos reperiatur, 7repi<ppacriv autem et virepfiaTov et 
6vop.aTOTrod.av clari quoque auctores figuras verborum 
potius quam tropos dixerint. 

4 Quo magis signanda est utriusque rei differentia. 
Est igitur tropos sermo a naturali et principali signi- 

1 See ix. ii. 44. * vm. vi. 59 sqq., 62, 31 respectively. 

34» 



BOOK IX 

I. In my last book I spoke of tropes. I now come 
to figures, called a-\r]fj.aTa in Greek, a topic which is 
naturally and closely connected with the preceding. 
For many authors have considered figures identical 
with tropes, because whether it be that the latter 
derive their name from having a certain form or from 
the fact that thev effect alterations in language (a 
view which has also led to their being styled motions), 
it must be admitted that both these features are 
found in figures as well. Their employment is also 
the same. For they add force and charm to our 
matter. There are some again who call tropes figures, 
Artorius Proculus among them. Further the resem- 
blance between the two is so close that it is not easy 
to distinguish between them. For although certain 
kinds differ, while retaining a general resemblance 
(since both involve a departure from the simple and 
straightforward method of expression coupled with 
a certain rhetorical excellence), on the other hand 
some are distinguished by the narrowest jK>ssible 
dividing line : for example, while irony belongs to 
figures of thought just as much as to tropes, 1 periphrasis, 
hyperbaton and onomalopoea- have been ranked by 
distinguished authors as figures of speech rather than 
tropes. 

It is therefore all the more necessary to point out 
the distinction between the two. The name of trope 

349 



QUINT1LIAN 

ficatione translatus ad aliam ornandae orationis gratia, 
vel, ut plerique grammatici finiunt, dictio ab eo loco, 
in quo propria est, translata in eum, in quo propria 
non est ; figura, sicut nomine ipso patet, conformatio 
quaedam orationis remota a communi et primum se 
6 offerente ratione. Quare in tropis ponuntur verba 
alia pro aliis, ut in paracpopa, /u,€Tcovvju.ia, avrovofxaaia, 
fX£Ta\y]i}/€L, <TvveK&0)(r), KCLTaxprjcrei, aXXrjyopia, plerumque 
v7rep/3oXfj ; namque et rebus fit et verbis. 'Ovo/xa- 
To-rroda fictio est nominis ; ergo hoc quoque pro aliis 
ponitur, quibus usuri fuimus, si illud non fingeremus. 

6 Htpi<ppacn<5 etiamsi frequenter et id ipsum, in cuius 
locum adsumitur, nomen complecti solet, utitur 
tamen pluribus pro uno. 'EtriOtTov, quoniam plerum- 
que habet antonomasiae partem, coniunctione eius 
fit tropus. In hyperbato commutatio est ordinis, 
ideoque multi tropis hoc genus eximunt. Transfert 
tamen verbum aut partem eius a suo loco in alienum. 

7 Horum nihil in figuras cadit. Nam et propriis verbis 
et ordine collocatis figura fieri potest. Quomodo 
autem ironia alia sit tropi, alia schematos, suo loco 
reddam. Nomen enim fateor esse commune et scio 
quam multiplicem habeant quamque scrupulosam 
disputationem ; sed ea non pertinet ad praesens 

1 See vni. vi. » vm. vi. 29 ami 46. 8 ix. ii. 44. 

350 



BOOK IX. l 4-7 

is applied to the transference of expressions from 
their natural and principal signification to another, 
with a view to the embellishment of style or, as the 
majority of grammarians define it, the transference 
of words and phrases from the place which is strictly 
theirs to another to which they do not properly 
belong. A figure, on the other hand, as is clear from 
the name itself, is the term employed when we give 
our language a conformation other than the obvious 
and ordinary. Therefore the substitution of one 
word for another is placed among tropes, as for 
example in the case of metaphor, metonymy, anlono- 
masia, metalepsis, synecdoche, catachresis, allegory 1 and, 
as a rule, hyperbole, which may, of course, be con- 
cerned either with words or things. Onomalopoea is 
the creation of a word and therefore involves sub- 
stitution for the words which we should use but 
for such creation. Again although periphrasis often 
includes the actual word whose place it supplies, it 
still uses a number of words in place of one. The 
epithet as a rule involves an element of antonomasia 2 
and consequently becomes a trope on account of this 
affinity. Hyperbalon is a change of order and for 
this reason many exclude it from tropes. None the 
less it transfers a word or part of a word from its 
own place to another. None of these can be called 
figtires. For a ^figure does not necessarily involve 
any alteration either of the order or the strict sense 
of words. As regards irony, I shall show elsewhere 3 
how in some of its forms it is a trope, in others a 
figure. For I admit that the name is common to 
both and am aware of the complicated and minute 
discussions to which it has given rise. They, how- 
ever, have no bearing on iny present task. For it 

35' 



QUINTILIAN 

meum propositum. Nihil enim refert, quomodo 
appelletur utrumlibet eorum, si quid orationi prosit 

8 apparet, nee mutatur vocabulis vis rerum. Et sicut 
homines, si aliud acceperunt quam quod habuerant 
nomen, iidem sunt tamen, ita haec, de quibus 
loquimur, sive tropi sive figurae dicuntur, idem 
efficient ; non enim nominibus prosunt, sed effecti- 
bus ; ut statum coniecturalem an infitialem an facti 
an de substantia nominemus, nihil interest, dum 

9 idem quaeri sciamus. Optimum ergo in his sequi 
maxime recepta et rem ipsam, quocunque appella- 
bitur modo, intelligere. Illud tamen notandum, 
coire frequenter in eadem sententia et tropon et 
figuram. Tam enim translatis verbis quam propriis 
figuratur oratio. 

10 Est autem non mediocris inter auctores dissensio, 
et quae vis nominis eius et quot genera et quae 
quamque multae sint species. Quare primum 
intuendum est, quid accipere debeamus figuram. 
Nam duobus modis dicitur : uno qualiscunque forma 
sententiae, sicut in corporibus, quibus, quoquo modo 

1 1 sunt composita, utique habitus est aliquis ; altero, 
quo proprie schema dicitur, in sensu vel sermone 
aliqua a vulgari et simplici specie cum ratione 
mutatio, sicut nos sedemus, incuinbimus, respicimus. 
Itaque cum in eosdem casus auttempora aut numeros 

1 See in. vi. 15, 39. a i. e. figure. 

352 



BOOK IX. i. 7-1 1 

makes no difference by which name either is called, so 
long as its stylistic value is apparent, since the mean- 
ing of things is not altered by a change of name. 
For just as men remain the same, even though they 8 
adopt a new name, so these artifices will produce 
exactly the same effect, whether they are styled 
tropes or figures, since their values lie not in their 
names, but in their effect. Similarly it makes no 
difference whether we call a basis conjectural or 
negative, or concerned with fact or substance, 1 pro- 
vided always that we know that the subject of 
enquiry is the same. It is best therefore in dealing 9 
with these topics to adopt the generally accepted 
terms and to understand the actual thing, by what- 
ever name it is called. But we must note the fact 
that trope and Jigure are often combined in the 
expression of the same thought, since figures are 
introduced just as much by the metaphorical as by 
the literal use of words. 

There is, however, a considerable difference of 10 
opinion among authors as to the meaning of the 
name, 2 the number of genera and the nature and 
number of the species into which figures may be 
divided. The first point for consideration is, there- 
fore, what is meant by a _ figure. For the term is 
used in two senses. In the first it is applied to any 
form in which thought is expressed, just as it is to 
bodies which, whatever their composition, must have 
some shape. In the second and special sense, in 11 
which it is called a schema, it means a rational change 
in meaning or language from the ordinary and simple 
form, that is to say, a change analogous to that 
involved by sitting, lying down on something or 
looking back. Consequently when a student tends 

353 

VOL. III. N 



QUINTILIAN 

aut etiam pedes continuo quis aut certe nimium 
frequenter incurrit, praecipere solemus variandas 

12 figuras esse vitandae similitudinis gratia. In quo 
ita loquimur, tanquam omnis sermo habeat figuram, 
itemque eadem figura dicitur cursitarc qua lectitare, 
id est eadem ratione declinari. Quare illo intellectu 
priore et communi nihil non figuratum est. Quo si 
contenti sumus, non immerito Apollodorus, si tradenti 
Caecilio credimus, incomprehensibilia partis huius 

13 praecepta existimavit. Sed si habitus quidam et 
quasi gestus sic appellandi sunt, id demum hoc loco 
accipi schema oportebit, quod sit a simplici atque in 
promptu posito dicendi modo poetice vel oratorie 
mutatum. Sic enim verum erit, aliam esse orationem 
do-^;/xaTicrTov, id est carentem figuris, quod vitium 
non inter minima est, aliam iarxrjjxaTio-fievrjv, id est 

14 figuratam. Verum id ipsum anguste Zoilus termina- 
vit, qui id solum putaverit schema, quo aliud simu- 
latur dici quam dicitur, quod sane vulgo quoque sic 
accipi scio ; unde et figuratae controversiae quaedam, 
de quibus post paulo dicam, vocantur. Ergo figura 
sit arte aliqua novata forma dicendi. 

15 Genus eius unum quidam putaverunt, in hoc ipso 
diversas opiniones secuti. Nam hi, quia verborum 



1 Frequentative forms of curro (run) and lego (read). 

2 ix. ii. 65. 



354 



BOOK IX. i. 11-15 

to continuous or at any rate excessive use of the 
same cases, tenses, rhythms or even feet, we are in 
the habit of instructing him to vary his t figures with 
a view to the avoidance of monotony. In so doing 12 
we speak as if every kind of language possessed a 
figure : for example cursiiare and lectitare 1 are said 
to have the same figure, that is to say, they are 
identical in formation. Therefore in the first and 
common sense of the word everything is expressed 
hy Jigures. If we are content with this view, there 
is good reason for the opinion expressed by Apollo- 
dorus (if we may trust the statement of Caecilius on 
tins point) to the effect that he found the rules laid 
down in this connexion quite incomprehensible. If, 13 
on the other hand, the name is to be applied to 
certain attitudes, or I might say gestures of language, 
we must interpret schema in the sense of that which 
is poetically or rhetorically altered from the simple 
and obvious method of expression. It Mill then be 
true to distinguish between the style which is devoid 
of figures (or do-^/iaTurros) and that which is adorned 
with figures (or iaxqfj.aTLa-fj.il 77). But Zoilus narrowed 14 
down the definition, since he restricted the term 
schema to cases when the speaker pretends to say 
something other than that which he actually does 
say. 1 know that this view meets with common 
acceptance : it is, in fact, for this reason that we speak 
of Jigured controversial themes, of which I shall 
shortly speak. 2 We shall then take a figure to mean 
a form of expression to which a new aspect is given 
by art. 

Some writers have held that there is only one 15 
kind of figure, although they differ as regards the 
reasons which lead them to adopt this view. For 

355 



QUINTILIAN 

mutatio sensus quoque verteret, omnes figuras in 
verbis esse dixerunt ; illi, quia verba rebus accom- 
modarentur, omnes in sensibus. Quarum utraque 

16 manifests cavillatio est. Nam ut eadem dici solent 
aliter, manetque sensus elocutione mutata, et figura 
sententiae plures habere verborum figuras potest. 
Ilia est enim posita in concipienda cogitatione haec 
in enuntianda ; sed frequentissime coeunt, ut in hoc 
Iam iam, Dolabella, neque me tui neque tuorum liberum. 
Nam oratio a iudice aversa in sententia, iam iam 
et liberum in verbis sunt schemata. 

17 Inter plurimos enim, quod sciam, consensum est 
duas eius esse partes, Siavotas, id est mentis vel 
sensus vel sententiarum, nam his omnibus modis 
dictum est, et Ae'^ews, id est verborum vel dictionis 
vel elocutionis vel sermonis vel orationis ; nam et 

18 variatur et nihil refert. Cornelius tamen Celsus 
adiicit verbis et sententiis figuras colorum, nimia 
profecto novitatis cupiditate ductus. Nam quis 
ignorasse eruditum alioqui virum credat, colores 
et sententias sensus esse? Quare sicut omnem 
orationem ita figuras quoque versari necesse est in 
sensu et in verbis. 



1 Cio. Verr. I. xxx. 77. iam iam is a figure, as being a 
reduplication, and liberum as being a contraction. 

* See IV. ii. 88. color = " the particular aspect given to a 
case by a skilful representation of the facts — the ' gloss ' or 
varnish put on them by either the accused or the accuser." 

356 



BOOK IX. i. 15-18 

some of them, 011 the ground that a change of words 
causes a corresponding change in the sense, assert 
that all figures are concerned with words, while others 
hold that figures are concerned solely with the sense, 
on the ground that words are adapted to things. 
Both these views are obviously quibbling. For the 16 
same things are often put in different ways and 
the sense remains unaltered though the words are 
changed, while a. figure of thought may include several 
figures of speech. For the former lies in the con- 
ception, the latter in the expression of our thought. 
The two are frequently combined, however, as in 
the following passage : " Now, Dolabella, [I have 
no pity] either for you or for your children " : l for 
the device by which he turns from the judges to 
Dolabella is a figure oj thought , while iarn iam ("now ") 
and liberum ("your children") are figures of speech. 

It is, however, to the best of my knowledge, 17 
generally agreed by the majority of authors that 
there are two classes of figure, namely jigures of 
thought, that is of the mind, feeling or conceptions, 
since all these terms are used, and figures of speech, 
that is of words, diction, expression, language or 
style : the name by which they are known varies, 
but mere terminology is a matter of indifference. 
Cornelius Celsus, however, to figures of thought and 18 
speech would add those produced by "glosses " ; 2 but 
he has merely been led astray by an excessive passion 
for novelty. For who can suppose that so learned 
a man was ignorant of the fact that "glosses" 
and "reflexions" both come under the heading of 
thought? We may therefore conclude that, like 
language itself, figures are necessarily concerned with 
thought and with words. 

357 



QUINT1LIAN 

19 Ut vero natura prius est concipere animo res quam 
enuntiare, ita de iis figuris ante est loquendum, quae 
ad mentem pertinent; quarum quidem utilitas cum 
magna, turn multiplex, in nullo non orationis opere 
vel clarissime lucet. Nam etsi minime videtur 
pertinere ad probationem, qua figura quidque dieatur, 
facit tamen credibilia quae dicimus et in animos 

20 iudicum, qua non observatur, irrepit. Namque ut 
in armorum certamine adversos ictus et rectas ac 
simplices manus cum videre, turn etiam cavere 
ac propulsare facile est, aversae tectaeque minus 
sunt observabiles, et aliud ostendisse quam petas 
artis est, sic oratio, quae astu caret, pondere modo 
et impulsu proeliatur ; simulanti variantique conatus 
in latera atque in terga incurrere datur et arma avo- 

21 care et velut nutu fallere. lam vero adfectus nihil 
magis ducit. Nam si frons, oculi, manus multum ad 
motum animorum valent, quanto plus orationis ipsius 
vultus ad id, quod efficere intendimus, compositus? 
Plurimum tamen ad commendationem facit, sive in 
conciliandis agentis moribus sive ad promerendum 
actioni favorem sive ad levandum varietate fastidium 
sive ad quaedam vel decentius indicanda vel tutius. 

22 Sed antequam, quae cuique rei figura conveniat, 
ostendo, dicendum est nequaquam eas esse tarn 
358 



BOOK IX. i. 19-22 

As, however, in the natural course of things we 19 
conceive ideas before we express them, I must take 
figures of thought first. Their utility is at once great 
and manifold, and is revealed with the utmost clear- 
ness in every product of oratory. For although it 
may seem that proof is infinitesimally affected by 
the figures employed, none the less those same Jigures 
lend credibility to our arguments and steal their 
way secretly into the minds of the judges. For just 20 
as in sword-play it is easy to see, parry, and ward off 
direct blows and simple and straightforward thrusts, 
while side-strokes and feints are less easy to observe 
and the task of the skilful swordsman is to give the 
impression that his design is quite other than it 
actually is, even so the oratory in which there is 
no guile fights by sheer weight and impetus alone ; 
on the other hand, the fighter who feints and varies 
his assault is able to attack flank or back as he will, 
to lure his opponent's weapons from their guard and 
to outwit him by a slight inclination of the body. 
Further, there is no more effective method of exciting 21 
the emotions than an apt use of figures. For if the 
expression of brow, eyes and hands has a powerful 
effect in stirring the passions, how much more 
effective must be the aspect of our style itself when 
composed to produce the result at which we aim ? 
But, above all, figures serve to commend what we 
say to those that hear us, whether we seek to win 
approval for our character as pleaders, or to win 
favour for the cause which we plead, to relieve 
monotony by variation of our language, or to indicate 
our meaning in the safest or most seemly way. 

But before I proceed to demonstrate what figures 22 
best suit the different circumstances, I must 

359 



QUINTILIAN 

multas quam sint a quibusdam constitutae. Neque 
enim me movent nomina ilia, quae fingere utique 

23 Graecis promptissimum est. Ante omnia igitur illi, 
qui totidem figuras putant quot adfectus, repudiandi, 
non quia adfectus non sit quaedam qualitas men- 
tis, sed quia figura, quam non communiter, sed 
proprie nominamus, non sit simplex rei cuiuscunque 
enuntiatio. Quapropter in dicendo irasci, dolere, 
misereri, timere, confidere, contemnere non sunt 
figurae, non magis quam suadere, minari, rogare, 

24 excusare. Sed fallit parum diligenter intuentes, 
quod inveniunt in omnibus his locis figuras et earum 
exempla ex orationibus excerpunt. Neque enim 
pars ulla dieendi est, quae non recipere eas possit. 
Sed aliud est admittere figuram, aliud figuram esse. 
Neque enim verebor explicandae rei gratia frequenti- 

25 orem eiusdem nominis repetitionem. Quare dabunt 
mihi aliquam in irascente, deprecante, miserante 
figuram, scio ; sed non ideo irasci, misereri, deprecari 
figura erit. Cicero quidem omnia orationis lumina in 
hunc locum congerit, mediam quandam, ut arbitror, 
secutus viam : ut neque omnis sermo schema iudi- 
caretur neque ea sola, quae haberent aliquam 
360 



BOOK IX. i. 22-25 

point out that their number is far from being as 
great as some authorities make out. For I am not 
in the least disturbed by the various names which 
the Greeks more especially are so fond of inventing. 
First of all, then, I must repudiate the views of those 23 
who hold that there are as many types of ^figure 
as there are kinds of emotion, on the ground, not 
that emotions are not qualities of the mind, but that 
a figure, in its strict, not its general sense, is not 
simply the expression of anything you choose to 
select. Consequently the expression in words of 
anger, grief, pity, fear, confidence or contempt is 
not a figure, any more than persuasion, threats, 
entreaty or excuse. But superficial observers are 24 
deceived by the fact that they find figures in all 
passages dealing with such themes, and select 
examples of them from speeches ; whereas in reality 
there is no department of oratory which does not 
admit such Jigures. But it is one thing to admit 
sl figure and another to be a figure ; 1 am not going 
to be frightened out of repeating the term with some 
frequency in my attempt to make the facts clear. 
My opponents will, I know, direct my attention to 25 
special figures employed in expressing anger, in 
entreating for mercy, or appealing to pity, but it 
does not follow that expressions of anger, appeals 
to pity or entreaties for mercy are in themselves 
figures. Cicero, it is true, includes all ornaments of 
oratory under this head, and in so doing adopts, as 
it seems to me, a middle course. For he does not 
hold that all forms of expression are to be regarded 
as Jigures, nor, on the other hand, would he restrict 
the term merely to those expressions whose form 
varies from ordinary use. But he regards as figur- 

S6r 



QUINTILIAN 

remotam ab usu communi Actionem, sed quae essent 
clarissima et ad movendum auditorem valerent pluri- 
mum ; quem duobus ab eo libris tractatum locum ad 
litteras subieci, ne fraudarem legentes iudicio maximi 
auctoris. 

26 In tertio de Oratore ita scriptum est : In perpetua 
autem oratione, cum et coniunclionis levitnlem et numero- 
rum, quam dixi, rationem tenaerimus, turn est quasi lu- 
minibus distinguenda et j'requentanda omnis oratio sen- 

27 ientiarum atque verborum. Nam et commoralio una in 
re permultum movet et illustris explanatio rerumque, 
quasi gerantur, sub aspectum paene subiectio, quae et in 
exponenda re plurimum valet et ad illustrandum id quod 
exponitur et ad amplificandum, tit Us qui audient Mud 
quod augebimus, quantum efficere oratio poterit, tantuin 

28 esse videatur ; et huic contraria saepe percursio est et plus 
ad intelligendum quam dixeris significatio et distincte 
concisa breviias et extenuatio, et huic adiuncta illusio ; 
a praeceptis Caesaris non abhorrens, et ab re digressio, 
in qua cum fuerit delectatio, turn reditus ad rem aptus et 
concinnus esse debebit ; propositioque, quid sis dicturus, 
et ab eo quod est dictum seiunctio, et reditus ad proposi- 

1 The two works are the Orator (xxxix. 134 sqq.) — see sect. 
36 and the de Oratore in. Hi. 201, which is here quoted. 
* de Or. ii. 261 sqq. , 269 sqq. Iulius Caesar Slrabo loq. 

362 



BOOK IX. i. 25-28 

ative all those expressions which are especially 
striking and most effective in stirring the emotions 
of the audience. He sets forth this view in two of 
his works, and that my readers may have the 
opportunity of realising the judgment of so high 
an authority, I subjoin what he says verbatim. 1 

In the third book of the de Oratore we find the 26 
following words : " As regards the composition of 
continuous speech, as soon as we have acquired 
the smoothness of structure and rhythm of which 
I have spoken, we must proceed to lend bril- 
liance to our style by frequent embellishments 
both of thought and words. For great effect may 27 
be produced by dwelling on a single point, and by 
setting forth our facts in such a striking manner 
that they seem to be placed before the eyes as 
vividly as if they were taking place in our actual 
presence. This is especially effective in stating a 
case or for the purpose of illuminating and amplify- 
ing the facts in course of statement, with a view to 
making our audience regard the point which we 
amplify as being as important as speech can make 
it. On the other hand, as opposed to this procedure 28 
we may often give a rapid summary, suggest more 
than is actually said, may express ourselves tersely 
in short, clean-cut sentences and disparage, or, what 
is much the same, mock our opponent in a manner 
not inconsistent with the precepts given us by Caesar. 2 
Or we may employ digressions and then, after thus 
delighting our audience, make a neat and elegant 
return to our main theme. We may set forth in 
advance what we propose to say, mark off the topics 
already treated from those which are to follow, 
return to our point, repeat it and draw our formal 

3 6 3 



QUINTILIAN 

29 turn el iteratio el rationis apta conclusio ; turn augendi 
minuendive causa verilalis superlatio atque traiectio, el 
rogalio atque hide finitima quasi percontalio exposilioque 
sentenliae suae; turn ilia, qute maxime quasi irrepit in 
hominum mentes, alia dicentis ac significantis dissimulatio, 
quae est periucunda, cum in oratione non contentione sed 

30 sermone tractatur ; deinde dubitatio, turn distribulio, turn 
correctio, vel ante vel post quam dixeris vel cum aliquid 
a te ipso reiicias. Praemunitio etiam est ad id quod 
aggrediare, el reiectio in alium ; commtinicatio, quae est 
quasi cum Us ipsis apud quos dicas deliberatio ; morum 
ac vitae imitatio vel in personis vel sine Mis, magnum 
quoddam ornamentum orationis et aplum ad animos con- 
ciliandos vel maxime, saepe autem etiam ad commovendos; 

31 personarum ficta inductio vel gravissimum lumen augendi; 
descriptio, erroris inductio, ad hilaritatem impulsio, ante- 
occupatio ; turn duo ilia, quae maxime movent, similitudo 
et exemplum ; digestio, interpellate, contentio, reticentia, 

32 commendatio. Vox quaedam libera atque etiam effrena- 
tior augendi causa; iracundia, obiurgalio, promissio ; 
364 



BOOK IX. i. 28-32 

conclusions. Again, with a view to augmenting 29 
or attenuating the force of some point, we may 
exaggerate and overstate the truth : we may ask 
questions, or, what is much the same, enquire of 
others and set forth our own opinion. There is also 
available the device of dissimulation, when we say 
one thing and mean another, the most effective of 
all means of stealing into the minds of men and a 
most attractive device, so long as we adopt a con- 
versational rather than a controversial tone. Hesi- 30 
tation may be expressed between two alternatives, 
our statement may be distributed in groups or we 
may correct ourselves, either before or after we have 
said something or when we repel some allegation 
against ourselves. We may defend ourselves by 
anticipation to secure the success of some point 
which we propose to make or may transfer the blame 
for some action to another. We may confer with 
our audience, admitting them as it were into our 
deliberations, may describe the life and character 
of persons either with or without mention of their 
names, a device which is one of the greatest em- 
bellishments of oratory and specially adapted to 
conciliate the feelings, as also frequently to excite 
them. Again by the introduction of fictitious 31 
personages we may bring into play the most forcible 
form of exaggeration. We may describe the results 
likely to follow some action, introduce topics to lead 
our hearers astray, move them to mirth or anticipate 
the arguments of our opponent. Comparisons and 
examples may be introduced, both of them most 
effective methods ; we may divide, interrupt, contrast, 
suppress, commend. Our language may be free or 32 
even unbridled with a view to heighten our effects, 

365 



QUINTILIAN 

deprecatio, obsecratio, declinatio brevis a proposito, non 
ut superior ilia digressio, purgatio, conciliatio, laesio, 

33 optatio atque exsecratio. His fere luminibus illustrant 
orationem sententiae. Orationis autem ipsius tanquam 
armorum est vel ad usum comminatio et quasi petitio 
vel ad venustalem ipsa Iractatio. Nam et geminatio 
verborum habet inierdum vim, leporem alias, et paululum 
immutalum verbum atque dejlexum, et eiusdem verbi cre- 
bra turn a primo repetitio, turn in extremum conversio, 
et in eadem verba impetus et concursio et adiunctio et 
progressio, et eiusdem verbi crebrius positi quaedam 
distinctio et revocatio verbi, et ilia quae similiter des'munt 
aut quae cadunt similiter aut quae paribus paria refer- 

34 untur aut quae sunt inter se similia. Est etiam gradatio 
quaedam et conversio et verborum concinna transgressio, 
et contrarium et dissolutum, et declinatio et reprehensio, 

1 This appears to be the meaning of impetus and concursio, 
but there can be no certainty. The long list of technical 
terms which follows provides almost insuperable difficult}' 
to the translator, since many can neither be translated nor 
even paraphrased with certainty. Quintilian himself is not 
always certain as to their meaning : see IX. iii. 90. For 
udiunctio, see Q's remarks on int^evyfievov IX. iii. 62. conversio 
(§33) is illustrated by A act. ad Herenn. iv. 19. by Poenas populus 
Eomanus iustitia vicit, armis vicit, liberalitate vicit, while in 
§ 34 it is a form of antithesis («. g. " eat to live, not live to 
eat "). For revocatio verbi, see IX. iii. 44 ; for transgressio vni. 
vi. 62, for contrarium and immutatio see IX. iii. 90. declinatio 
is explained by Cicero in Orator 135 as occurring when we 
pass something by and show why we do so. reprehensio 
means correction of the expression as opposed to the cor- 
rection of thought referred to above. For the obscure and 
perhaps corrupt clause quod de singulis rebus propositis 
ductum refertur ad singula see on ix. iii. 83. dubitatio is 
the hesitation between two expressions in contrast to the 
hesitation between two alternative conceptions, alia cor- 
rectio cannot be clearly distinguished from reprehensio ; but 

366 



BOOK IX. i. 32-34 

while anger, reproach, promises that we shall prove 
our case, entreaty, supplication, slight deviations 
from our proposed course (which must be distin- 
guished from the longer digressions mentioned 
above), exculpation, conciliation, personal attacks, 
wishes and execrations are all of value. The above 33 
include practically all the devices of thought which 
may be employed for the adornment of our speech. 
As regards diction, this may either be employed like 
weapons for menace and attack, or handled merely 
for the purpose of display. For example, sometimes 
the repetition of words will produce an impression 
of force, at other times of grace. Again, slight 
changes and alterations may be made in words, 
the same word may be repeated sometimes at the 
beginning of a sentence and sometimes at the end, 
or the sentence may be made to open and close with 
the same phrase. 1 One verb may be made to serve 
the purpose of a number of clauses, our words may 
be worked up to a climax, the same word may be 
repeated with a different meaning or reiterated at 
the opening of one sentence from the close of the 
preceding, while we may introduce words with 
similar terminations or in the same cases or 
balancing or resembling each other. Other effects 34 
may be obtained by the graduation or contrast of 
clauses, by the elegant inversion of words, by argu- 

cp ix. ii. 60, paenitentia dicti. dissipatio is illustrated in 
IX. iii. 39. diiunctio is not to be confused with the disiunctio 
of ix. iii. 45. Here it refers to the conclusion of each separate 
proposition with its appropriate verb, and is the opposite of 
adiundio (above). The meaning of relatio is unknown even 
to Quintilian (see IX. iii. 97), while he is doubtful as to the 
meaning of circumscriptio (see rx. iii. 90) ;perhaps= periphrasis. 

3»7 



QUINTILIAN 

et exclamatio et imminidio ; et quod in multis casibus 
ponilur et quod de singulis rebus propositus ductum re- 
feriur ad singula, et ad proposition subiecta ratio et item 

35 in distributis supposita ratio ; et permissio el rursus alia 
dubitatio et improvisum quiddam ; et dinumeratio et alia 
correclio et dissipalio, et continualum el interr upturn, et 
imago et sibi ipsi responsio, et immutatio et diiunctio, et 

36 ordo et relatio, et digressio el circumscripta. Haec enim 
sunt fere atque horum shnilia vel plura etiam esse possunt, 
quae sententiis orationem verborumque conformationibus 
illuminent. 

Eadem sunt in Oratore plurima non omnia tamen 
et paulo magis distincta, quia post orationis et sen- 
tentiarum figuras tertium quendam subiecit locum 
ad alias, ut ipse ait, quasi virtutes dicendi perti- 

37 nentem : Et reliqua, ex collocatione verborum quae su- 
muntur quasi lumina, magnum adferunt ornalum orationi. 
Sunt enim similia Wis quae in amplo ornatu scenae aid 
fori appellantur insignia, non quia sola ornent, sed quod 

38 excellant. Eadem ratio est horum quae sunt orationis 
lumina et quodam modo insignia, cum aut duplicantur 
iteranturque verba aut leviler l commutata ponunlur, aut 
ab eodem verbo ducitur saepius oratio aut in idem coni- 

1 leviter Gesner, Ernesti : bieviter, MSS. 

1 Peihaps= metonymy. 2 xxxix. 134 sqq. 

368 



BOOK IX. R 34-38 

ments drawn from opposites, asyndeton, paraleipsis, 
correction, exclamation, meiosis, the employment of 
a word in different cases, moods and tenses, the 
correspondence of subsequent particulars with others 
previously mentioned, the addition of a reason for 
what is advanced, the assignment of a reason for each 
distinct statement ; again we may employ concession 35 
and another form of hesitation, introduction of the 
unexpected, distinction by heads, another form of cor- 
rection, local distribution, rapid succession of clauses, 
interruption of clauses, imagery, answering our own 
questions, immutation, 1 the appropriate distinction of 
one proposition from another, effective arrangement, 
reference, digression and circumscription. These 36 
(and there may be yet more like them) are the various 
devices for the embellishment of our style, either 
by the cast of our thought or the conformation of 
our language." 

Most of these statements are repeated by Cicero 
in the Orator, 2 but not all, while his language is 
somewhat more precise, since after dealing with 
figures of speech and of thought he adds a third 
section, concerned, as he himself says, with the other 
excellences of style. " And those other embellish- 37 
ments which are derived from the arrangement of 
words contribute greatly to the adornment of our style. 
They may be compared to what we term the decora- 
tions of the forum or a richly-ornamented stage, since 
they not only adorn, but stand out conspicuously in 
the midst of other ornaments. The principle govern- 33 
ing the use of embellishments and decorations of 
style is the same : words may be repeated and 
reiterated or reproduced with some slight change. 
Sentences may repeatedly commence or end with 

369 



QUINTILIAN 

icitur aut ulrumque, aut adiungitur idem iteratum aut 
idem ad extremum refertur, aut continenter unum verbum 
non eadem sententia ponitur, aut cum similiter vel 

39 cadunt verba vel desinunt ; aut multis modis contrariis 
relata conlraria, aid cum gradatim sursum versus reditur, 
aut cum demptis coniunctionibus dissolute plura dicuntur, 
aut cum aliquid praetereuntes, cur idfaciamus, ostendimus, 
aut cum corrigimus nosmet ipsos quasi reprehendentes, 
aut si est aliqua exclamatio vel admirationis vel conques- 
tionis, aut cum eiusdem nominis casus saepius commu- 

40 tantur. Sententiarum ornamenla maiora sunt ; quibus 
quia freqitenlissime Demosthenes utatur, sunt qui putent, 
idcirco eius eloquentiam maxime esse laudabilem. Et 
vere nullus fere ab eo locus sine quadam conformatione 
sententiae dicitar, nee quicquam est aliud dicere nisi 
omnes aut certe plerasque aliqua specie illuminare 

41 sententias. Quas cum tu optime, Brute, teneas, quid 
attinet nominibus uti aut exemplis ? Tantummodo note- 
tur locus. Sic igitur dicet ille, quem expetimus, ut verset 
saepe mullis modis eadem el in una re haereat in eademque 

42 commoretur sententia. Saepe etiam ut extenuet aliquid ; 
saepe ut irrideat ; ut declinet a proposito dejlectatque 
senientiam ; ut proponat quid dicturus sit ; ut, cum 
transegerit iam aliquid, definiat ; ut se ipse revocet, ut 



1 adimir/ilur apparently refers to the same figure described 
in Herodian (Rh. Gr. iii. 99) as iwifatis, for which he gives 
as an example &o&ai Si eJjjSai, tr6\ts k.t.\., from Aeschin. 
C'tes. 133. 

37° 



BOOK IX. i. 38-42 

the same word or may begin and end with the same 
phrase. The same word may be reiterated 1 either at 
the beginning or at the conclusion,or may be repeated, 
but in a different sense. Words may have the same 39 
inflexion or termination or be placed in various 
antitheses, our language may rise by gradations to a 
climax, or a number of words may be placed together 
in asyndeton without connecting particles. Or we 
may omit something, while making clear the reason 
for such omission, or correct ourselves with apparent 
censure of our carelessness, may utter exclamations of 
admiration or grief, or introduce the same word 
repeatedly in different cases. The ornaments of 40 
thought are, however, more important. They are so 
frequently employed by Demosthenes that some 
critics have held that it is in them that the chief 
beauty of his style resides. And in truth there is 
hardly a topic in his speeches which is not distin- 
guished by some artificial treatment of the thought, 
and it must be admitted that speaking involves the 
embellishment of all, or at any rate most of our 
thoughts with some form of ornament. As you, 41 
Brutus, have such an admirable knowledge of all 
these methods, it would be waste of time for me to 
cite all their names or to give illustrations. I shall 
therefore content myself merely with indicating this 
topic. Our ideal orator then will speak in such a 
manner that he will cast the same thought into a 
number of different forms, will dwell on one point 
and linger over the same idea. He will often at- 42 
tenuate some one point or deride his opponent, will 
diverge from his theme and give a bias to his thought, 
will set forth what he intends to say, after com- 
pleting his argument will give a brief summary, will 

37' 



QUINTILIAN 

quod dixerit iteret ; ut argumenlum ratione concludat ; 
ut interrogando urgeat ; ut rursus quasi ad interrogata 

43 sibi ipse respondeat ; ut contra ac dicat accipi et sentiri 
velit ; ut addubitet quid potius aut quo modo dicat; ut 
dividat in partes; ut aliquid relinquat ac negligat ; ut 
ante praemuniat ; ut in eo ipso, in quo reprehend atur, 
culpam in adversarium conferat ; ut saepe cum iis qui 
audiunt, nonnunquam etiam cum adversario quasi de- 

44 liberet ; ut hominum mores sermonesque describat ; ut 
muta quaedam loquentia inducat ; ut ab eo quod agitur 
averlat animos ; ut saepe in hilaritatem risumve convertat ; 
ut ante occupet quod videat opponi ; ut comparet simili- 
iudines ; ut utatur exemplis ; ut aliud alii tribuens dis- 
pertiat ; ut interpellalorem coerceat \ ut aliquid reticere 
se dicat ; ut denuntiet quid caveant ; ut liberius quid 
audeat ; ut irascaiur etiam, ut obiurget aliquando ; ut 
deprecetur, ut supplied, ut medeatur ; ut a proposito 
declinet aliquantum ; ut optet, ut exsecreiur, ut fiat iis 

45 apud quos dicet familiaris. Atque alias etiam dicendi 
quasi virtutes sequetur, brevitatem, si res petet, saepe etiam 
rem dicendo subiiciet oculis, saepe supra J'eret quam fieri 
possit ; signijicatio saepe erit maior quam oratio, saepe 

373 



BOOK IX. i. 42-45 

recall himself to the point which he has left, repeat 
what he has said, complete his proof by a formal 
conclusion, embarrass his opponent by asking ques- 
tions or answer himself in reply to imaginary 
questions ; will desire his words to be taken in a 43 
different sense from their literal meaning, will 
hesitate what argument or form of statement to 
prefer, will classify and divide, will deliberately 
omit and ignore some point, and defend himself 
by anticipation ; will transfer the blame of some 
charge brought against him to his opponent, will 
often take his audience, and sometimes even his 
opponent into consultation, will describe the character 44 
and talk of particular persons, will put words into 
the mouths of inanimate objects, divert the minds of 
the audience from the point at issue, often move 
them to merriment or laughter, anticipate objections, 
introduce comparisons, cite precedents, assign and 
distribute different sentiments to different persons, 
silence interrupters, assert that there are certain 
things of which he prefers not to speak, warn his 
audience to be on their guard against certain things, 
or venture on a certain licence of speech. Again, he 
will wax angry, sometimes indulge in rebuke, en- 
treaty or supplication, will clear away unfavourable 
impressions, swerve a little from his point, utter 
wishes or execrations, or address his audience in 
terms of familiar intimacy. There are also other 45 
virtues at which he should aim, such as brevity, if his 
theme demands it, while he will often set forth topics 
in such vivid language as almost to present them to 
the very eyes of his audience, or will exaggerate his 
subject beyond the bounds of possibility. His mean- 
ing will frequently be deeper than his words seem to 

373 



QUINTILIAN 

hilaritas, saepe vitae naturarumque imitatio. Hoc in 
genere {nam quasi silvam vides) omnis eluceat oportet 
eloquentiae magniiudo. 

II. Ergo cui latius complecti conformationes ver- 
borum ac sententiarum placuerit, habet quod sequatur 
nee adfirmare ausira quicquam esse melius ; sed haec 
ad propositi mei rationem legat. Nam mihi de his 
sententiarum figuris dicere in animo est, quae ab 
illo simplici modo indicandi recedunt ; quod item 

2 multis doctissimis viris video placuisse. Omnia 
tamen ilia, etiam quae sunt alterius modi lumina, 
adeo sunt virtutes orationis ut sine iis nulla intelligi 
fere possit oratio. Nam quomodo iudex doceri 
potest, si desit illustris explanatio, propositio, 
promissio, finitio, seiunctio, expositio sententiae 
suae, rationis apta conclusio, praemunitio, similitudo, 
exemplum, digestio, distributio, interpellatio, inter- 

3 pellantis coercitio, contentio, purgatio, laesio ? Quid 
vero agit omnino eloquentia detractis amplificandi 
minuendique rationibus? Quarum prior desiderat 
illam plus quam dixeris significationem, id est 
€fjL(f>a<TLv, et supralationem veritatis et traiectionem ; 
haec altera extenuationem deprecationemque. Qui 
adfectus erunt vel concitati detracta voce libera et 

374 



BOOK IX. i. 45-11. 3 

indicate, his tone will often be cheerful, and he will 
often mimic life and character. In fact, as regards 
this department of oratory, of which I have given 
you the substance, he must display eloquence in all 
its grandest forms." 

II. The student who desires to give a wider con- 
sideration to figures of thought and speech will, 
therefore, have a guide to follow, and 1 would not 
venture to assert that he could have a better. But 
I would ask him to read these passages of Cicero with 
reference to my own views on this subject. For I 
intend to speak only of those figures of thought 
which depart from the direct method of statement, 
and I note that a similar procedure has been adopted 
by a number of learned scholars. On the other hand, 
all those embellishments which differ in character 
from these are none the less virtues whose import- 
ance is such that without them all oratory will be 
little less than unintelligible. For how can the judge 
be adequately instructed unless lucidity characterise 
our performance of the following tasks : explanation, 
proposition, promise of proofs, definition, distinction, 
exposition of our own opinion, logical conclusion, de- 
fence by anticipation, introduction of comparisons or 
precedents, disposition and distribution, interruption, 
repression of those who interrupt us, antithesis, ex- 
culpation and personal attack ? Again, what would 
eloquence do if deprived of the artifices of amplifica- 
tion and its opposite ? of which the first requires the 
gift of signifying more than we say, that is emphasis, 
together with exaggeration and overstatement of the 
truth, while the latter requires the power to diminish 
and palliate. What scope is there for the stronger 
emotions if the orator is not allowed to give free rein 

375 



QUINTILIAN 

effrenatiore, iracundia, obiurgatione, optatione, ex- 
secratione? vel illi mitiores, nisi adiuvantur com- 
mendatione, conciliatione, ad hilaritatem impulsione? 

4 Quae delectatio aut quod mediocriter saltern docti 
hominis indicium, nisi alia repetitione, alia commora- 
tione infigere, digredi a re et redire ad propositum 
suum scierit, removere a se, in alium traiicere, quae 
relinquenda, quae con temnendasintiudicare? Motus 
est in his orationis atque actus, quibus detractis iacet 

5 et velut agitante corpus spiritu caret. Quae cum 
adesse debent, turn disponenda atque varianda sunt, 
ut auditorem, quod in fidibus fieri videmus, omni 
sono mulceant. Verum ea plerumque recta sunt 
nee se fingunt, sed confitentur. Admittunt autem, 
ut dixi, figuras, quod vel ex proxima doceri potest. 

6 Quid enim tam commune quam interrogare vel 
percontari ? Nam utroque utimur indifferenter, 
quanquam 1 alterum noscendi, alterum arguendi gratia 
videtur adhiberi. At ea res, utrocunque dicitur 
modo, etiam multiplex habet schema. Incipiamus 
enim ab iis, quibus acrior ac vehementior fit probatio, 

7 quod primo loco posuimus. Simplex est sic rogare, 

Sed vos qui tandem ? quibus aut venistis ab oris ? 
Figuratum autem, quotiens non sciscitandi gratia 

1 quanquam, Spalding : quam cum, A : cum, B. 

1 Am. i. 369. 
376 



BOOK IX. ii. 3-7 

to his speech, to flame out in anger, to reproach, to 
wish or execrate ? Or for the milder emotions with- 
out the assistance of commendation, conciliation and 
humour ? What pleasure can an orator hope to pro- 
duce, or what impression even of the most moderate 
learning, unless he knows how to fix one point in the 
minds of the audience by repetition, and another by 
dwelling on it, how to digress from and return to his 
theme, to divert the blame from himself and transfer 
it to another, or to decide what points to omit and 
what to ignore as negligible ? It is qualities such as 
these that give life and vigour to oratory ; without 
them it lies torpid like a body lacking the breath to 
stir its limbs. But more than the mere possession of 
these qualities is required ; they must be deployed, 
each in their proper place and with such variety that 
every sound may bewitch the hearer with all the 
charm of music. But these qualities are as a rule 
open and direct, manifesting themselves without 
disguise. They do, however, as I have said, admit 
of figures, as the instances to which I shall proceed 
will show. 

What is more common than to ask or enquire ? 
For both terms are used indifferently, although the 
one seems to imply a desire for knowledge, and the 
other a desire to prove something. But whichever 
term we use, the thing which they represent admits 
a variety of figures. We will begin with those which 
serve to increase the force and cogency of proof to 
which I assign the first place. A simple question 
may be illustrated by the line : x 

" But who are ye and from what shores are come ? " 

On the other hand, a question involves a figure, 

377 



QUINTILIAN 

adsumitur, sed instandi, Quid enim tuns ille, Tubero, 
destrictus in acie Pharsalica gladius agebat ? et, Quo- 
usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra ? et, 
Palere tua consilia non sentis ? et totus denique hie 

8 locus. Quanto enim magis ardet quam si diceretur, 
Diu abuteris patientia nostra, et Patent tua consilia. 
Interrogamus etiam quod negari non possit, Dixitne 
tandem causam C. Fidiculanius Falcula ? aut ubi re- 
spondendi difficilis est ratio, ut vulgo uti solemus, 

9 Quo modo ? qui fieri potest ? aut invidiae gratia, ut 
Medea apud Senecam, Quas peti terras iubes ? aut 
miserationis, ut Sinon apud Vergilium, 

Heu quae me tellus, inquit, quae me aequora possunt 
Accipere ? 

aut instandi et auferendae dissimulationis, ut Asinius, 
Audisne ? furiosum, inquam, non inojficiosnm testa- 
10 mentum reprehendimus. Totum hoc plenum est varie- 
tatis ; nam et indignationi convenit : 

Et quisquam numen Iiinonis ado ret ? 



1 pro. Lig. iii. 9 and in Cat. i. 1. 

* pro Cluent. xxxvii. 103. 

• Med. 451. * Aen. ii. 69. 6 Aen. i. 48. 



378 



BOOK IX. ii. 7-10 

whenever it is employed not to get information, but 
to emphasise our point, as in the following examples : l 
" What was that sword of yours doing, Tubero, that 
was drawn on the field of Pharsalus ? " and " How long, 
Catiline, will you abuse our patience ? " and " Do you 
not see that your plots are all laid bare? " with the 
whole passage that follows. How much greater is 8 
the fire of his words as they stand than if he had 
said, "You have abused our patience a long time," 
and "Your plots are all laid bare." We may also 
ask. what cannot be denied, as " Was Gaius Fidicu- 
lanius Falcula, I ask you, brought to justice?" 2 
Or we may put a question to which it is difficult to 
reply, as in the common forms, " How is it possible ? " 
" How can that be ? " Or we may ask a question 9 
with a view to throw odium on the person to whom 
it is addressed, as in the words placed by Seneca in 
the mouth of Medea : 3 

" What lands dost bid me seek ? " 

Or our aim may be to excite pity, as is the case with 
the question asked by Sinon in Virgil : 4 

" Alas, what lands, he cried, 
What seas can now receive me ? " 

Or to embarrass our opponent and to deprive him ol 
the power to feign ignorance of our meaning, as 
Asinius does in the following sentence : " Do you 
hear ? The will which we impugn is the work of a 
madman, not of one who lacked natural affection." 
In fact questions admit of infinite variety. They 10 
may serve our indignation, as in the line : 

" Are any left 
That still adore Juno's divinity ? " 5 

379 



QUINTILIAN 

et admirationi : 

Quid non morialia pecloria cogis, 
Auri sacra fames ? 

1 1 Est interim acrius imperandi genus : 

Non anna expedient tptaque ex urbe sequenlur ? 

Et ipsi nosmet rogamus, quale est illud Terentianum 

12 Quid igitur faciam ? Est aliqua etiam in respondendo 
figura, cum aliud interroganti ad aliud, quia sic 
utilius sit, occurritur, turn augendi criminis gratia, 
ut testis in reum rogatus, an ab reo fustibus vapu- 
lasset, Et innocens, inquit ; turn declinandi, quod est 
frequentissimum : Quaero, an occideris hominem ; 
respondetur, Latronem ; An fundum occupaveris ; 

13 respondetur, Meum. Ut confessionem praecedat 
defensio, ut apud Vergilium in Bucolicis dicenti, 

Non ego te vidi Damonis, pessime, caprum 
Excipere insidiis ? 

occurritur : 

An mihi cantando victus non redderet Me ? 

14 Cui est confinis dissimulatio, non alibi quam in risu 



1 A en. iii. 56. ' Aen. iv. 592. 

8 Kun. I. i. 1. * Eel. iii. 17 and 21. 



38< 



BOOK IX. ii. 10-14 

Or they may still express wonder, as in : 

"To what dost thou not drive the hearts of men, 
Accursed greed of gold ? " x 

Again, at times they may express a sharp command, 11 
as in : 

" Will they not rush to arms and follow forth 
From all the city ? " 2 

Or we may ask ourselves, as in the phrase of Terence, 
" What, then, shall I do ? " 3 A figure is also involved 12 
in a reply, when one question is asked and another 
is answered, because it suits the respondent's purpose 
better to do so, or because it aggravates the charge 
brought against the accused. For example, a witness 
for the prosecution was asked whether he had been 
cudgelled by the plaintiff, and replied, " And what 
is more, I had done him no harm." Or the purpose 
may be to elude a charge, a very common form of 
reply. The advocate says, " I ask if you killed the 
man ? " The accused replies, " He was a robber." 
The advocate asks, " Have you occupied the farm ? " 
The accused replies, "It was my own." Again, the 13 
answer may be of such a kind as to make defence 
precede confession. For example, in the Eclogues* 
of Virgil, when one shepherd asks : 

" Did I not see you, villain, snare a goat 
Of Damon's? " 

the other replies : 

" I vanquished him in song, and should he not 
Pay me the prize, my due ? " 

Akin to this kind of answer is the dissimulatory 14 

38i 



QUINTILIAN 

posita ideoque tractata suo loco. Nam serio si fiat, 
pro confessione est. Ceterum et interrogandi se 
ipsum et respondendi sibi solent esse non ingratae 
vices, ut Cicero pro Ligario, Apud quern igitur hoc 
dico ? Nempe apud eum, qui, cum hoc sciret, tamen me, 

15 antequam vidit,rei publicae reddidit. Aliter pro Caelio 
ficta interrogatione : Dicet aliquis, Haec igitur est tua 
disciplina ? sic tu instiluis adolescentes ? et totus locus. 
Deinde : Ego, si quis, indices, hoc robore animi atque 
hac indole virtutis ac continentiae fuit, et cetera. Cui 
diversum est, cum alium rogaveris, non exspectare 
responsum sed statim subiicere : Domus tibi deerat ? 
at habebat ; pecunia superabat? at egebas. Quod 

16 schema quidam per suggestionem vocant. Fit et 
comparatione : liter igitur facilius suae sententiae 
rationem redderet ? Et aliis modis turn brevius, turn 
latius, turn de una re, turn de pluribus. 

Mire vero in causis valet praesumptio, quae irpo- 
A^is dicitur, cum id quod obiici potest occupamus. 
Id neque in aliis partibus rarum est et praecipue pro- 

17 oemio convenit. Sed, quanquam generis unius, 



1 vi. iii. 68. * iii. 7. 

* xvii. 39 sqq. The passage concludes, "I should consider 
sucfi an one the possessor of qualities which I can only call 
worthy of a god." 

* Orat. lxvii. 223. • pro Cluent. xxxviii. 106. 

382 



BOOK IX. n. 14-17 

reply, which is employed solely with the purpose 
of raising a laugh, and has therefore been treated 
in its appropriate place. 1 If it were meant seriously, 
it would be tantamount to a confession. Further, 
there is the practice of putting the question and 
answering it oneself, which may have quite a pleasing 
effect. Take as an example the following passage 
from the pro Ligario, 2 where Cicero says, " Before 
whom do I say this ? Before one who, although he 
was aware of these facts, yet restored me to my 
country even before he had seen me." A different 15 
form of fictitious question is to be found in the pro 
Caelio. " Some one will say, ' Is this your moral 
discipline? Is this the training you w r ould give 
young men?' " with the whole passage that follows. 
Then comes his reply, " Gentlemen, if there were 
any man with such vigour of mind, with such 
innate virtue and self-control, etc." 3 A different 
method is to ask a question and not to wait for a 
reply, but to subjoin the reply at once yourself. 
For example, "Had you no house? Yes, you had 
one. Had you money and to spare ? No, you were 
in actual want." 4 This is a figure which some call 
suggestion. Again, a question may involve comparison, 16 
as, for instance, " Which of the two then could more 
easily assign a reason for his opinion ? " 6 There are 
other forms of question as well, some concise, some 
developed at greater length, some dealing with one 
thing only, others with several. 

Anticipation, or, as the Greeks call it, 77^0X77^15, 
whereby we forestall objections, is of extraordinary 
value in pleading; it is frequently employed in all 
parts of a speech, but is especially useful in the 
exordium. However, it forms a genus in itself, and 17 

383 



QUINTILIAN 

diversas species habet. Est enim quaedam prae- 
munitio, qualis Ciceronis contra Q. Caecilium, quod 
ad accusandum descendat qui semper defenderit ; 
quaedam confessio, ut pro Rabirio Postumo, quem 
sua quoque sententia reprehendendum fatetur, quod 
pecuniam regi crediderit ; quaedam praedictio, ut 
Dicam enim non angendi criminis gratia ; quaedam 
emendatio, ut Rogo, igiioscatis mihi, si longius sum 
evectus ; frequentissima praeparatio, cum pluribus 
verbis, vel quare facturi quid simus vel quare feceri- 

18 muSj dici solet. Verborum quoque vis ac proprietas 
confirmatur vel praesumptione : Quanquam ilia non 
poena, sed prohibitio sceleris fuit ; aut reprehensione : 
Gives, inquam, si hoc eos nomine appellari fas est. 

19 Adfert aliquam fidem veritatis et dubitatio, cum 
simulamus quaerere nos, unde incipiendum, ubi 
desinendum, quid potissimum dicendum, an omnino 
dicendum sit ? Cuiusmodi exemplis plena sunt omnia, 
sed unum interim sufficit : Equidem, quod ad me atti- 
net, quo me vertam nescio. Negem fuisse infamiam 

20 iudicii corrupti ? et cetera. Hoc etiam in praetcritum 
valet ; nam et dubitasse nos fingimus. 

A quo schemate non procul abest ilia, quae dicitur 

1 Div. in Caec. i. 1. 2 Chs. i. and ix. 

8 From a lost work of Cicero. 

4 pro Mur. xxxvii. 80. 6 pro Clucnt. i. 4. 

334 



BOOK IX. ii. 17-20 

has several different species. One of these is the 
defence by anticipation, such as Cicero employs 
against Quintus Caecilius, 1 where he points out that 
though previously he himself has always appeared 
for the defence, he is now undertaking a prosecution. 
Another is a form of confession, such as he introduces 
in his defence of Rabirius Postumus, 2 where he 
admits that he himself regards his client as worthy 
of censure for lending money to the king. Another 
takes the form of prediction, as in the phrase, " For 
I will say without any intention of aggravating the 
charge." Again, there is a form of self-correction. 
such as, " I beg you to pardon me, if I have been 
carried too far." And, most frequent of all, there 
is preparation, whereby we state fully why we are 
going to do something or have done it. Anticipation IS 
may also be employed to establish the meaning or 
propriety of words, as in the following case, " Although 
that was not a punishment, but merely a prevention 
of crime," 3 while the same effect may be produced 
by qualification, as in the following sentence, 
n Citizens, I say, if I may call them by that name." 4 

Again, hesitation may lend an impression of truth 19 
to our statements, when, for example, we pretend 
to be at a loss, where to begin or end, or to decide 
what especially requires to be said or not to be said 
at all. All speeches are full of such instances, but 
for the present one will be enough. "As for myself, 
I know not where to turn. Shall I deny that there 
was a scandalous rumour that the jury had been 
bribed, etc. ? " 5 This device may also be employed 20 
to cover the past ; for we may equally pretend that 
we had felt hesitation on the subject. 

This figure is akin to that known as communication, 

385 



QUINTILIAN 

communicatio, cum aut ipsos adversarios consulimus, 
ut Domitius Afer pro Cloatilla : Nescit trepida, quid 
Uceat Jeminae, quid coniugem deceat ; forte vos in ilia 
solitudine obvios casus miserae mulieri obtulit ; tu,f rater, 

2 1 vos, paterni amid, quod consilium datis ? aut cum iudi- 
cibus quasi deliberamus, quod est frequentissimum : 
Quid suadetis ? et Vos inierrogo, et Quid tandem Heri 
oportuit ? et Cato, Cedo, si vos in eo loco essetis, quid 
aliud fecissetis ? Et alibi : Communem rem agi putatole 

22 ac vos huic rei praepositos esse. Sed nonnunquam 
communicantes aliquid inexspectatum subiungimus, 
quod et per se schema est, ut in Verrem Cicero, Quid 
deinde ? quid censetis ? furtum fortasse aut praedam 
aliquam ? Deinde, cum diu suspendisset iudicum 
aminos, subiecit, quod multo esset improbius. Hoc 

23 Celsus sustentationem vocat. Est autem duplex ; 
nam contra frequenter, cum exspectationem gravissi- 
morum fecimus, ad aliquid quod sit leve aut nullo 
modo criminosum descendimus. Sed quia non 
tantum per communicationem fieri solet, Trapd8o£ov 

24 alii nominarunt, id est inopinatum. Illis non accedo 
qui schema esse existimant etiam, si quid nobis ipsis 

v. 5. 10. 
386 



BOOK IX. n. 20-24 

when we actually take our opponents into consulta- 
tion, as Domitius Afer does in his defence of Cloatilla. 
" She is so agitated that she does not know what is 
permitted to a woman or what becomes a wife. It 
may be that chance has brought you into contact 
with the unhappy woman in her helpless plight. 
What counsel do you give her, you her brother, and 
you, her father's friends?" Or we may admit the 21 
judges to our deliberations, a device which is fre- 
quently called into play. We may say, " What do 
you advise ? " or, " I ask you," or, " What, then, 
should have been done? " Cato, for example, says, 
" Come now, if you had been in his place, what else 
would you have done?" And in another passage, 
" Imagine this to be a matter which concerns us all, 
and assume you have been placed in charge of the 
whole affair." Sometimes, however, in such forms 22 
of communication we may add something unexpected, 
a device which is in itself a figure, as Cicero does in 
the Verrines : " What then ? What think you ? 
Perhaps }~ou expect to hear of some theft or plunder." 1 
Then, after keeping the minds of the judges in 
suspense for a considerable time, he adds something 
much worse. This figure is termed suspension by 
Celsus. It has two forms. For we may adopt 23 
exactly the opposite procedure to that just mentioned, 
and after raising expectation of a sequel of the most 
serious nature, we may drop to something which is 
of a trivial character, and may even imply no offence 
at all. But since this does not necessarily involve 
any form of communication, some have given it the 
name of paradox or surprise. I do not agree with 24 
those who extend the name of figure to a statement 
that something has happened unexpectedly to the 

387 



QUINTILIAN 

dicamus inexspectatum aceidisse, ut Pollio, Nunquam 
J ore credidi, indices, ut, reo Scauro, ne quid in eius iudicio 

25 gratia valeret, precarer. Paene idem fons est illius, 
quam permissionem vocant, qui communicationis, 
cum aliqua ipsis iudicibus relinquimus aestimanda, 
aliqua nonnunquam adversariis quoque, ut Calvus 
Vatinio, Perfrica frontein et die te digniorem, qui praetor 
/teres, quam Catonem. 

26 Quae vero sunt augendis adfectibus accommodatae 
figurae, constant maxime simulatione. Namque et 
irasci nos et gaudere et timere et admirari et dolere 
et indignari et optare, quaeque sunt similia his, 
fingimus. Unde sunt ilia, Liberatus sum : respiravi ; 
et Bene habet ; et Quae amentia est haec ? et tempora, 
o mores ! et Miserum me ! consumptis enim lacrimis 
injixus tamen pectori haeret dolor ; et 

Magnae nunc hiscite terrae. 

27 Quod exclamationem quidam vocant ponuntque inter 
figuras orationis. Haec quotiens vera sunt, non 
sunt in ea forma, de qua nunc loquimur, at simulata 
et arte composita procul dubio schemata sunt existi- 
manda. Quod idem dictum sit de oratione libera, 
quam Cornificius licentiam vocat, Graeci Trapprjaiav. 
Quid enim minus figuraturh quam vera libertas ? 



1 pro Mil. xviii. 47. z pro Muren. vi. 14. 

* in Cat. i. 2. * Phil. n. xxvi. 64. B Unknown. 

6 The author of Aiict. ad Herennium, iv. 36. 



388 



BOOK IX. ii. 24-27 

speaker himself, like the following passage from 
Pollio : "Gentlemen, I never thought it would 
come to pass that, when Scaurus was the accused, 
I should have to entreat you not to allow influence 
to carry any weight on his behalf." The figure 25 
known as concession springs from practically the same 
source as communication ; it occurs when we leave 
some things to the judgment of the jury, or even 
in some cases of our opponents, as when Calvus 
says to Vatinius, "Summon all your assurance and 
assert that you have a better claim than Cato to be 
elected praetor." 

The^gwreA- best adapted for intensifying emotion 26 
consist chiefly in simulation. For we may feign 
that we are angry, glad, afraid, filled with wonder, 
grief or indignation, or that we wish something, and 
so on. Hence we get passages like the following : 
"I am free, I breathe again," 1 or, "It is well," or, 
"What madness is this?" 2 or, "Alas! for these 
degenerate days ! " 3 or, " Woe is me ; for though all 
my tears are shed my grief still clings to me deep- 
rooted in my heart," 4 or, 

"Gape now, wide earth." 5 

To this some give the name of exclamation, and 27 
include it Rmongjigures of speech. When, however, 
such exclamations are genuine, they do not come 
under the head of our present topic : it is only those 
which are simulated and artfully designed which can 
with any certainty be regarded as figures. The same 
is true of free speech, which Cornificius 6 calls licence, 
and the Greeks Trapprjo-ia. For what has less of the 
figure about it than true freedom ? On the other 
hand, freedom of speech may frequently be made a 

38Q 



QUINTILIAN 

28 Sed frequenter sub hac facie latet adulatio. Nam 
Cicero cum dicit pro Ligario, Susceplo hello, Caesar 
gesto iam etiam ex parte magna, nulla vi coactus consilio 
ac voluntate mea ad ea arma profectus sum, quae erant 
sumpta contra te, non solum ad utilitatem Ligarii 
respicit, sed magis laudare victoris clementiam non 

29 potest. In ilia vero sententia, Quid autem aliud egi- 
mus, Tubero, nisi ut, quod hie potest, nos possemus ? 
admirabiliter utriusque partis facit bonam causam, 
sed hoc eum demeretur, cuius mala fuerat. 

Ilia adhuc audaciora et maiorum (ut Cicero existi- 
mat) laterum, fictiones personarum, quae wpocrwTro- 
7rodai dicuntur. Mire namque cum variant orationem, 

30 turn excitant. His et adversariorum cogitationes 
velut secum loquentium protrahimus (qui tamen ita 
demum a fide non abhorrent, si ea locutos finxerimus, 
quae cogitasse eos non sit absurdum), et nostros cum 
aliis sermones et aliorum inter se credibiliter intro- 
ducimus, et suadendo, obiurgando, querendo, lau- 

31 dando, miserando personas idoneas damus. Quin 
deducere deos in hoc genere dicendi et inferos 
excitare concessum est ; urbes etiam populique 
vocem accipiunt. Ac sunt quidam, qui has demum 
Trpo(T(airoiToda<i dicant, in quibus et corpora et verba 
fingimus ; sermones hominum adsimulatos dicere 
SiaXoyovs malunt, quod Latinorum quidam dixerunt 



1 iii.7- 

2 iv. 10. We = the Pompeian party. He = Caesar. 

3 Orat. xxv. 85. * Cornific. op. cit. iv. 43 and 52. 



39° 



BOOK IX. ii. 27-31 

cloak for flattery. For when Cicero in his defence 28 
for Ligarius says, " After war had begun, Caesar, 
and was well on its way to a conclusion, I deliberately, 
of my own free will and under no compulsion, joined 
the forces of your opponents," x he has in his mind 
something more than a desire to serve the interests 
of Ligarius, for there is no better way of praising 
the clemency of the victor. On the other hand, in 29 
the sentence, " What else was our aim, Tubero, than 
that we might secure the power which he now 
holds ? " 2 he succeeds with admirable art in repre- 
senting the cause of both parties as being good, and 
in so doing mollifies him whose cause was really 
bad. 

A bolder form ofjigure, which in Cicero's opinion 3 de- 
mands greater effort, is impersonation, or irpoo-oiiroTroua. 
This is a device which lends wonderful variety and 
animation to oratory. By this means we display the 30 
inner thoughts of our adversaries as though they were 
talking with themselves (but we shall only carry con- 
viction if we represent them as uttering what they 
may reasonably be supposed to have had in their 
minds) ; or without sacrifice of credibility we may 
introduce conversations between ourselves and others, 
or of others among themselves, and put words of 
advice, reproach, complaint, praise or pity into the 
mouths of appropriate persons. Nay, we are even 31 
allowed in this form of speech to bring down the 
gods from heaven and raise the dead, while cities 
also and peoples may find a voice. There are some 
authorities who restrict the term impersonation to 
cases where both persons and words are fictitious, and 
prefer to call imaginary conversations between men 
by the Greek name of dialogue, which some 4 translate 

39* 



QUINTIL1AN 

32 sermocinationem. Ego iam recepto more utrumque 
eodem modo appellavi. Nam certe sermo fingi 
non potest, ut non personae sermo fingatur. Sed in 
his, quae natura non permittit, hoc modo mollior 
fit figura : Etenim si mecum patria, quae mihi vita 
mea multo est carior, si cuncta Italia, si ovmis res 
publica sic loqualur, ' M. Tulli, quid agis?' Illud 
audaeius genus : Quae tecum, Catilina, sic agit el 
quoda?nmodo tacita loquitur, c Nullum iam aliquot annis 

33 f acinus exstitit nisi per te.' Commode etiam aut nobis 
aliquas ante oculos esse re rum, personarum, vocum 
imagines fingimus, aut eadem adversariis aut iudi- 
cibus non accidere miramur : qualia sunt Videlur 
mihi, et Nonne videtur tibi ? Sed magna quaedam vis 
eloquentiae desideratur. Falsa enim et incredibilia 
natura necesse est aut magis moveant, quia supra 
vera sunt, aut pro vanis accipiantur, quia vera non 

34 sunt. Ut dicta autem quaedam, ita scripta quoque 
fingi solent, quod facit Asinius pro Liburnia : Mater 
mea, quae mihi cum carissima, turn dulcissima fuit, 
quaeque mihi vixit bisque eodem die vitam dedil et 
reliqua ; deinde exheres esto. Haec cum per se figura 
est, turn duplicatur, quotiens sicut in hac causa ad 



1 in Cat. I. xi. 27. 2 in Cat. I. vii. 18. 

3 The speech being lost, the allusion in bis — dedil 
unintelligible. 

392 






BOOK IX. ii. 31-34 

bv the Latin sermocinatio. For my own part, I have 32 
included both under the same generally accepted 
term, since we cannot imagine a speech without we 
also imagine a person to utter it. But when we lend 
a voice to things to which nature has denied it, we 
may soften down the ^figure in the way illustrated 
by the following passage : " For if my country, which 
is far dearer to me than life itself, if all Italy, if the 
whole commonwealth were to address me thus, 
' Marcus Tullius, what dost thou ? ' " x A bolder 
figure of the same kind may be illustrated by the 
following : " Your country, Catiline, pleads with you 
thus, and though she utters never a word, cries to 
you, ' For not a few years past no crime has come 
to pass save through your doing ! ' " 2 It is also con- 33 
venient at times to pretend that we have before our 
eyes the images of things, persons or utterances, or 
to marvel that the same is not the case with our 
adversaries or the judges ; it is with this design that 
we use phrases such as " It seems to me," or f Does 
it not seem to you ? " But such devices make a great 
demand on our powers of eloquence. For with things 
which are false and incredible by nature there are but 
two alternatives : either they will move our hearers 
with exceptional force because they are beyond the 
truth, or they will be regarded as empty nothings 
because they are not the truth. But we may intro- 34 
duce not only imaginary sayings, but imaginary 
writings as well, as is done by Asinius in his defence 
of Liburnia : "Let my mother, who was the object 
of my love and my delight, who lived for me and 
gave me life twice in one day 8 (and so on) inherit 
nought of my property." This is in itself a figure, 
and is doubly so whenever, as in the present case, 

393 



QUINTILIAN 

35 imitationem alterius seripturae componitur. Nam 
contra recitabatur testamentum : P. Novanius Gallio, 
cut ego omnia meritissimo volo et dcbeo pro eins animi in 
me summa voluntate, et adiectis deinceps aliis, heres 
esto. Incipit esse quodammodo irapiohrj, quod nomen 
ductum a canticis ad aliorum similitudinem modulatis 
abusive etiam in versificationis ac sermonum imi- 

36 tatione servatur. Sed formas quoque fingimus saepe, 
ut Famam Vergilius, ut Voluptatem ac Virtutem 
(quemadmodum a Xenophonte traditur) Prodicus, 
ut Mortem ac Vitam, quas contendentes in satura 
tradit Ennius. Est et incertae personae ficta oratio, 

37 Hie aliquis, et, Dicat aliquis. Est et iactus sine 
persona sermo : 

Hie Dolopum manus, hie saevus lendebat Achilles. 

Quod fit mixtura figurarum, cum Tvpoa-oiiroTToua accedit 
ilia, quae est orationis per detractionem ; detractum 
est enim, quis diceret. Vertitur interim irpocrioiroiroda 
in speciem narrandi. Unde apud historicos reperiun- 
tur obliquae adlocutiones, ut in T. Livii primo statim, 
Urbes quoque ut cetera ex infimo nasci ; deinde, quas sua 
virius ac dii invent, magnas opes sibi magnumque nomen 
facere. 

1 Aen. iv. 174. 2 Mem. ii. 1. 

3 Aen. ii. 29. The words represent what some Trojan said 
after the departure of the Greeks. 

4 i. 9. These words represent the argument of envoys 
sent out by Romulus to neighbouring cities. 

394 



BOOK IX. ii. 34-37 

it imitates a document produced by the opposing 
party. For a will had been read out by the prosecu- 35 
tion, in the following form : " Let Publius Novanius 
Gallio, to whom as my benefactor I will and owe all 
that is good, as a testimony to the great affection 
which he has borne me (then follow other details) 
be my heir." In this case the figure borders on 
parody, a name drawn from songs sung in imitation 
of others, but employed by an abuse of language to 
designate imitation in verse or prose. Again, we 36 
often personify the abstract, as Virgil x does with 
Fame, or as Xenophon 2 records that Prodicus did 
with Virtue and Pleasure, or as Ennius does when, 
in one of his satires, he represents Life and Death 
contending with one another. We may also intro- 
duce some imaginary person without identifying 
him, as we do in the phrases, " At this point some 
one will interpose," or, "Some one will say." Or 37 
speech may be inserted without any mention of the 
speaker, as in the line : 3 

" Here the Dolopian host 
Camped, here the fierce Achilles pitched his tent." 

This involves a mixture of figures, since to imper- 
sonation we add the figure known as ellipse, which 
in this case consists in the omission of any indication 
as to who is speaking. At times impersonation takes 
the form of narrative. Thus we find indirect 
speeches in the historians, as at the opening of 
Livy's first book 4 : "That cities, like other things, 
spring from the humblest origins, and that those 
who are helped by their own valour and the favour 
of heaven subsequently win great power and a great 
name for themselves." 

395 



QUINTILIAN 

38 Aversus quoque a iudice sermo, qui dicitur 
aTToa-rpocfiy], mire movet, sive adversaries invadimus : 

Quid enim luus tile, Tubero, in acie Pharsalica ? sive ad 
invocationem aliquam convertimur : Vos enim iarn 
ego, Albani tumuli atque luci ; sive ad invidiosam 
implorationem : leges Porciae legesque Semproniae ! 

39 Sed ilia quoque vocatur aversio, quae a proposita 
quaestione abducit audientem : 

Non ego cum Danais Troianam exscindere geniem 
Aulide iuravi — . 

Quod fit et multis et variis figuris, cum aut aliud 
exspectasse nos aut maius aliquid timuisse simulamus 
aut plus videri posse ignorantibus, quale est pro- 
oemium pro Caelio. 

40 Ilia vero, ut ait Cicero, sub oculos subiectio turn 
fieri solet, cum res non gesta indicatur, sed ut sit 
gesta ostenditur, nee universa, sed per partes ; quern 
locum proximo libro subiecimus evidentiae, et Celsus 
hoc nomen isti figurae dedit. Ab aliis v7roTi;7rwcris 
dicitur proposita quaedam forma rerum ita expressa 

1 pro Lig. iii. 9. * pro Mil. xxxi. S3. 

8 Verr. v. lxiii. 163. Laws protecting the person of a 
Roman citizen, and disregarded by Verres. 

4 Aen. iv. 425. Dido is urging Anna to approach Aeneas 
and induce Aeneas to postpone his departure. Dido is no 
enemy from whom he need fly. 

6 de Or. in. liii. 202. * vni. iii. 61 sqq. 

390 



BOOK IX. ii. 38-40 

Apostrophe also, which consists in the diversion of 38 
our address from the judge, is wonderfully stirring, 
whether we attack our adversary as in the passage, 
" What was that sword of yours doing, Tubero, in 
the field of Pharsalus ? " x or turn to make some invo- 
cation such as, " For I appeal to you, hills and groves 
of Alba," 2 or to entreaty that will bring odium on 
our opponents, as in the cry, "O Porcian and Sem- 
pronian laws." 3 But the term apostrophe is also 39 
applied to utterances that divert the attention of 
the hearer from the question before them, as in the 
following passage : 

" I swore not with the Greeks 
At Aulis to uproot the race of Troy." 4 

There are a number of different figures by which 
this effect may be produced. We may, for instance, 
pretend that we expected something different or 
feared some greater disaster, or that the judges in 
their ignorance of the facts may regard some point 
as of more importance than it really is : an example 
of this latter device is to be found in the exordium 
to Cicero's defence of Caelius. 

With regard to the figure which Cicero 5 calls ocular 40 
demonstration, this comes into play when we do not 
restrict ourselves to mentioning that something was 
done, but proceed to show how it was done, and do 
so not merely on broad general lines, but in full 
detail. In the last book 6 I classified this figure 
under the head of vivid illustration, while Celsus 
actually terms it by this name. Others give the 
name of {rrroTvirouTLs to any representation of facts 
which is made in such vivid language that they 
appeal to the eye rather than the ear. The follow- 

397 



QUINTILIAN 

verbis, ut cerni potius videatur quam audiri : Ipse 
injiammatus scelere ac furore in forum venit, ardebant 

41 oculi, toto ex ore crudelitas eminebat. Nee solum quae 
facta sint aut fiant, sed etiani quae futura sint aut 
futura fuerint imaginamur. Mire tractat hoc Cicero 
pro Milone, quae facturus fuerit Clodius, si praeturam 
invasisset. Sed haec quidem translatio temporum, 
quae proprie ^erao-Tao-is dicitur, iv SiarvjruxTei 1 vere- 
cundior apud priores fuit. Praeponebant enim talia, 
Credite vos intueri, ut Cicero, Haec, quae non vidistis 

42 oculis, animis cernere potestis. Novi vero et praecipue 
declamatores audacius nee mehercule sine motu 
quodam imaginantur, ut et Seneca 2 in controversia, 
cuius summa est, quod pater nlium et novercam 
inducente altero filio in adulterio deprehensos 
occidit : Due, sequor ; accipe hanc senilem manum et 

43 quocunque vis imprime. Et post paulo, Aspice, inquit, 
quod diu non credidisti. Ego vero non video, nox 
oboritur et crassa caligo. Habet haec figura manifes- 
tos aliquid ; non enim narrari res, sed agi videtur. 

44 Locorum quoque dilucida et significans descriptio 
eidem 3 virtuti adsignatur aquibusdam; alii Towoypa- 
<f>iav dicunt. 

'Elptoveiav inveni qui dissimulationem vocaret ; quo 



1 4v ZiaTvirdiati, vulgo : indiatyposi, B: incliatibosi, A. 

2 ut et Seneca, vulgo : ut Seneca, cod. Bamb. : ut, cod. 
Bern. : et, A. 

3 eidem, Regius : eiusdem, B: huic, A (2nd hand): virtuti, 
A : virt utis, B. 



Verr. v. Ixii 161. * Ch. 32. 

3 Not found in extant works of Cicero. 



598 



BOOK IX. ii. 40-44 

ing will show what I mean : " He came into the 
forum on fire with criminal madness : his eyes blazed 
and cruelty was written in every feature of his 
countenance." x Nor is it only past or present actions 41 
which we may imagine : we may equally well present 
a picture of what is likely to happen or might have 
happened. This is done with extraordinary skill by 
Cicero in his defence of Milo, 2 where he shows 
what Clodius would have done, had he succeeded 
in securing the praetorship. But this transference 
of time, which is technically called //.ei-acrracris, was 
more modestly used in vivid description by the old 
orators. For they would preface it by words such 
as "Imagine that you see": take, for example, 
the words of Cicero 3 : " Though you cannot see this 
with your bodily eyes, you can see it with the mind's 
eye." Modern authors, however, more especially 42 
the declaimers, are bolder, indeed they show the 
utmost animation in giving rein to their imagination ; 
witness the following passages from Seneca's treat- 
ment of the controversial theme in which a father, 
guided by one of his sons, finds another son in the 
act of adultery with his stepmother and kills both 
culprits. " Lead me, I follow, take this old hand of 
mine and direct it where you will." And a little 43 
later, " See, he says, what for so long you refused to 
believe. As for myself, I cannot see, night and thick 
darkness veil my eyes." This figure is too dramatic: 
for the story seems to be acted, not narrated. Some 44 
include the clear and vivid description of places 
under the same heading, while others call it 
topography. 

I have found some who speak of irony as dissimu- 
lation, but, in view of the fact that this latter name 

399 



QUINTILIAN 

nomine quia parum totius huius figurae vires viden- 
tur ostendi, nimirum sicut in plerisque erimus Graeea 
appellatione contenti. Igitur elpwveia, quae est 
schema, ab ilia, quae est tropos, genere ipso nihil 
admodum distat ; (in utroque enim contrarium ei 
quod dicitur intelligendum est) species vero pruden- 
tius intuenti diversas esse facile est deprehendere. 

45 Primum, quod tropos apertior est et, quanquam 
aliud dicit ac sentit, non aliud tamen simulat. Nam 
et omnia circa fere recta sunt : ut illud in Catilinam, 
A quo repudiatus ad sodalem tuum, virum optimum, 
Melellum demigrasti. In duobus demum verbis est 

46 ironia, ergo etiam brevior est tropos. At in figura 
totius voluntatis fictio est apparens magis quam 
confessa, ut illic verba sint verbis diversa, hie sensus 
sermoni et voci 1 et tota interim causae conformatio ; 
cum etiam vita universa ironiam habere videatur, 
qualis est visa Socratis ; nam ideo dictus eipwv, 
agens imperitum et admiratorem aliorum tanquam 
sapientium ; ut, quemadmodum aWrjyopiav facit con- 
tinua pcracjiopa, sic hoc schema faciat tropos ille 

47 contextus. Quaedam vero genera huius figurae 
nullam cum tropis habent societatem, ut ilia statim 
prima, quae dicitur a negando, quam nonnulli 
avTi(fipn.cnv vocant : Non again tecum iure summo, non 

1 sermoni et voci, Halm,: sermonis et ioci, AB. 

1 l. viii. 19. 
400 



BOOK IX. n. 44-47 

does not cover the whole range of this figure, I shall 
follow my general rule and rest content with the 
Greek term. Irony involving a figure does not differ 
from the irony which is a trope, as far as its genus is 
concerned, since in both cases we understand some- 
thing which is the opposite of what is actually said ; 
on the other hand, a careful consideration of the 
species of irony will soon reveal the fact that they 
differ. In the first place, the trope is franker in its 45 
meaning, and, despite the fact that it implies some- 
thing other than it says, makes no pretence about it. 
For the context as a rule is perfectly clear, as, for 
example, in the following passage from the Catili- 
narian orations. 1 " Rejected by him, you migrated 
to your boon-companion, that excellent gentleman 
Metellus." In this case the irony lies in two words, 
and is therefore a specially concise form of trope. 
But in the figurative form of irony the speaker dis- 46 
guises his entire meaning, the disguise being apparent 
rather than confessed. For in the trope the conflict 
is purely verbal, while in the figure the meaning, and 
sometimes the whole aspect of our case, conflicts with 
the language and the tone of voice adopted ; nay, a 
man's whole life may be coloured with irony, as was 
the case with Socrates, who was called an ironist 
because he assumed the role of an ignorant man lost 
in wonder at the wisdom of others. Thus, as con- 
tinued metaphor develops into allegory, so a sustained 
series of tropes develops into this figure. There are, 47 
however, certain kinds of this .figure which have no 
connexion with tropes. In the first place, there is the 
Jigure which derives its name from negation and is 
called by some dvn'<£pao-is. Here is an example : 
" I will not plead against you according to the rigour 

401 



QUINTILIAN 

dicam, quod forsitan obtinerem x ; et Quid ego istius de- 
creta, quid rapinas, quid her edit atum possessiones datas, 
quid ereptas proferam ? et Mitto Mam primam libidinis 
iniwiam, et Ne ilia quidem testimonia recito, quae dicta 

48 sunt de HS sescentis ?nilibus, et Possum dicere. Quibus 
generibus per totas interim quaestiones decurrimus : 
ut Cicero, Hoc ego si sic agerem, tanquam miki crimen 
esset diluendum, haec pluribus dicerem. Eipwveta est, 
et cum similes imperantibus vel permittentibus 
sumus : 

/, sequere Italiam ventif ; 

49 et cum ea, quae nolumus videri in adversariis esse, 
concedimus eis. Id acrius fit, cum eadem in nobis 
sunt et in adversario non sunt : 

Meque timoris 
Argue tu, Drance, quando tot coed is acervos 
Teucrorum tua dextra dedit. 

Quod idem contra valet, cum aut ea, quae a nobis 
absunt, aut etiam quae in adversarios recidunt, quasi 
fatemur : 

Me duce Dardanius Spartam expugnavit adulter 1 . 

50 Nee in personis tantum, sed et in rebus versatur 

1 debeam forsitan obtinere, MSS. of Cicero. 

1 Verr. v. ii. 4. 2 Phil. n. xxv. 62. 

3 pro Cael. xxii. 53. 4 pro Cluent. lx. 166. 

* Aen. iv. 381. Dido to Aeneas. She continues by praying 
for his destruction. 

6 Aen. xi. 383. Turnus addresses Drances, who has been 
attacking him as the cause of the war and bidding him fight 
himself, if he would win Lavinia for his bride. 

7 Aen. x. 92. Juno ironically pretends to have brought 
about the rape of Helen, which was in reality the work of 
Venus. 

402 



BOOK IX. ii. 47-50 f 

of the law, I will not press the point which I should 
perhaps be able to make good " x ; or again, " Why 
should I mention his decrees, his acts of plunder, his 
acquisition, whether by cession or by force, of certain 
inheritances ? " 2 or " I say nothing of the first wrong 
inflicted by his lust " ; or " I do not even propose to 
produce the evidence given concerning the 600,000 
sesterces " ; or " I might say, etc." 3 Such kinds of 48 
irony may even be sustained at times through whole 
sections of our argument, as, for instance, where 
Cicero * says, " If I were to plead on this point as 
though there were some real charge to refute, I 
should speak at greater length." It is also irony 
when we assume the tone of command or concession, 
as in Virgil's 5 

"Go! 
Follow the winds to Italy ; " 

or when we concede to our opponents qualities which 49 
we are unwilling that they should seem to possess. 
This is specially effective when we possess these 
qualities and they do not, as in the following 
passage, 6 

" Brand me as coward, Drances, since thy sword 
Has slain such hosts of Trojans." 

A like result is produced by reversing this method 
when we pretend to own to faults which are not ours 
or which even recoil upon the heads of our oppo- 
nents, as for example, 

* 'Twas I that led the Dardan gallant on 
To storm the bridal bed of Sparta's queen ! " 7 

Further, this device of saying the opposite of what 50 

4°3 



QU1NTILIAN 

haec contraria dicendi quam quae intclligi velis 
ratio, ut totum pro Quinto Ligario prooemium et 
illae elevation es : Videlicet, dii boni ! — 

Scilicet is superis labor est. 

61 — et ille pro Oppio locus : amorem mirum ! beni- 
volentiam singularem ! Non procul absunt ab hac 
simulatione res inter se similes, confessio nihil 
nocitura, qualis est : Habes igitur, Tubero, quod est 
accusatori maxime optandum, confdentcm reum ; et con- 
cessio, cum aliquid etiam iniquum videmur causae 
fiducia pati : Metum virgarum nauarchus nobilissimae 
civitatis pretio redemit : humanum est ; et pro Cluentio 
de invidia : Dominetur in contio?iibus, iaceat in iudiciis ; 
tertia consensio, ut pro eodem, iudicium esse cor- 

52 ruptum. Haec evidentior figura est, cum alicui rei 
assentimur, quae est futura pro nobis ; verum id 
accidere sine adversarii vitio non potest. Quaedam 
etiam velut laudamus, ut Cicero in Verrem circa 



1 Aen. iv. 379. Dido mocks the excuse of Aeneas that he 
had received the direct command of heaven to leave Carthage. 

2 pro Lig. i. 2. 3 Verr. v. xliv. 117. 

4 pro Cluewt. ii. 5. 5 pro Gluent. xxiii. 63. 

6 Vcrr. iv. xvii. 37. »'• «• Apollonius deserved it. 

404 



BOOK IX. ii. 50-52 

we desire to imply is not merely restricted to per- 
sons, but may be extended to things, witness the 
whole of the exordium of the pro Ligario and dis- 
paraging phrases such as "Forsooth," "ye great 
gods ! " or 

11 Fit task, I ween, for gods ! " l 

Another example is provided by the following pas- 51 
sage from the pro Oppio, " What wondrous love ! 
what extraordinary benevolence '. " Akin to irony 
also are the following Jigures, which have a strong 
family resemblance : confession of a kind that can do 
our case no harm, such as the following 2 : " You have 
now, Tubero, the advantage most desired by an ac- 
cuser: the accused confesses his guilt"; secondly, con- 
cession, when we pretend to admit something actually 
unfavourable to ourselves by way of showing our 
confidence in our cause, as in the following passage 3 : 
" The commander of a ship from a distinguished 
city paid down a sum of money to rid himself of 
the fear of a scourging which hung over his head ; 
it shows Verres' humanity''; or again, in the pro 
Cluentio, 4 where Cicero is speaking of the prejudice 
aroused against his client, " Let it prevail in the 
public assembly, but be silent in the courts of law " ; 
thirdly, agreement, as when Cicero, 5 in the same 
speech, agrees that the jury was bribed. This last 52 
form ofjigure becomes more striking when we agree 
to something which is really likely to tell in our 
favour ; but such an opportunity can only occur 
through weakness on the part of our opponent- 
Sometimes we may even praise some action of our 
opponent, as Cicero does in his prosecution of Verres* 
when dealing with the charge in connexion with 

405 



QUINTILIAN 

crimen Apollonii Drepanitani : Gaudeo etiam, si quid 
ab eo abstulisti, et abs te nihil rectius factum esse dico. 

53 Interim augemus crimina, quae ex facili aut diluere 
possimus aut negare, quod est frequentius quam ut 
exemplum desideret. Interim hoc ipso fidem de- 
trahimus illis, quod sint tam gravia, ut pro Roscio 
Cicero, cum immanitatem parricidii quanquam per 
se manifestam tamen etiam vi orationis exaggerat. 

54 ' Attoo-imtttjo-is, quam idem Cicero reticentiam, Celsus 
obticentiam, nonnulli interruptionem appellant, et 
ipsa ostendit aliquid adfectus vel irae, ut. 

Quos ego — sed motos pruestat componere fluctus ; 

vel sollicitudinis et quasi religionis : An huius Me 
legis, quam Clodius a se inventam gloriatur, mentionem 
facere ausus esset vivo Milone, non dicam conside ? de 
nostrum omnium — non audeo totum dicere ; cui simile 

55 est in prooemio pro Ctesiphonte Demosthenis. Vel 
alio transeundi gratia : Cominius autem — tametsi 
ignoscite mihi, indices. In quo est et ilia (si tamen 
inter schemata numerari debet, cum aliis etiam pars 



1 Roscius of Ameria was accused of parricide. 

2 See quotation in ix. i. 31. 

8 Aen. i. 135. Neptune rebukes the winds for raising a 
storm, but breaks off without actually saying what he would 
do to them. 

4 Now frequently inserted in pro Mil. xii. 33. But it is 
quite possible that the words formed part of the speech 
actually delivered, and do not belong to the existing speech, 
from the MSS. from which they are absent. The law 
proposed to give freedmen the right to vote in all thirty- 
five tribes and not as before in the four city-tribes only. 

406 



BOOK IX. ii. 52-55 

Apollonius of Drepanum : " Nay, it is a real pleasure 
to me to think that you took something from him, 
and I say that you never did a juster action in your 
life." At times we may exaggerate charges against 53 
ourselves which we can easily refute or deny ; this 
device is too common to require any illustration. At 
other times we may by this same method make the 
charges brought against us seem incredible just 
because of their gravity : thus Cicero in his defence 
of Roscius, 1 by the sheer force of his eloquence, 
exaggerates the horror of parricide, despite the fact 
that it requires no demonstration. 

Aposiopesis, which Cicero 2 calls relicentia, Celsus 54 
obticentia, and some inlerruptio, is used to indicate 
passion or anger, as in the line : 3 

" Whom I— 
But better first these billows to assuage." 

Or it may serve to give an impression of anxiety or 
scruple, as in the following : 4 " Would he have dared 
to mention this law of which Clodius boasts he was 
the author, while Milo was alive, I will not say was 
consul ? For as regards all of us — I do not dare to 
complete the sentence." There is a similar instance 
in the exordium of Demosthenes' speech in defence 
of Ctesiphon. 5 Again it may be employed as a means 55 
of transition, as, for example, 6 " Cominius, however — 
nay, pardon me, gentlemen." This last instance also 
involves digression, if indeed digression is to be 
counted a.mong Jigures, since some authorities regard 
it as forming one of the parts of a speech. 7 For at 



* § 3. 'AAA' efiol fiiv — on $ov\oficu 6s 5iktx*P** tiveiv 6u$4v. 

• From the pro Cornelio. 1 cp. iv. iiL 12. 



407 



QUINTILIAN 

causae videatur) digressio ; abit enim causa in laudes 
Cn. Pompeii, idque fieri etiam sine aTroo-ioyirrjo-fi 

56 potuit. Nam brevior ilia, ut ait Cicero, a re digressio 
plurimis fitmodis. Sed haec exempli gratia sufficient : 
Turn C. Varenus, is qui a familia Anchariana occisus 
est ; hoc, quaeso, indices, diligenter attendite ; et pro 
Milone Et aspexit me Mis quidem oculis, quibus turn 

57 solebat, cum omnibus omnia minabatur. Est alia non 
quidem reticentia, quae sit imperfecti sermonis, sed 
tamen praecisa velut ante legitimum fin em oratio : 
ut illud Nimis urgeo, commoveri videtur adolescens ; et 
Quid plum ? l ipsum adolescentem dicere audistis. 

58 Imitatio morura alienorum, quae r]6oir ua vel, 
ut alii malunt, /x/'yu^o-is dicitur, iam inter leniores 
adfectus numerari potest ; est enim posita fere in 
eludendo, sed versatur et in factis et in dictis. 
In factis, quod est virorvirtiyo-ei vicinum ; in dictis, 
quale est apud Terentium : 

At ego nesciebam, quorsum tu ires. Parvula 

Hinc est abrcpta, eduxit mater pro sua, 

Soror dicta est : cupio abducere, ut reddam sins. 

59 Sed nostrorum quoque dictorum factorumque similis 
imitatio est per relationem, nisi quod frequentius 

1 ne multa, Cicero. 

1 From the passage quoted ix. i. 28. 

2 From the lost pro Vareno. 8 xii. 33. 
* pro Lig. iii. 9. 

5 A free quotation from Verr. v. xliv. 116. 

6 Eun. r. ii. 75. 

408 



BOOK IX. ii. 5S-S9 

this point the orator diverges to sing the praises of 
Gnaeus Pompeius, which he might have done with- 
out any recourse to aposiopesis. For as Cicero x says, 56 
the shorter form of digression may be effected in a 
number of different ways. The following passages 
will, however, suffice as examples : " Then Gaius 
Varenus, that is, the Varenus who was killed by the 
slaves of Ancharius : — I beg you, gentlemen, to give 
careful attention to what I am about to say 2 ; " the 
second is from the pro Milone 3 : "Then he turned 
on me that glance, which it was his wont to assume, 
when he threatened all the world with every kind 
of violence." There is also another kind of figure, 57 
which is not aposiopesis, since that involves leaving 
a sentence unfinished, but consists in bringing our 
words to a close before the natural point for their 
conclusion. The following is an example 4 : "I am 
pressing my point too far ; the young man appears 
to be moved"; or 5 "Why should I say more? you 
heard the young man tell the story himself." 

The imitation of other persons' characteristics, 58 
which is styled rjdoTroda or, as some prefer /u'u^o-i?, 
may be counted among the devices which serve to 
excite the gentler emotions. For it consists mainly 
in banter, though it may be concerned either with 
words or deeds. If concerned with the latter, it 
closely resembles vttotvttw<ti<;, while the following 
passage from Terence 6 will illustrate it as applied 
to words : " I didn't see your drift. • A little girl 
was stolen from this place ; my mother brought her 
up as her own daughter. She was known as my 
sister. I want to get her away to restore her to her 
relations.'" We may, however, imitate our own 59 
words and deeds in a similar fashion by relating some 

409 



QUINTILIAN 

asseverat quam eludit : Dicebam habere eos aetorem 
Q. Caecilium. Sunt et ilia iucunda et ad commenda- 
tionem cum varietate turn etiam ipsa natura 
plurimum prosunt, quae simplicem quandam et 
non praeparatam ostendendo orationem minus nos 

60 suspectos iudici faciunt. Hinc est quasi paenitentia 
dicti, ut pro Caelio Sed quid ego ita gravem personam 
introduxi ? Et quibus utimur vulgo : Imprudens 
incidi. Vel cum quaerere nos, quid dicamus, 
fingimus : Quid reliquum est ? et Num quid omisi ? 
et cum ibidem invenire, ut ait Cicero : Unum etiam 
minx reliquum huiusmodi crimen est; et Aliud ex alio 

61 succurrit mihi. Unde etiam venusti transitus fiunt ; 
non quia transitus ipse sit schema, ut Cicero, narrato 
Pisonis exemplo, qui anulum sibi cudi ab aurifice 
in tribunali suo iusserat, velut hoc in memoriam 
inductus adiecit : Hie modo me commonuit Pisonis 
anulus, quod totum effluxerat. Quam multis istum 
putatis hominibus honestis de digitis anulos aureos 
abstulisse ? Et cum aliqua velut ignoramus : Sed 



1 Div. in Caec. ii. 4. Cicero ironically suggested to the 
Sicilians thatCaecilius should undertake their case. He was 
a bogus accuser put forward by Verres himself, whose quaestor 
he had been in Sicily. 

2 xv. 35. 3 Vcrr. iv. xx. 43. 

4 pro Cluenl. lxi. 169. s I'err. IV. xxvi. 57. 

* Verr. iv. iii. 5. 

410 



BOOK IX. ii. 59-61 

act or statement, though in such cases the speaker 
more frequently does so to assert his point than for 
the sake of banter, as, for example, in the following, 1 
" I said that they had Quintus Caecilius to conduct 
the prosecution." There are other devices also which 
are agreeable in themselves and serve not a little 
to commend our case both by the introduction of 
variety and by their intrinsic naturalness, since by 
giving our speech an appearance of simplicity and 
spontaneity they make the judges more ready to 
accept our statements without suspicion. Thus we 60 
may feign repentance for what we have said, as in 
the pro Caelio, 2 where Cicero says, " But why did I 
introduce so respectable a character?" Or we may 
use some common phrase, such as, " I didn't mean 
to say that." 3 Or we may pretend that we are 
searching for what we should say, as in the phrases, 
•What else is there?" or "Have I left anything 
out ? " Or we may pretend to discover something 
suggested by the context, as when Cicero 4 says, " One 
more charge, too, of this sort still remains for me to 
deal with," or " One thing suggests another.'' Such 61 
methods will also provide us with elegant transitions, 
although transition is not itself to be ranked among 
figures : for example, Cicero, 5 after telling the story 
of Piso, who ordered a goldsmith to make a ring 
before him in court, adds, as though this story had 
suggested it to him, "This ring of Piso's reminds 
me of something which had entirely slipped my 
memory. How many gold rings do you think 
Verres has stripped from the fingers of honourable 
men?" Or we may affect ignorance on certain 
points, as in the following passage 6 : " But who 
was the sculptor who made those statues ? Who 

411 



QUINTILIAN 

earum rerum artificem, quern ? quemnam ? Recte 

62 admo7ies, Polyclitum esse dicebant. Quod quidem 
non in hoc tantum valet. Quibusdam enim, dum 
aliud agere videmur, aliud efficimus, sicut hie 
Cicero consequitur, ne, cum morbum in signis atque 
tabulis obiiciat Verri, ipse quoque earum rerum 
studiosus esse credatur. Et Demosthenes iurando 
per interfectos in Marathone et Salamine id agit, 
ut minore invidia cladis apud Chaeroneam acceptae 

63 laboret. Faciunt ilia quoque iucundam orationem, 
aliqua mentione habita differre et deponere apud 
memoriam iudicis et reposcere quae deposueris, et 
iterare 1 quaedam schemate aliquo, (non enim est 
ipsa per se iteratio schema) et excipere aliqua et 
dare actioni varios velut vultus. Gaudet enim res 
varietate, et sicut oculi diversarum aspectu rerum 
magis detinentur, ita semper animis praestat, in 
quod se velut novum intendant. 

64 Est emphasis etiain inter figuras, cum ex aliquo 
dicto latens aliquid eruitur, ut apud Vergilium 

Non licuit thalami expertem sine crhnine vitam 
Degere more ferae ? 

Quanquam enim de matrimonio queritur Dido, 
iterare, Halm: sperare, B : separare A (m.2). 

1 De Coron. 263. He argued that defeat in such a cause 
could bring no shame. Athens would have been unworihy 
of the heroes of old had she not fought for freedom. 

1 Aen. iv. 550. 

412 



BOOK IX. ii. 61-64 

was he ? Thank you for prompting me, you are 
right; they said it was Polyclitus." This device 62 
may serve for other purposes as well. For there 
are means of this kind whereby we may achieve 
an end quite other than that at which we appear 
to be aiming, as, for example, Cicero does in the 
passage just quoted. For while he taunts Verres 
with a morbid passion for acquiring statues and 
pictures, he succeeds in creating the impression 
that he personally has no interest in such subjects. 
So, too, when Demosthenes l swears by those who 
fell at Marathon and Salamis, his object is to lessen 
the odium in which he was involved by the disaster 
at Chaeronea. We may further lend charm to our 63 
speech by deferring the discussion of some points 
after just mentioning them, thus depositing them 
in the safe keeping of the judge's memory and after- 
wards reclaiming our deposit ; or we may employ 
some figure to enable us to repeat certain points 
(for repetition is not in itself a figure) or may make 
especial mention of certain things and vary the 
aspect of our pleading. For eloquence delights 
in variety, and just as the eye is more strongly 
attracted by the sight of a number of different 
things, so oratory supplies a continuous series of 
novelties to rivet the attention of the mind. 

Emphasis may be numbered among figures also, 64 
when some hidden meaning is extracted from some 
phrase, as in the following passage from Virgil : 

" Might I not have lived, 
From wedlock free, a life without a stain, 
Happy as beasts are happy ? " 2 

For although Dido complains of marriage, yet her 

413 



QUINTILIAN 

tamen hue erumpit eius adfectus, ut sine thalamis 
vitam non hominum putet, sed ferarum. Aliud apud 
Ovidium genus, apud quern Zmyrna nutrici amorem 
patris sic confitetur ; 

0, dixit, felicem coniuge matrem ! 

65 Huic vel confinis vel eadem est, qua nunc utimur 
plurimum. lam enim ad id genus, quod et frequen- 
tissimum est et exspeetari maxime credo, veniendum 
est, in quo per quandam suspicion em quod non 
dicimus accipi volumus, non utique contrarium, ut 
in elpwveia, sed aliud latens et auditori quasi invenien- 
dum. Quod, ut supra ostendi, iam fere solum 
schema a nostris vocatur, et unde controversiae 

66 figuratae dicuntur. Eius triplex usus est : unus si 
dicere palam parum tutum est, alter si non decet, 
tertius qui venustatis modo gratia adhibetur et 
ipsa novitate ac varietate magis, quam si relatio 1 sit 
recta, delectat. 

67 Ex his, quod est primum, frequens in scholis 
est. Nam et pactiones deponentium imperium 
tyrannorum et post bellum civile senatus consulta 
finguntur et capitale est obiicere anteacta, ut, quod 

1 si relatio, A (si r by 2nd hand) : si elatio, B. 

1 Met. x. 422. 2 ix. i. 14. 

414 



BOOK IX. ii. 64-67 

passionate outburst shows that she regards life with- 
out wedlock as no life for man, but for the beasts 
of the field. A different kind of emphasis is found 
in Ovid, where Zmyrna confesses to her nurse her 
passion for her father in the following words : 

" O mother, happy in thy spouse ! " 1 

Similar, if not identical with this figure is another, 65 
which is much in vogue at the present time. For 
I must now proceed to the discussion of a class of 
figure which is of the commonest occurrence and 
on which I think I shall be expected to make 
some comment. It is one whereby we excite some 
suspicion to indicate that our meaning is other than 
our words would seem to imply ; but our meaning 
is not in this case contrary to that which we express, 
as is the case in irony, but rather a hidden meaning 
which is left to the hearer to discover. As I have 
already pointed out, 2 modern rhetoricians practically 
restrict the name of figure to this device, from the 
use of which Jigured controversial themes derive 
their name. This class of figure may be em- 66 
ployed under three conditions : first, if it is unsafe 
to speak openly ; secondly, if it is unseemly to speak 
openly ; and thirdly, when it is employed solely 
with a view to the elegance of what we say, and 
gives greater pleasure by reason of the novelty and 
variety thus introduced than if our meaning had 
been expressed in straightforward language. 

The first of the three is of common occurrence in 67 
the schools, where we imagine conditions laid down 
by tyrants on abdication and decrees passed bv the 
senate after a civil war, and it is a capital offence 
to accuse a person with what is past, what is not 

415 



QUINTILIAN 

in foro non expedil, illic nee liceat. Sed schematum 
condicio non eadem est. Quamlibet enim aper- 
tum, quod modo et aliter intelligi possit, in illos 
tyrannos bene dixeris, quia periculum tantum, 
non etiam offensa vitatur. Quod si ambiguitate 
sententiae possit eludi, nemo non illi furto favet. 

68 Vera negotia nunquam adhuc habuerunt hanc silentii 
necessitatem ; sed aliam huic similem, verum multo 
ad agendum difficiliorem, cum personae potentes 
obstant, sine quarum reprehensione teneri causa 

69 non possit. Ideoque hoc parcius et circumspectius 
faciendum est, quia nihil interest, quomodo offendas, 
et aperta figura perdit hoc ipsum quod figura est. 
Ideoque a quibusdam tota res repudiatur, sive 
intelligatur sive non intelligatur. Sed licet modum 
adhibere ; in primis, ne sint manifestae. Non erunt 
autem, si non ex verbis dubiis et quasi duplicibus 
petenlur, quale est in suspecta nuru, Duxi uxorevi, 

70 quae patri placuit ; aut, quod est multo ineptius, 
416 



BOOK IX. ii. 67-70 

expedient in the courts being actually prohibited 
in the schools. But the conditions governing the 
employment of figures differ in the two cases. For 
we may speak against the tyrants in question as 
openly as we please without loss of effect, pro- 
vided always that what we say is susceptible of a 
different interpretation, since it is only danger to 
ourselves, and not offence to them, that we have to 
avoid. And if the danger can be avoided by any 68 
ambiguity of expression, the speaker's cunning will 
meet with universal approbation. On the other 
hand, the actual business of the courts has never 
yet involved such necessity for silence, though at 
times thev require something not unlike it, which 
is much more embarrassing for the speaker, as, for 
example, when he is hampered by the existence of 
powerful personages, whom he must censure if 
he is to prove his case. Consequently he must 69 
proceed with greater wariness and circumspection ; 
since the actual manner in which offence is given 
is a matter of indifference, and if a figure is perfectly 
obvious, it ceases to be a figure. Therefore such 
devices are absolutely repudiated by some authori- 
ties, whether the meaning of the figure be intelli- 
gible or not. But it is possible to employ such 
figures in moderation, the primary consideration 
being that they should not be too obvious. And 
this fault can be avoided, if the Jigure does not 
depend on the employment of words of doubtful 
or double meaning, such, for instance, as the words 
which occur in the theme of the suspected daughter- 
in-law x : " I married the wife who pleased my 
father." It is important, too, that the ^figure should 70 
1 i. e. suspected of an intrigue with her father-in-law. 

417 
VOL. III. P 



QUINTILIAN 

compositionibus ambiguis, ut in ilia controversia, 
in qua infamis amore filiae virginis pater raptam 
earn interrogat, a quo vitiata sit, Quis te, inquit, 

7 1 rapuit ? Tu, pater, nescis ? Res ipsae perducant 
iudicem ad suspicionem, et amoliamur cetera, ut 
hoc solum supersit ; in quo multuni etiam adfectus 
iuvant et interrupta silentio dictio et cunctationes. 
Sic enim net, ut iudex quaerat illud nescio quid 
ipse, quod fortasse non crederet, si audiret, et ei, 

72 quod a se inventum existimat, credat. Sed ne si 
optimae quidem sint, esse debent frequentes. Nam 
densitate ipsa figurae aperiuntur, nee oftensae minus 
habent, sed auctoritatis ; nee pudor videtur, quod 
non palam obiicias, sed diffidentia. In summa, sic 
maxime iudex credit figuris, si nos putat nolle 

73 dicere. Equidem et in personas incidi tales et in 
rem quoque, quod est magis rarum, quae obtineri 
nisi hac arte non posset. Ream tuebar, quae 
subiecisse dicebatur mariti testamentum, et dice- 
bantur chirographum marito exspiranti heredes 

74 dedisse ; et verum erat. Nam, quia per leges 

1 The sense of the words depends on the punctuation, 
according as we place a full-stop or a comma after My father. 

8 The bond was to the effect that they would make over 
the property to the wife ; the existence of such a bond 
proved the wife innocent, since it was a virtual confirmation 
of the will, of which it showed the husband to have cogni- 
sance. But the bond was not valid in the eye of the law 
and such tacita fideicommissa were illegal, since the wife 
could not inherit; consequently the admission of the exis- 
tence of the bond would have involved the loss of the inheri- 
tance, which on information being laid (cp. delalores) would 
have lapsed to the state. Caput is the civil status of the 
wife. With regard to dicebantur, the writing is careless, as 
it suggests that the statement was made by the prosecution, 
which was, of course, not the case. 

418 



BOOK IX. ii. 70-74 

not depend on ambiguous collocations of words (a 
trick which is far more foolish than the last) ; an 
example of this is to be found in the controversial 
tbeme, where a father, accused of a criminal passion 
for his unmarried daughter, asks her for the name 
of her ravisher. "Who dishonoured you?" he says. 
She replies: "My father, do you not know?" 1 71 
The facts themselves must be allowed to excite the 
suspicions of the judge, and we must clear away all 
other points, leaving nothing save what will suggest 
the truth. In doing this we shall find emotional 
appeals, hesitation and words broken by silences 
most effective. For thus the judge will be led to 
seek out the secret which he would not perhaps 
believe if he heard it openly stated, and to believe 
in that which he thinks he has found out for himself. 
But however excellent our figures, they must not be 72 
too numerous. For overcrowding will make them 
obvious, and they will become ineffective without 
becoming inoffensive, while the fact that we make 
no open accusation will seem to be due not to 
modesty, but to lack of confidence in our own cause. 
In fact, we may sum up the position thus : our 
figures will have most effect upon the judge when 
he thinks that we use them with reluctance. I 73 
myself have come across persons whom it was im- 
possible to convince by other means : I have even 
come across a much rarer thing, namely, a case 
which could only be proved by recourse to such 
devices. I was defending a woman who was alleged 
to have forged her husband's will, and the heirs 
were stated to have given a bond 2 to the husband 
on his deathbed, which latter assertion was true. 
For since the wife could not legally be appointed 74 

419 



QUINTILIAN 

institui uxor non poterat heres, id fuerat actum, 
ut ad earn bona per hoc taciturn fideicommissum 
pervenirent. Et caput quidem tueri facile erat, 
si hoc diceremus palam, sed peribat hereditas. Ita 
ergo fuit nobis agendum, ut iudices illud intelli- 
gerent factum, delatores non possent apprehendere 
ut dictum ; et contigit utrumque. Quod non inse- 
ruissem, veritus opinionem iactantiae, nisi probare 
voluissem in foro quoque esse his figuris locum. 

75 Quaedam etiam, quae probare non possis, figura 
potius spargenda sunt. Haeret enim nonnunquam 
telum illud occultum, et hoc ipso, quod non apparet, 
eximi non potest ; at si idem dicas palam, et 
defenditur et probandum est. 

76 Cum autem obstat nobis personae reverentia, 
(quod secundum posuimus genus) tanto cautius 
dicendum est, quanto validius bonos inhibet pudor 
quam metus. Hie vero tegere nos iudex quod 
sciamus et verba vi quadam veritatis erumpentia 
credat coercere. Nam quanto magis l aut ipsi, in 
quos dicimus, aut iudices aut adsistentes oderint 

1 quanto tnagis, Halm : quo minus, AB 
420 



BOOK IX. ii. 74-76 

his heir, this procedure was adopted to enable the 
property to be transferred to her by a secret con- 
veyance in trust. Now it was easy for me to secure 
the woman's acquittal, by openly mentioning the 
existence of the bond; but this would have involved 
her loss of the inheritance. I had, therefore, to plead 
in such a way thatthe judges should understand that 
the bond had actually been given, but that informers 
might be unable to avail themselves of any state- 
ment of mine to that effect. And I was successful 
in both my aims. The fear of seeming to boast my 
own skill would have deterred me from mentioning 
this case, but for the fact that I wished to demon- 
strate that there was room for the employment of 
these figures even in the courts. Some things, 75 
again, which cannot be proved, may, on the other 
hand, be suggested by the employment of some 
figure. For at times such hidden shafts will stick, 
and the fact that they are not noticed will prevent 
their being drawn out, whereas if the same point 
were stated openly, it would be denied by our 
opponents and would have to be proved. 

When, however, it is respect for some person that 76 
hampers us (which I mentioned as the second con- 
dition x under which such figures may be used), all 
the greater caution is required because the sense of 
shame is a stronger deterrent to all good men than 
fear. In such cases the judge must be impressed 
with the fact that we are hiding what we know and 
keeping back the words which our natural impulse 
to speak out the trutli would cause to burst from 
our lips. For those against whom we are speaking, 
together with the judges and our audience, would 
1 See § 66. 

421 



QUINTILIAN 

hanc maledicendi lasciviam, si velle nos credant? 

77 Aut quid interest quomodo dicatur, cum et res 
et animus intelligitur ? Quid dicendo denique 
proficimus, nisi ut palam sit facere nos quod ipsi 
sciamus non esse faciendum ? Atqui praecipue 
prima, quibus praecipere eoeperam, tempora hoc 
vitio laborarunt. Dicebant enim libenter tales 
controversias, quae difficultatis gratia placent, cum 

78 sint multo faciliores. Nam rectum genus approbari 
nisi maximis viribus non potest ; haec deverticula 
et anfractus suffugia sunt infirmitatis, ut qui cursu 
parum valent, flexu eludunt, cum haec, quae 
adfectatur, ratio sententiarum non procul a ratione 
iocandi abhorreat. Adiuvat etiam, quod auditor 
gaudet intelligere, et favet ingenio suo et alio 

7 9 dicente se laudat. Itaque non solum, si persona 
obstaret rectae orationi, (quo in genere saepius 
modo quam figuris opus est) decurrebant ad 
schemata, sed faciebant illis locum etiam, ubi 
inutiles ac nefariae essent, Ut si l - pater, qui infamem 
in matrem filium secreto occidisset, reus malae 

1 si, Regius: is, MSS. 
422 



BOOK IX. ii. 76-79 

assuredly be all the more incensed by such toying 
with detraction, if they thought that we were 
inspired by deliberate malice. And what difference 77 
does it make how we express ourselves, when both 
the facts and our feelings are clearly understood? 
And what good shall we do by expressing our- 
selves thus except to make it clear that we are 
doing what we ourselves know ought not to be done ? 
And yet in the days when I first began to teach 
rhetoric, this failing was only too common. For 
declaimers selected by preference those themes 
which attracted them by their apparent difficulty, 
although as a matter of fact they were much easier 
than many others. For straightforward eloquence 78 
requires the highest gifts to commend itself to 
the audience, while these circuitous and indirect 
methods are merely the refuge of weakness, for those 
who use them are like men who, being unable to 
escape from their pursuers by speed, do so by 
doubling, since this method of expression, which 
is so much affected, is really not far removed from 
jesting. Indeed it is positively assisted by the 
fact that the hearer takes pleasure in detecting 
the speaker's concealed meaning, applauds his own 
penetration and regards another man's eloquence as 
a compliment to himself. Consequently it was not 79 
merely in cases where respect for persons prevented 
direct speaking (a circumstance which as a rule calls 
for caution rather than figures) that they would 
have recourse to Jiguralive methods, but they made 
room for them even under circumstances where they 
were useless or morally inadmissible, as for example 
in a case where a father, who had secretly slain his 
son whom he suspected of incest with his mother, 

423 



QUINTILIAN 

tractationis iacularetur in uxorem obliquis sententiis. 

80 Nam quid impurius, quam retinuisse talem ? Quid 
porro tam contrarium quam eum, qui accusetur, 
quia summum nefas suspicatus de uxore videatur, 
confirmare id ipsa defensione, quod diluendum est ? 
At si iudicum sumerent animum, scirent, quam 
eiusmodi actionem laturi non fuissent, multoque 
etiam minus, cum in parentes abominanda crimina 
spargerentur. 

81 Et quatenus hue incidimus, paulo plus scholis 
demus. Nam et in his educatur orator, et in eo, 
quomodo declamatur, positum est etiam, quomodo 
agatur. Dicendum ergo de iis quoque, in quibus 
non asperas figuras, sed palam contrarias causae 
plerique fecerunt : Tyrannidis adfectatae damnahis 
torqueatur, ut conscios indicet ; accusator eius optet, 
quod volet. Pattern qvidam damnavit, 1 optat, ne is 

82 totqucatut ; patet ei contta dicit. Nemo se tenuit 
agens pro patre, quin figuras in filium faceret, 
tanquam ilium conscium in tormentis nominaturus. 
Quo quid stultius ? Nam cum hoc iudices intel- 

1 quidam damnavit, B: qui accusavit, A. 
424 



BOOK IX. ii. 79-82 

and was accused of ill-treating his wife, was made to 
bring indirect insinuations against his wife. But 80 
what could be more discreditable to the accused than 
that he should have kept such a wife ? What could 
be more damaging than that he who is accused 
because he appears to have harboured the darkest 
suspicions against his wife, should by his defence 
confirm the charge which he is required to refute ? 
If such speakers had only placed themselves in the 
position of the judges, they would have realised how 
little disposed they would have been to put up with 
pleading on such lines, more especially in cases 
where the most abominable crimes were insinuated 
against parents. 

However, since we have lighted on this topic, let 81 
us devote a little more time to considering the 
practice of the schools. For it is in the schools that 
the orator is trained, and the methods adopted in 
pleading ultimately depend on the methods employed 
in declamation. I must therefore say something 
of those numerous cases in which Jigures have been 
employed which were not merely harsh, but actually 
contrary to the interests of the case. "A man con- 
demned for attempting to establish himself as tyrant 
shall be tortured to make him reveal the names of 
his accomplices. The accuser shall choose what 
reward he pleases. A certain man has secured the 
condemnation of his father and demands as his 
reward that he should not be tortured. The father 
opposes his choice." Everyone who pleaded for the 82 
father indulged in figurative insinuations against the 
son, on the assumption that the father would, when 
tortured, be likely to name him as one of his accom- 
plices. But what could be more foolish? For as 

425 



QUINTILIAN 

lexerint, aut non torquebitur, cum ideo torqueri 

83 velit, aut torto non credetur. At credibile est, 
hoc eum velle. Fortasse ; dissimulet ergo, ut 
efficiat. Sed nobis (declamatoribus dico) quid 
proderit hoc intellexisse, nisi dixerimus? Ergo, 
si vere ageretur, similiter consilium illud latens 
prodidissemus? Quid? si neque utique verum est, 
et habere alias hie damnatus contradicendi causas 
potest, vel quod legem conservandam putet, vel 
quod nolit accusatori debere beneficium, vel (quod 
ego maxime sequerer) ut innocentem se esse in 

84 tormentis pertendat ? Quare ne illud quidem 
semper succurret sic dicentibus, Patrocinium hoc 
voluit, qui controversiam ft'nxit. Fortasse enim noluit ; 
sed esto, voluerit : continuone, si ille stulte cogitavit, 
nobis quoque stulte dicendum est ? At ego in causis 
agendis frequenter non puto intuendum, quid 

85 litigator velit. Est et ille in hoc genere frequens 
error, ut putent aliud quosdam dicere aliud velle, 
praecipue cum in themate est aliquem, ut sibi 
mori liceat, postulare, ut in ilia controversia, Qui 
aliquando fortiter fecerat et alio hello petierat, ut 
426 



BOOK IX. ii. 82-85 

soon as the judges grasp their point, they will either 
refuse to put him to the torture in view of his 
motive for desiring to be tortured, or will refuse to 
believe any confession he may make under torture. 
But, it will be urged, it is possible that this was his 83 
motive. May be. But he should then disguise his 
motive, in order that he may effect his purpose. 
But what will it profit us (and by ?w I mean 
the declaimers) to have realised this motive, unless 
we declare it as well ? Well, then, if the case 
were being actually pleaded in the courts, should we 
have disclosed this secret motive in such a way? 
Again, if this is not the real motive, the condemned 
man may have other reasons for opposing his son ; 
he may think that the law should be carried out 
or be unwilling to accept such a kindness from the 
hands of his accuser, or (and this is the line on which 
I personally should insist) he may intend to persist 
in declaring his innocence even under torture. 
Consequently the usual excuse advanced bv such 84 
declaimers to the effect that the inventor of the 
theme meant the defence to proceed on these lines, 
will not always serve their purpose. It is possible 
that this was not the inventor's wish. However, let 
us assume that it was. Are we then to speak like 
fools merely because he thought like a fool ? Per- 
sonally I hold that, even in actual cases, we should 
often disregard the wishes of the litigant. Further, 85 
in such cases speakers fall into the frequent error of 
assuming that certain persons say one thing and 
mean another : this is more especially the case where 
it is assumed that a man asks permission to die. 
Take, for example, the following controversial theme. 
" A man who had shown himself a heroic soldier in 

427 



QUINTILIAN 

militia vacaret ex lege quod quinquagenarius esset, 
adversante filio ire in aciem coactus deseruif. Films, 
qui fortiter eodcm proelio fecerat, incolumitatem eius 
opt at ; contra dicit pater. " Non enim," inquiunt, 
S6"mori vult, sed invidiam filio facere." Equidem 
rideo, quod illi sic timent tanquam ipsi morituri 
et in consilium suos metus ferunt, obliti tot ex- 
emplorum circa voluntariam mortem, causarum 
quoque, quas habet factus ex viro forti desertor. 

87 Scd de una controversia loqui * supervacuum est. 
Ego in universum neque oratoris puto esse unquam 
praevaricari, neque litem intelligo, in qua pars 
utraque idem velit, neque tam stultum quemquam, 
qui, si vivere vult, mortem potius male petat quam 

88 omnino non petat. Non tamen nego esse contro- 
versias huiusmodi figuratas, ut est ilia, Reus 
parricidii, quod j'ralrem occidisset, damnation iri vide- 
batur ; pater pro testimonio dixit cum se iubente fecisse ; 

1 loqui, B '. sequi contiarium, A. 

1 The father does not wish to die, but merely to bring 
odium on his son, i. e. he is saying one thing and meaning 
another, for his real desire is to save his life. Consequently, 
despite their quarrel, both parties are aiming at the same 
thing, the saving of the father, while the fathers plea is 
practically tantamount to collusion (praevaricaiio) with his 
opponent. 

428 



BOOK IX. ii. 85-88 

the past, on the occasion of a subsequent war 
demanded exemption from service in accordance 
with the law, on the ground that he was fifty years 
of age, but exemption being refused owing to the 
opposition of his son, he deserted on being com- 
pelled to go into the fight. The son, who had borne 
himself like a hero in the same battle, asks for his 
father's pardon as a reward. The father opposes 
his choice." " Yes," they say, u that is due not to 
his desire to die, but to bring odium on his son." 
For my part, 1 laugh at the fears which they manifest 86 
on his behalf, as though they were in peril of death 
themselves, and at the way in which thev allow their 
terror to influence their line of pleading; for they 
forget how many precedents there are for suicide 
and how many reasons there may be why a hero 
turned deserter should wish for death. But it would 87 
be waste of time to expatiate on one controversial 
theme. I would lay it down as a general rule that an 
orator should never put forward a plea that is tanta- 
mount to collusion, and I cannot imagine a lawsuit 
arising in which both parties have the same design, 
nor conceive that any man who wishes to live could 
be such a fool as to put forward an absurd plea for 
death, when he might refrain from pleading for it at 
all. 1 I do not, however, deny that there are con- 88 
troversial themes of this kind where figures may 
legitimately be employed, as, for example, the 
following : " A man was accused of unnatural 
murder on the ground that he had killed his brother, 
and it seemed probable that he would be condemned. 
His father gave evidence in his defence, stating 
that the murder had been committed on his orders. 
The son was acquitted, but disinherited by the 

429 



QUINTILIAN 

absolulum abdicat. Nam neque in totum filio parcit 
nee, quod priore iudicio adfirmavit, mutare palam 
potest et, ut non durat ultra poenam abdicationis, 
ita abdicat tamen ; et alioqui figura in patrem plus 

89 facit, quam licet, in filium minus. Ut autem nemo 
contra id, quod vult, dicit, ita potest melius aliquid 
velle quam dicit, quo modo ille abdicatus, qui a 
patre, ut filium expositum et ab eo educatum solutis 
alimentis recipiat, postulat, revocari fortasse mavult, 

90 non tamen quod petit non vult. Est latens et ilia 
significatio qua, cum ius asperius petitur a iudice 
fit tamen spes aliqua clementiae, non palam, ne 
paciscamur, sed per quandam credibilem suspicionem, 
ut in multis controversiis, sed in hac quoque : Raptor, 
nisi intra tricesimum diem et raptae patrem et suitm 
exoraverit, per eat j qui exorato raptae patre suum non 

91 exorat, agit cum eo dementiae. Nam si promittat hie 
pater, lis tollitur ; si nullam spem faciat, ut non 
demens, crudelis certe videatur et a se iudicem aver- 



1 The sense is quite uncertain. The simplest interpre- 
tation is perhaps that the father's action and the figura by 
which he defends himself show that his evidence in the 
previous trial was false. The son has been acquitted on the 
father's evidence, and the father by punishing him has put 
himself in a hopelessly false position. 

43© 



BOOK IX. ii. 88-91 

father." For in this case he does not pardon his son 
entirely, but cannot openly withdraw the evidence 
that he gave in the first trial, and while he does not 
inflict any worse penalty than disinheritance, he does 
not shrink from that. Further, the employment of 
the figure tells more heavily against the father than 
is fair and less against the son. 1 But, while no one 89 
ever speaks against the view which he wishes to 
prevail, he may wish something of greater im- 
portance than what he actually says. Thus the 
disinherited son who asks his father to take L>ack 
another son whom he had exposed, and who had 
been brought up by himself, on payment for his 
maintenance, while he may prefer that he himself 
should be reinstated, may all the same be perfectly 
sincere in his demand on behalf of his brother. 
Again, a kind of tacit hint may be employed, which, 90 
while demanding the utmost rigour of the law from 
the judges, suggests a loophole for clemency, not 
openly, for that would imply a pledge on our part, 
but by giving a plausible suspicion of our meaning. 
This device is employed in a number of controversial 
themes, among them the following. " A ravisher, 
unless within thirty days he secure pardon both 
from his own father and the father of the ravished 
girl, shall be put to death. A man who has 
succeeded in securing pardon from the father of the 
girl, but not from his own, accuses the latter of 
madness." Here if the father pledges himself to 91 
pardon him, the dispute falls to the ground. If, on 
the other hand, he holds out no hope of pardon, 
though he will not necessarily be regarded as mad, 
he will certainly give the impression of cruelty and 
will prejudice the judge against him. Latro there- 

43i 



QUINTILIAN 

tat. Latro igitur optime, Occides ergo ? — Si potero. 
Remissius et pro suo ingenio pater Gallio, Dura, 

92 anime, dura; here fortior fuisti. Confinia sunt his 
celebrata apud Graecos schemata, per quae res 
asperas mollius significant. Nam Themistocles 
suasisse existimatur Atheniensibus, ut urbem apud 
deos deponerent, quia durum erat dicere, ut re- 
linquerent. Et, qui Victorias aureas in usum belli 
conflari volebat, ita declinavit, victoriis utendum 
esse. Totum autem allegoriae simile est aliud 
dicere aliud intelligi velle. 

93 Quaesitum etiam est, quomodo responderi contra 
figuras oporteret. Et quidam semper ex diverso 
aperiendas putaverunt, sicut latentia vitia rescind- 
untur. Idque sane frequentissime faciendum est ; 
aliter enim dilui obiecta non possunt, utique cum 
quaestio in eo consistit, quod figurae petunt. At 
cum maledicta sunt tantum, et non intelligere 

94 interim bonae conscientiae est. Atque etiam si 
fuerint crebriores figurae quam ut dissimulari 
possint, postulandum est, ut nescio quid illud, 

1 St potero is ambiguous. It might mean "If I have the 
heart to do so." Here lies the loophole for clemency to 
which Quintilian has referred. 

- Unknown. 

43 2 



BOOK IX. ii. 91-94 

fore showed admirable skill when he made the son 
say, " You will kill me then ? " and the father reply, 
" Yes, if I can." l The elder Gallio treats the theme 
with greater tenderness, as was natural to a man of 
his disposition. He makes the father say, " Be firm, 
my heart, be firm. Yesterday you were made of 
sterner stuff." Akin to this are those figures of 92 
which the Greeks are so fond, by means of which 
they give gentle expression to unpleasing facts. 
Themistocles, for example, is believed to have urged 
the Athenians to commit their city to the protection 
of heaven, because to urge them to abandon it would 
have been too brutal an expression. Again the 
statesman 2 who advised that certain golden images 
of Victory should be melted down as a contribution 
to the war funds, modified his words by saying that 
they should make a proper use of their victories. 
But all such devices which consist in saying one 
thing, while intending something else to be under- 
stood, have a strong resemblance to allegory. 

It has also been asked how figures may best be 93 
met. Some hold that they should always be 
exposed by the antagonist, just as hidden ulcers 
are laid open by the surgeon. It is true that 
this is often the right course, being the only means 
of refuting the charges which have been brought 
against us, and this is more especially the case 
when the question turns on the very point at which 
the figures are directed. But when the figures are 
merely employed as vehicles of abuse, it will some- 
times even be wisest to show that we have a clear 
conscience by ignoring them. Nay, even if too 94 
many figures have been used to permit us to take 
such a course, we may ask our opponents, if they 

433 



QUINTILIAN 
quod adversarii obliquis sententiis significare volu- 
erint, si fiducia sit, obiiciant palam, aut certe non 
exigant ut, quod ipsi non audent dicere, id iudi- 

95 ces non modo intelligant, sed etiam credant. Utilis 
aliquando etiam dissimulatio est, ut in eo (nota 
enim fabula est), qui, cum esset contra eum dictum, 
Iura per patris * tui cineres, paratum se esse respondit, 
et iudex condicione usus est, clamante multum 
advocato schemata de rerum natura tolli, ut prothius 
etiam praeceptum sit, eiusmodi figuris utendum 
tern ere non esse. 

96 Tertium est genus, in quo sola melius dicendi 
petitur occasio ; ideoque id Cicero non putat esse 
positum in contentione. Tale est illud, quo idem 
utitur in Clodium : Quilms tste, qui omnia sacrificia 
nosset, facile ah se deos placari posse arbitrabatur. 

97 Ironia quoque in hoc genere materiae frequentissima 
est. Sed eruditissimum longe, si per aliam rem 

1 patris, Seneca (Contr. 7), Sueton. : patroni, MSS. 
434 



BOOK IX. a. 94-97 

have any confidence in the righteousness of their 
cause, to give frank and open expression to the 
charges which they have attempted to suggest by 
indirect hints, or at any rate to refrain from asking 
the judges not merely to understand, but even to 
believe things which they themselves are afraid to 
state in so many words. It may even at times be 95 
found useful to pretend to misunderstand them ; for 
which we may compare the well-known story of the 
man who, when his opponent cried, " Swear by 
the ashes of your father," * replied that he was 
ready to do so, whereupon the judge accepted the 
proposal, much to the indignation of the advocate, 
who protested that this would make the use of 
figures absolutely impossible ; we may therefore lay 
it down as a general rule that such figures should 
only be used with the utmost caution. 

There remains the third class of figure designed 96 
merely to enhance the elegance of our style, for 
which reason Cicero expresses the opinion that such 
figures are independent of the subject in dispute. 
As an illustration I may quote the figure which he 
uses in his speech 2 against Clodius: "By these 
means he, being familiar with all our holy rites, 
thought that he might easily succeed in appeasing 
the gods." Irony also is frequently employed in 97 
this connexion. But by far the most artistic device 

1 See v. vi. 1. An oath might be taken by one of the 
parties as an alternative to evidence. In court such an 
oath might be taken only on the proposal of the defendant. 
The taking of such a proffered oath meant victory for the 
swearer. 

2 Lost. An allusion presumably to the occasion when 
Clodius was found disguised as a woman at the mysteries 
of the Bona Dea. 

435 



QUINTILIAN 

alia indicetur, ut adversus tyrannum, qui sub pacto 
abolitionis dominationem deposuerat, agit com- 
petitor, Mihi in te dicere non licet, tu in me die et potes ; 

98 nuper te volui occidere. Frequens illud est nee magno- 
pere captandum, quod petitur a iureiurando, ut pro 
exheredato, Ita mihi contingat herede Jilio mori. Nam 
et in totum iurare, nisi ubi necesse est, gravi viro 
parum convenit, et est a Seneca dictum eleganter, 
non patronorum hoc esse, sed testium. Nee meretur 
fidem qui sententiolae gratia iurat, nisi si potest 

99 tarn bene quam Demosthenes, ut supra dixi. Levissi- 
mum autem longe genus ex verbo, etiamsi est apud 
Ciceronem in Clodiam, Praeserlim quam omnes amicam 
omnium potiiis quam ciuusquam inimicam putaverunt. 

100 Comparationem equidem video figuram quoque * 
esse, cum sit interim probationis, interim etiam 
causae genus, et sit talis eius forma, qualis est pro 

1 quoque, Halm: non, MSS. 



1 An example of this theme is preserved in the elder 
Seneca, Excerpt, controv. 5, 8. One candidate is permitted 
to speak against another. A tyrant has abdicated on 
condition of an amnesty and that any one who charged him 
with having been a tyrant should be liable to capital punish- 
ment. The ex-tyrant stands for a magistracy. The rival 
candidate speaks against him. The irony is in the last 
sentence. 

* By this wish he expresses his disapproval of such acts as 
the disinheritance of a son. 

3 §62. 

* pro Cad. xiii. 32. The "word" is arnica, which means 
either "mistress " or "friend." 

s See V. xi. 32 (where for hcredem read heredi with MSS.) 
" The man to whom the usufruct of a house has been left 
will not restore it in the interests of the heir if it collapses : 
just as he would not replace a slave if he should die." 

436 



BOOK IX. 11. 97-100 

is to indicate one thing by allusion to another ; take 
the case where a rival candidate speaks against an 
ex-tyrant who had abdicated on condition of his 
receiving an amnesty x : "I am not permitted to 
speak against you. Do you speak against me. as 
you may. But a little while ago I wished to kill 
you." Another common device is to introduce an 98 
oath, like the speaker who, in defending a disin- 
herited man, cried, " So may I die leaving a son 
to be my heir." 2 But this is not a figure which 
is much to be recommended, for as a rule the 
introduction of an oath, unless it is absolutely 
necessary, is scarcely becoming to a self-respecting 
man. Seneca made a neat comment to this 
effect when he said that oaths were for the 
witness and not for the advocate. Again, the 
advocate who drags in an oath merely for the sake 
of some trivial rhetorical effect, does not deserve 
much credit, unless he can do this with the 
masterly effect achieved by Demosthenes, which I 
mentioned above. 8 But by far the most trivial form 99 
of figure is that which turns on a single word, 
although we find such a figure directed against 
Clodia by Cicero 4 : "Especially when evervbody 
thought her the friend of all men rather than the 
enemy of any." 

I note that comparison is also regarded as a figure, 100 
although at times it is a form of proof, 5 and at others 
the whole case may turn upon it, 6 while its form 
may be illustrated by the following passage from 

• E.g. when the accused admits that he is guilty of & 
crime, but seeks to show that his wrongdoing was the cause 
of greater good. 

437 



QUINTILIAN 

Murena, Vigilas tu de node, ut tuis consultoribus re- 
spondeas, Me, ut eo, quo cotitendit, x mature cum exercitu 
perveniat ; te gallorum ilium buccinarum cmrfus exsus- 

101 citat et cetera. Nescio an orationis potius quam 
sententiae sit. Id enim solum mutatur, quod non 
universa universis, sed singula singulis opponuntur. 
Et Celsus tamen et non negligens auctor Visellius 
in hac earn parte posuerunt, Rutilius quidem Lupus 
in utroque genere, idque avrideTov vocat. 

102 Praeter ilia vero, quae Cicero inter lumina posuit 
sententiarum, multa alia et idem Rutilius Gorgian 
secutus, non ilium Leontinum, sed alium sui tem- 
poris, cuius quattuor libros in unura suum transtulit, 
et Celsus, videlicet Rutilio accedens, posuerunt 

103 schemata : consummationem, quam Graecus 8taAA.dy^v 
vocat, cum plura argumenta ad unum efFectum de- 
ducuntur; consequens, ille (iraKoXovQyjaiv, de quo 
nos in argumentis diximus ; collectionem, qui apud 
ilium est o-vAAo-yioyAos' minas, id est KardirXri^iv' 
exhortationem, TrapaivertKov. Quorum nihil non 
rectum est, nisi cum aliquam ex iis, de quibus locuti 

104 sumus, figuram accipit. Praeter haec Celsus ex- 
cludere, asseverare, detrectare, excitare iudicem, 
proverbiis uti, et versibus et ioco et invidia et in- 
vocatione intendere crimen (quod est SeiVwo-t?), 

1 intendit, MSS. of Cicero. 



1 pro Muren. ix. 22. 

2 StaWayv is corrupt, but the correct term has not yet 
been discovered. MSS. AIAMATHN, AIAMAPHN, etc. 

3 See v. xiv. 1. 

* The meaning of detrectccre is uncertain It may mean 
"refuse to deal with some topic," or simply "detract." 

438 



BOOK IX. ii. 100-104 

the pro Mure/ia x ; " You pass wakeful nights that 
you may be able to reply to your clients ; he that he 
and his army may arrive betimes at their destina- 
tion. You are roused by cockcrow, he by the 
bugle's reveille," and so on. I am not sure, how- 101 
ever, whether it is so much a figure of thought as of 
speech. For the only difference lies in the fact that 
universals are not contrasted with universals, but 
particulars with particulars. Celsus, however, and 
that careful writer Yisellius regard it as a figure of 
thought, while Rutilius Lupus regards it as belonging 
to both, and calls it antithesis. 

To the Jigures placed by Cicero among the orna- 102 
ments of thought Rutilius (following the views of 
Gorgias, a contemporary, whose four books he 
transferred to his own work, and who is not to be 
confused with Georgias of Leontini) and Celsus 
(who follows Rutilius) would add a number of 
others, such as: concentration, which the Greek calls 103 
SwAAayr;, 2 a term employed when a number of 
different arguments are used to establish one point : 
consequence, which Gorgias calls iTraKo\ov$i]o-i<>, and 
which I have already discussed under the head 
of argument 3 : inference, which Gorgias terms 
(ruAAoyioyids : threats, that is, /cara-A^f is : exhortation, 
or TrapaivcTinov. But all of these are perfectly 
straightforward methods of speaking, unless com- 
bined with some one of the Jigures which I have 
discussed above. Besides these, Celsus considers 104 
the following to be Jigures : exclusion, asseveration, 
refusal, 4 excitement of the judge, the use of 
proverbs, the employment of quotations from poetry, 
jests, invidious remarks or invocation to intensify a 
charge (which is identical with SeiVwo-i?) flattery, 

439 



QUINTILIAN 

adulari, ignoscere, fastidire, admonere, satisfacere, 

105 precari, corripere, figuras putat. Partitionem quoque 
et propositionem et divisionem et rerum duarum 
cognationem, quod est, ut idem valeant quae viden- 
tur esse diversa, ut non is demum sit veneficus, qui 
vitam abstulit data potione, sed etiam qui mentem ; 

106 quod est in parte finitionis. Rutilius sive Gorgias, 
avayKoiov, avd/JLvrjcriv, dv6viro<popav, avripp-qcriv, irap- 
av^rjcnv, irpotKOecriv, quod est dicere quid fieri opor- 
tuerit, deinde quid factum sit; i^avnoT-qra, unde sint 
enthymemata ko.t ivavTioxrw, 1 fxerdXrjij/iv etiam, quo 
statu Hermagoras utitur. Visellius, quanquam pau- 
cissimas faciat figuras, iv6vfir]p:a tamen, quod com- 
mentum vocat, et, rationem appellans, €7rt^6tp?//xa 
inter eas habet. Quod quidem recipit quodammodo 
et Celsus ; nam consequens an epichirema sit dubitat. 

107 Visellius adiicit et sententiam. Invenio, qui aggre- 
gent his 8iacrKevd<;, d-n-ayopevo-eis, 7rapa8t^y7;creis. Sed 
ut haec non sunt schemata, sic alia vel sint forsitan 
ac nos fugerint vel etiam nova fieri adhuc possint, 
eiusdem tamen naturae cuius sunt ea de quibus 
dictum est. 

1 /car' evavriaxrtv, Kayser : kataitiaciv, A i kataiktia- 
CIN, B. 



1 See ix. iii. 90. For enthymemes kSt ivavriaioiv, see v. 
xiv. 2, and note on ex pugnantibus, Vol. II. p. 524. 

2 See in. vi. 46. The term is not used here in the same 
sense as in viii. vi. 37, but rather = translatio, see in. vi. 23. 
Lit. translatio means " transference of the charge " : the 
sense is virtually the same as that of exceptio (a plea made 
by defendant in bar of plaintiffs action). "Competence " is 
perhaps the least unsatisfactory rendering. 

8 See note on v. xiv. 5, Vol. II. p. 524. 
4 Apparently some form of exaggeration. 

440 



BOOK IX. ii. 104-107 

pardon, disdain, admonition, apology, entreaty and 
rebuke. He even includes partition, proposition, 105 
division and affinity between two separate things, 
by which latter he means that two things 
apparently different signify the same : for example, 
not only the man who murders another by ad- 
ministering a deadly draught is to be regarded as 
a poisoner, but also the man who deprives another 
of his wits by giving him some drug, a point which 
depends on definition. To these Rutilius or 106 
Gorgias add avayKalov, that is, the representation 
of the necessity of a thing, dva/xv^o-is or reminding, 
avdvTro<f>opd, that is, replying to anticipated ob- 
jections, avTippr)<Ti<; or refutation, irapav^rfcns or 
amplification, — poeK&o-is, which means pointing out 
what ought to have been done, and then what 
actually has been done, havTioTr)<;, or arguments 
from opposites 1 (whence we get enthymemes styled 
kit cvavTiW/v), and even piTaAyiis, which Herma- 
goras considers a basis. 2 Visellius, although he 
makes the number of figures but small, includes 
among them the enthymeme, which he calls 
comment um, and the epicheireme, which he calls ratio. 3 
This view is also partially accepted by Celsus, who 
is in doubt whether consequence is not to be identi- 
fied with the epicheireme. Visellius also adds 107 
general reflexions to the list. I find others who 
would add to these Suzo-kcvt?, 4 or enhancement, 
airayopevo-is, or prohibition, and 7rapa.8iTjyr)cri<;, or 
incidental narrative. But though these are not 
figures, there may be others which have slipped 
my notice, or are yet to be invented: still, they 
will be of the same nature as those of which I have 
spoken above. 

44» 



QUINTILIAN 

III. Verborum vero figurae et mutatae sunt 
semper et, utcunque valuit consuetudo, mutantur. 
Itaque, si antiquum sermonem nostro comparemus, 
paene iam quidquid loquimur figura est, ut hac re 
invidere, non ut veteres et Cicero praecipue, hanc rem, 
et incumbere Mi, non in ilium, et plenum vino non 
vini, et kuic non hunc adulari iam dicitur et mille 

2 alia ; utinamque non peiora vincant. Verum schemata 
Ac^ews duorum sunt generum : alterum loquendi 
rationem vocant, alterum maxime collocatione exqui- 
situm est. Quorum tametsi utrumque convenit 
orationi, tamen possis illud grammaticum hoc rhetori- 
cum magis dicere. 

Prius fit iisdem generibus quibus vitia. Esset 
enim orationis schema vitium, si non peteretur, sed 

3 accideret. V'erum auctoritate, vetustate, consuetu- 
dine plerumque defenditur, saepe etiam ratione 
quadam. Ideoque, cum sit a simplici rectoque 
loquendi genere deflexa, virtus est, si habet probabile 
aliquid, quod sequatur. Una tamen in re maxime 
utilis, ut cotidiani ac semper eodem modo form&ti 
sermonis fastidium levet et nos a vulgari dicendi 

4 genere defendat. Quodsi quis parce et, cum res 
poscet, utetur, velut asperso quodam condimento 
iucundior erit ; at qui nimium adfectaverit, ipsam 

1 These grammatical figures would not be styled "figures 
of speech" in English. "Figures of language" would 
perhaps be more comprehensive, but "figures of speech" is 
the translation and direct descendant of the original Greek 
(rx-hfj-ara A«'£«ais and has therefore been used throughout. 

442 



BOOK IX. in. 1-4 

III. Figures of speech have always been liable to 
change and are continually in process of change in 
accordance with the variations of usage. Conse- 
quently when we compare the language of our 
ancestors with our own, we find that practically every- 
thing we say nowadays is figurative. For example, 
we say invidere hac re for to "grudge a thing," 
instead of hanc rem, which was the idiom of all the 
ancients, more especially Cicero, and incumbere Mi 
(to lean upon him) for incumbere in ilium, plenum vino 
(full of wine) for plenum vini, and huic adulari (to flatter 
him) for hunc adulari. I might quote a thousand 
other examples, and only wish I could say that the 
changes were not often changes for the worse. But 
to proceed, figures of speech fall into two main 
classes. One is defined as the form of language, 
while the other is mainly to be sought in the 
arrangement of words. Both are equally applicable 
in oratory, but we may style the former rather more 
grammatical and the latter more rhetorical. 1 

The former originates from the same sources as 
errors of language. For every figure of this kind 
would be an error, if it were accidental and not 
deliberate. But as a rule such figures are defended bv 
authority, age and usage, and not infrequently by some 
reason as well. Consequently, although they involve 
a divergence from direct and simple language, thev 
are to be regarded as excellences, provided always 
that they have some praiseworthy precedent to 
follow. They have one special merit, that they re- 
lieve the tedium of everyday stereotyped speech and 
save us from commonplace language. If a speaker 
use them sparingly and only as occasion demands, 
they will serve as a seasoning to his style and 

443 



QUINTILIAN 

illam gratiam varietatis amittet. Quanquam sunt 
quaedam figurae ita receptae, ut paene iam hoc 
ipsum nomen efFugerint ; quae etiamsi fuerint cre- 

5 briores, consuetas aures minus ferient. Nam secretae 
et extra vulgarem usum positae ideoque magis 
notabiles, 1 ut novitate aurem excitant, ita copia 
satiant, et se non obvias fuisse dicenti sed conquisi- 
tas et ex omnibus latebris extractas congestasque 
declarant. 

6 Fiunt ergo et circa genus figurae in nominibus; 
nam et oculis capti falpae et timidi daviae dicuntur 
a Vergilio ; sed subest ratio, quia sexus uterque 
altero significatur, tamque mares esse talpas dainas- 
que quam feminas certum est ; et in verbis, ut 

7 fabricatus est gladium et inimicum poenitus es. Quod 
mirum minus est, quia in natura verborum est et 
quae facimus patiendi modo saepe dicere, ut arbitror, 
suspicor, et contra faciendi quae patimur, ut vapulo ; 
ideoque freqtfens permutatio est et pleraque utroque 
modo efferuntur : luxuriaiur, luxuriat ; jiuctnatur, Jiuc- 

8 luat ; adsentior, adsentio. Est figura et in numero, 

1 notabiles, Lochmann : nobiles, MSS. 



1 Georg. i. 183. 
1 Ed. viii. 28. 

3 Cic. pro llab Post, iii- 7. "He made a swovd." 

4 pro Mil. xiii. 33. M You punislied an enemy." 

444 



BOOK IX. hi. 4-8 

increase its attractions. If, on the other hand, he 
strains after them overmuch, he will lose that very 
charm of variety which they confer. Some figures, 
however, are so generally accepted that they have 
almost ceased to be regarded as figures : consequently 
however frequently they may be used, they will 
make less impression on the ear, just because it has 
become habituated to them. For abnormal figures 
lying outside the range of common speech, while 
they are for that very reason more striking, and 
stimulate the ear by their novelty, prove cloying if 
used too lavishly, and make it quite clear that they 
did not present themselves naturally to the speaker, 
but were hunted out by him, dragged from obscure 
corners and artificially piled together. 

Figures, then, may be found in connexion with the 
gender of nouns ; for we find oculis capti talpae x 
(blind moles) and timidi damae 2 (timid deer) in V'irgil ; 
but there is good reason for this, since in these 
cases both sexes are covered by a word of one gender, 
and there is no doubt that there are male moles 
and deer as well as female. Figures mav also affect 
verbs : for example, we find such phrases as Jabricalus 
est gladium 3 or inimicum poenitus es. A This is the less 
surprising, since the nature of verbs is such that we 
often express the active by the passive form, as in the 
case of arbitror (think) and suspicor (suspect), and 
the passive by the active, as in the case of vapulo 
(am beaten). Consequently the interchange of the 
two forms is of common occurrence, and in many 
cases either form can be used : for example, we may 
say luxuriatur or luxuriat (luxuriate), jiuctuatur or 
Jiuctuat (fluctuate), adsentior or adsentio (agree). 
Figures also occur in connexion with number, as 

445 



QUINTILIAN 

vel cum singulari pluralis subiungitur, Gladio pugtia- 
cissima gens Rom an i (gens enim ex multis), vel ex 
diverso, 

Qui x non risere parentes, 
Nee deus hunc mensa dea nee dignata cubili est ; 

9 Ex illis enim, qui non risere, hie quern non dignata. 
In satura est 

Et nostrum isiud vivere trisle 
Aspeoci, 

cum infinite) verbo sit usus pro appellatione ; nostram 
enim vitam vult intelligi. Utimur et verbo pro 
participio, 

Magnum dat ferre talenlum, 

tanquam ferendum, et partieipio pro verbo, Volo 
datum. 
10 Interim etiam dubitari potest, cui vitio simile sit 
schema : ut in hoc 

Virtus est vitium fugere : 

aut enim partes orationis mutat ex illo Virtus est 

1 qui, Politianus: cui, MSS. of Quintilian and Virgil. 



1 Eel. iv. 02. "Those that have never smiled on their 
parents, neither does any god honour him by admitting him 
to his feats nor goddess deem him worthy of her bed." 
Although there can be no doubt as to the correctness of 
Politian's emendation in the passage as quoted here, it is 
against all MSS. authority, both of Virgil and Quintilian, 
and it is stili frequently held that Virgil wrote cui. 

446 






BOOK IX. in. 8-10 

when the plural follows the singular, as in the 
phrase gladio pugnacissima gens Romani (the Romans 
are a nation that fight fiercely with the sword) ; for 
gens is a singular noun indicating multitude. Or the 
singular may follow the plural, as in the following 
instance, 

qui non risere parenies 
nee dens hunc mensa dea nee dignata cubili est, 1 

where " he whom no goddess deems," etc., is included 
among "those who have never smiled," etc. In a 9 
satire again we read, 

nostrum istud vivere triste 2 aspexi, 

where the infinitive is used as a noun : for the poet 
by nostrum vivere means nostrum citam. We also at 
times use the verb for the participle, as in the phrase, 

magnum dot ferre talent urn, 3 

where ferre is used for ferendum, or the participle 
may be used for the verb, as in the phrase volo datum 
(I wish to give). 

At times, again, there may be some doubt as 10 
to the precise error which a figure resembles. Take, 
for example, the phrase 

virtus est vitiumfugere* 

where the writer has either changed the parts of 
speech (making his phrase a variant for virtus est 

* Pers. i. 9. " I look at our dreary way of living." 

' Am., v. 248. "He gives him a great talent- weight to 
carry." 

* Hor. Ep. I. L 41. " Tis a virtue to shun vice." 

447 



QUINTILIAN 

Jvga vitiorum, aut casus ex illo Virtutis est vitium 
J'ugere ; multo tamen hoc utroque excitatius. Iun- 
guntur interim schemata : Sthenelus sciens pugnae ; 

1 1 est enim scitus Sthenelus x pugnandi. Transferuntur 
et tempora : Timarchides negat esse ei periculum a 
securi, (praesens enim pro praeterito positum est) 
et status : 

Hoc Ithacus velit ; 

et, ne morer, per omnia genera per quae fit soloe- 
cismus. 

12 Haec quoque est, quam €tcoo<Wiv vocant, cui non 
dissimilis i^aXXayi] dieitur, ut apud Sallustium Neqtie 
ea res falsum me hahuit et Duci probare. Ex quibus 
fere praeter novitatem brevitas etiam peti solet. 
Unde eo usque processum est, ut non pueniturum pro 
non acturo paenitentiam et visuros ad videndum 

13 missos idem auctor dixerit. Quae ille quidem 
fecerit schemata, an idem vocari possint, videndum, 
quia recepta sint. Nam receptis etiam vulgo auctore 
contend sumus : ut nunc evaluit rebus agentibus, quod 
Pollio in Labieno damnat, et contumeliam fecit, quod 

1 scitus Sthenelus, vulgo : sciusticus, B : scius .... cus, 
A : scieus scitus, cod. Monac. : suus scenalus, cod. Argentor. 

1 Hor. Od. I. xv. 24. "Sthenelus skilled in fight." 
8 Verr. v. xliv. 116. "Timarchides denies that he is in any 
danger from the axe of the executioner." 

a Acn. ii. 104. "So wills the Ithacan." On Quintilian's 
view velit here = milt. But in point of fact this is untrue, 
since in the context it clearly means "would wish." 

443 



BOOK IX. hi. 10-13 

fuga vitiorum), or the cases (in which case it will be 
a variant for virtutis est vitium fugere) ; but whichever 
be the case, the figure is far more vigorous than 
either. At times figure* are joined, as in Sthenelus 
sciens pugnae, 1 which is substituted for Sthenelus scihis 
pug7iandi. Tenses too are interchangeable. For 11 
example, Timarehides negat esse ei periculum a securi 2 
the present negat is substituted for the past. Or 
one mood mav be used for another, as in the phrase, 
hoc Ithacus velit. 3 In fact, to cut a long matter short, 
there is a figure corresponding to every form of 
solecism. 

There is also a figure styled e-repoiWis (i.e. altera- 12 
tion of the normal idiom), which bears a strong 
resemblance to itaWayrj. For example, Ave find in 
Sallust phrases such as neque ea res falsum me hahuit* 
and duci probare. h Such figures as a rule aim not 
merely at novelty, but at conciseness as well. 
Hence we get further developments, such as non 
paeniturum for " not intending to repent," and visuros 
for " sent to see," both found in the same author. 
These may have been figures when Sallust made 13 
them ; but it is a question whether they can now be 
so considered, since they have met with such general 
acceptance. For we are in the habit of accepting 
common parlance as sufficient authority where current 
phrases are concerned : for example, rebus agentibus 
in the sense of while this was going on, which 
Pollio rebukes Labienus 6 for using, has become an 
accredited idiom, as has contumeliam fecit, which, as is 

* Jug. x. I. "Nor did this deceive me." 

8 From a lost work. Without the context the meaning is 
uncertain. 

• See iv. i. 11; 1. v. 8. 

449 

VOL. III. Q 



QUINTILIAN 

a Cicerone reprehendi notum est ; adfici enim con- 

14 tumelia dicebant. Alia commendatio vetustatis, 
cuius amator unice Vergilius fuit : 

Vel cum se pavidum contra mea iurgia iactat. — l 
Progeniem sed enim Troiano a sanguine duci 
Audierat. 

Quorum similia apud veteres tragicos comicosque sunt 

15 plurima. Ulud et in consuetudine remansit enimvero. 
His amplius apud eundem : 

Nam quis te iuvenum confidentissime, 

quo sermonis initium fit. Et 

Tarn magis ilia tremens et tristibus efferajlammis, 
Quam magis effuso crudescunt sanguine pugnae. 

Quod est versum ex illo : Quam magis aerumna urget, 

16 tarn magis ad male faciendum viget. Pleni talibus antiqui 

1 fingit, MSS. of Virgil. 

1 Phil. in. ix. 22. Quintilian appears prima facie to regard 
the phrase as meaning "to suffer insult." But in Plautus 
and Terence it means to "inflict an insult," and Quintilian 
probably quotes the phrase in this sense. He should, how- 
ever, have said adficere, not adfici, to make his meaning clear. 

2 Aen. xi. tf/d. The figure consists in the use of vel cum 
to introduce an independent sentence. "Even when he 
claims + .o tremble at my taunts." 

» Atn. i. 19. 

" But she had heard that even now a race 
Was springing from the blood of fallen Troy." 

Quintilian refers to the archaic sed enim. 

* Georg. iv. 445. "For who bade thee, of youths most 
bold." The figure consists in the opening of a speech with 
nam, or perhaps rather in saying nam quis for quisnam. 

45° 



BOOK IX. hi. 13-16 

well known, is stigmatised by Cicero l : for in his day 
they said adfici contumelia. Figures may also be 14 
commended by their antiquity, for which Virgil had 
such a special passion. Compare his 

vel cum se pavidum contra mea iurgia iactat * 



progeniem sed enim Troiano a sanguine duci 
audieral. 3 

Numerous instances of the same kind might be cited 
from the old tragic and comic poets. One word of 15 
this type has remained in common use, namely 
enimvero. I might further quote from the same 
author 

nam quis te iuvenum confidentissime,* 

words which form the beginning of a speech : or 

tarn magis ilia tremens et tristibus effera jlammis, 
quam magis effuso crudescunt sanguine pugnae. 5 

There the sentence inverts the natural order which 
may be illustrated by quam magis aerumna urget, tarn 
magis ad malefaciendtim viget. 6 

Old writers are full of such usages. At the 16 

5 Aen. vii. 787. 

"The more the strife with bloodshed rages wild, 
The more it quivers and with baleful fare 
Glows fiercer." 

• The source of the quotation is unknown. " The more 
calamity oppresses him, the greater his vigour for evil 
doing. " 

451 



QUINTILIAN 

sunt ; initio Eunuchi Terentius Quid igitur faciam ? 
inquit. Alius : ain l tandem leno ? Catullus in Epitha- 
lamio, 

Dum innupta manet, dum cara suis est, 

17 cum prius dum significet quoad, sequens usque eo. Ex 
Graeco vero translata vel Sallustii plurima, quale est, 
Vulgus amatjieri, vel Horatii, nam id maxime probat, 

Nee ciceris, nee longae invidit avenae, 

vel Vergilii, 

Tyrrhenum navigat aequor. 

18 Et iam vulgatum actis quoque, Saucius pectus. Ex 
eadem parte figurarum priore dicto 2 et adiectio est, 
quae videri potest supervacua, sed non sine gratia 
est: 

Nam neque Parnasi vobis iuga, nam neque Pindi ; 

1 alius : ain, Halm: alius in, AG: allusit, some late MSS. 
1 prioro dicto is meaningless and the sense of ex eadem parte 
is obscure (?=Graecisms). 



1 Eun. I. i. 1. " What shall I do then ? " 

a The poet is unknown. "Do you agree then, you 
pimp ? " The figure in this and the preceding instance lies 
in the idiomatic use of igitnr and tandem. 

8 Cat. lxii. 45. "While she remains unwed, so long is 
she dear to her own." Such is Quintilian's interpretation. 
The line, however, runs sic virgo, dum intacta (MSS. of 
Catullus), etc., and is most naturally interpreted : " Even so 
(i.e. like to a perfect blossom) is the maiden, while she remains 
unblemished and dear to her own." 

452 



BOOK IX. in. 16-18 

beginning of the Eunuchus 1 of Terence we have quid 
igitur faeiam, while another comic poet says <ii>> 
tandem leno ?* Catullus in his Epithalamdum writes : 

dum innupla manet, dum cara suis est, 3 

where the first dum means while, and the second 
means so long. Sallust, on the other hand, borrows 17 
a number of idioms from the Greek, such as 
vulgus amat Jt'eri* : the same is true of Horace, who 
strongly approves of the practice. Compare his 

nee ciceris nee longae invidit avenae.* 

Virgil 6 does the same in phrases such as 

Tyrrhcnum navigat aeqttor 

or saucius pectus ("wounded at heart"), an idiom 
which has now become familiar in the public gazette. 
Under the same class of figure falls that of 18 
addition, which, although the words added may be 
strictly superfluous, may still be far from inelegant. 
Take, for example, 

nam neque Parnasi vobis iuga, nam ncque Pindi, 7 

* "Such things as the people love to see done." Not 
found in Sallust's extant works. But cp. Jug. 34 : ira amat 
fieri. 

6 Sat. n. vi. 83. "Nor grudged him vetches nor the 
long-eared oat." The gen. of respect is regarded as a 
Graecism. 

• Aen. i. 67. " He sails the Tyrrhene deep." The 
internal ace. after the intrans. navigat is treated as a 
Graecism, as is ace. of part concerned after saucius. 

7 Eel. x. 11 : " For neither did Parnassus slope, nor yet/ 
The slopes of PinduB make delay for you." 

453 



QUINTILIAN 

potest enim deesse alterum nam. Et apud Horatium 
illud, 

Fabriciumque, 
Hunc et intonsis x Curium capillis. 

Et detractiones, quae in complexu sermonis aut 
vitium habent aut figuram ; 

Accede ad ignem, iam calesces plus satis. 

19 Plus enim quam satis est. Nam de altera [quae] 
detractione pluribus dicendum 2 est. 

Utimur vulgo et comparativis pro absolutis, ut 
cum se quis infirmiorem esse dicet ; duo inter se 
comparativa committimus : Si te, Catilina, comprehendi, 
si interfici iussero, credo, erit verendum mihi, ne non 
potius hoc omnes boni serius a me quam quisquam crude- 

20 lius factum esse dicat. Sunt et ilia non similia 
soloecismo quidem, sed tamen numerum mutantia, 
quae et tropis adsignari solent, ut de uno pluraliter 
dicamus : 

Sed nos immensum spatiis confecimus aequor ; 

1 incomptis, AfSS. of Horace. 

8 quae bracketed by Halm : dicendum, Reghcs: adiiciendum, 
MSs. 

1 Hor. Od. i. xii. 40. "And Fabricius, him and Cato 
with locks unshorn." 

8 Ter. Eun. i. ii. 5. " Draw near the fire and you shall 
be more than warm enough." 

• The sense is obscure. The words are either an interpola- 
tion or illustrative matter has been lost. 

454 



BOOK IX. in. 18-20 

where the second nam might be omitted. And we 
find in Horace, 1 

Fabriciumque, 
hunc et i»to?isis Curium capiltis. 

Similarly, words are omitted, a device which may be 
either a blemish or a figure, according to the context. 
The following is an example : 

accede ad ignem, iam calesces plus satis * ; 

for the full phrase would be plus quam satis. There 
is, however, another form of omission which requires 
treatment at greater length. 3 

We frequently use the comparative for the 19 
positive, as, for example, when a man speaks of 
himself as being in/irmior (rather indisposed). 
Sometimes we join two comparatives, as in the 
following passage * : si te, Catilina, comprehendi, si 
interfici iussero, credo erit verendum mihi, ne non potius 
hoc omnes boni serius a me quam quisquam crudelius 
factum esse dicat. There are also figures like the 20 
following, which, though far from being solecisms, 
alter the number and are also usually included 
among tropes. We may speak of a single thing in 
the plural, as in the following instance 5 : 

" But we have travelled o'er a boundless space ; " 

* Cat. I. ii. 5. "If I were to give orders that you should 
be apprehended and put to death, I think I should have 
reason to fear that all good citizens would regard my action 
as too tardy rather than that anyone would assert that it 
was too cruel." 

* Georg. ii. 541. 

455 



QUINTILIAN 

et de pluribus singulariter, 

Hand seats ac patriis acer Komanus in arvns. 

21 Specie diversa sed genere eadem et haec sunt, 

Neve tibi ad solem vergant vineta cadentem. — 
Ne mihi turn molles sub divo carpere somnos, 
Neu dorso nemoris libeat iacuisse per herbas , 

non enim nescio cui alii prius nee postea sibi uni, sed 
omnibus praecipit. Et de nobis loquimur tanquam 

22 de aliis : Dicit Servius, negat Tullius. Et nostra 
persona utimur pro aliena, et alios pro aliis fmgimus. 
Utriusque rei exemplum pro Caecina. Pisonem, 
adversae partis advocatum, adloquens Cicero dicit> 
Restituisse te dixti ; nego me ex edicto praetoris restitutum 
esse ; verum enim est illud ; restituisse se x Aebutius 
dixit, Caecina nego me ex edicto praetoris restitutum esse; 

23 et ipsum dixti, excussa syllaba, figura in verbo. Ilia 

1 se added by Halm. 



1 Georg. iii. 346. 

a Georg. ii. 298. 

8 Georg. iii. 435. 

4 i. e. 7, Cicero, deny it. Halm suggests that the passage 
conies from an unpublished portion of his speech in defence 
of Murena. cp. Pro Mur. xxvii. 57. 

• jrro Caec. xxix. 82. 



456 



BOOK IX. in. 20-23 

Or we may speak of the plural in the singular, as in 
the following case 1 : 

* Like the fierce Roman in his country's arms." 

There are others which belong to a different 21 
species, but the same genus, such as 

' ' Nor let thy vineyards slope toward the west/' 2 



"In that hour 
Be it not mine beneath the open sky 
To court soft sleep nor on the forest ridge 
Amid the grass to lie." 3 

For in the first of these passages he is not advising 
some other person, nor exhorting himself in the 
second, his advice in both passages being meant for 
all. Sometimes, again, we speak of ourselves as 
though we were referring to others, as in phrases 
like, "Servius asserts, Tullius denies it." 4 At 22 
other times we speak in the first person instead of 
in another, or substitute one person for another. 
Both devices are employed together in the pro 
Caecina, where Cicero, addressing Piso, the counsel 
for the prosecution, says, " You asserted that you 
reinstated me : I deny that you did so in accordance 
with the praetor's edict." 5 The actual truth is that 
it was Aebutius who asserted that he had rein- 
stated the defendant, and Caecina who denied that 
he had been restored in accordance with the 
praetor's edict. We may note also a further figure 
of speech in the contracted dixti, which has dropped 
one of its syllables. The following also may be 23 

457 



QUINTILIAN 

quoque ex eodem genere possunt videri : unum quod 
interpositionem vel interclusionem dicimus, Graeci 
TrapevOeo-iv, Trape/AirTwcnv vocant, dum continuationi 
sermonis medius aliqui sensus intervenit : Ego cum 
te (mecum enim saepissime loquitur) patriae reddidis.sem ; 

24 cui adiiciunt hyperbaton, quod inter tropos esse 
noluerunt ; alterum, quod est ei figurae sententiarum, 
quae airocrTpocpr] dicitur, simile, sed non sensum mu tat, 
verum formam eloquendi : 

Decios, Marios magnosque Camillas, 
Scipiadas duros hello et te, maxime Caesar. 

25 Acutius adhuc in Polydoro, 

Fas omne abrumpit, Polydorum obtruncat et auro 
Vi potitur. Quid non mortalia pectora cogis 
Auri sacra fames ? 

Hoc, qui tam parva momenta nominibus discreverunt, 
/i€Ta/?acriv vocant, quam et aliter fieri putant : 

Quid loquor ? aut ubi sum ? 

26 Coniunxit autem irapivBta-iv et airoa-rpo^rjv Vergilius 
illo loco, 

1 pro Mil. xxxiv. 94. " When I had restored you— for he 
often enters into conversation with me — to your country." 

* See vm. vi. 67. 
8 See ix. ii. 38. 

4 Georg. ii. 169. (Rhoades' translation). 

6 Aen. iii. 55. 

* Aen. iv. 595. 

7 Aen. viiL 642. 

458 



BOOK IX. in. 23-26 

regarded as belonging to the same genus. The first 
is called interpositio or interclusio by us, and parenthesis 
or paremptosis by the Greeks, and consists in the 
interruption of the continuous flow of our language 
by the insertion of some remark. The following 
is an example : ego cum te (inecum enim saepissime 
loquitur) patriae reddidissem. 1 To this they add 24 
hyperbaton? which they refuse to include among 
tropes. A second figure of this kind is one closely 
resembling the Jigure of thought known as apostrophe, 1 
but differing in this respect, that it changes the 
form of the language and not the sense. The 
following will illustrate my meaning : 

" The Decii too, 
The Marii and Camilli, names of might, 
The Scipios, stubborn warriors, aye, and thee, 
Great Caesar." 4 

There is a still more striking example in the passage 25 
describing the death of Polydorus 5 : 

" All faith he brake and Polydorus slew 
Seizing his gold by force. Curst greed of gold, 
To what wilt thou not drive the hearts of men ? " 

Those terminologists who delight in subtle distinc- 
tions call the last figure /*€Tc£/3aa-is (transition), and 
hold that it may be employed in yet another way, 
as in Dido's 

" What do I say ? Where am I ? " • 

Virgil has combined apostrophe and parenthesis in 26 
the well-known passage : 7 

459 



QUINTILIAN 

Haud procul itide citae Mel turn in diversa quadrigae 
Distulerant, (at hi die/is Albane maneres !) 
Raptabatqne viri mendacis viscera Tullus. 

27 Haec schemata aut his similia, quae erunt per muta- 
tionem, adiectionem, detractionem, ordinem, et con- 
vertunt in se auditorem nee languere patiuntur 
subinde aliqua notabili figura excitatum, et habent 
quandam ex ilia vitii similitudine gratiam, ut in cibis 
interim acor ipse iucundus est. Quod continget, si 
neque supra modum multae fuerint nee eiusdem 
generis aut iunctae aut frequentes, quia satietatem 
ut varietas earum, ita raritas effugit. 

28 Illud est acrius genus, quod non tantum in ratione 
positum est loquendi, sed ipsis sensibus cum gratiam 
turn etiam vires accommodat. E quibus primum sit, 
quod fit adiectione. Plura sunt genera ; nam et 
verba geminantur, vel amplificandi gratia, ut Occidi, 
occidi, non Sp. Maelium ; alterum est enim quod 
indicat, alterum quod adfirmat; vel miserandi, ut 

A Corydon, Corydon. 

29 Quae eadem figura nonnunquam per ironiam ad 
elevandum convertitur. Similis geminationis post 
aliquam interiectionem repetitio est, sed paulo etiam 
vehementior : Bona, miserum me ! (consumptis enim 

1 Cic. pro Mil. xxvii. 72. * Eel. ii. 69. 

460 



BOOK IX. m. 26-29 

" Next Mettus the swift cars asunder tore, 
(Better, false Alban, hadst thou kept thy troth !) 
And Tullus dragged the traitors' mangled limbs ..." 

These figures and the like, which consist in change, 27 
addition, omission, and the order of words, serve to 
attract the attention of the audience and do not 
allow it to flag, rousing it from time to time by some 
specially striking figure, while they derive something 
of their charm from their very resemblance to 
blemishes, just as a trace of bitterness in food will 
sometimes tickle the palate. But this result will 
only be obtained if figures are not excessive in 
number nor all of the same type or combined or 
closely packed, since economy in their use, no less 
than variety, will prevent the hearer being surfeited. 

There is a more striking class of figure, which does 28 
not merely depend on the form of the language for 
its effect, but lends both charm and force to the 
thought as well. The first figure of this class which 
calls for notice is that which is produced by addition. 
Of this there are various kinds. Words, for instance, 
may be doubled with a view to amplification, as in 
" I have slain, I have slain, not Spurius Maelius " x 
(where the first / have slain states what has been 
done, while the second emphasises it), or to excite 
pity, as in 

"Ah ! Corydon, Corydon." 2 

The same figure may also sometimes be employed 29 
ironically, with a view to disparagement. Similar to 
such doubling of words is repetition following a 
parenthesis, but the effect is stronger. " I have seen 
the property alas ! (for though all my tears are shed, 

461 



QUINTILIAN 

lacrimis tamen infixus haeret animo dolor) bona, inquam, 
Cn. Pompeii acerbissimae voci subiecta praeconis. — Vivis 
et vivis non ad deponendam, sed ad confirmandam 

30 audaciam. Et ab iisdem verbis plura acriter et 
instanter incipiunt : Nihilne te nocturnum praesidium 
Palatii, nihil urbis vigiliae, nihil timor populi, nihil 
conse7isus bonorum omnium, nihil hie munitissimus habendi 
senatus locus, nihil horum ora vultusque moverunt ? et 
in iisdem desinunt : Quis eos postulavit ? Appius. 

31 Quis produxit ? Appius. Quanquam hoc exemplum 
ad aliud quoque schema pertinet, cuius et initia inter 
se et fines iidem sunt, quis et quis, Appius et Appius. 
Quale est : Qui stint, qui foedera saepe ruperunt ? 
Carlkaginienses. Qui sunt, qui crudelissime bellum 
gesserunt ? Carthaginienses. Qui sunt, qui Italiam 
dejormarunt ? Carthaginienses. Qui sunt, qui sibi 

32 ignosci postulant ? Carthaginienses. Etiam in contra- 
positis vel comparativis solet respondere primorum 
verborum alterna repetitio, quod modo huius esse 
loci potius dixi : Vigilas tu de node, ut tuis consulta- 
toribus respondeas ; We, ut eo quo intendit mature cum 
exercitu perveniat. Te gallorum, ilium buccinarum 



1 Phil. ir. xx vi. 64. * Cat. r. ii. 4. 

3 Cic. Cat. i. i. 1. 4 fro. Mil. xxii. 59. 

5 Auct. ad Herenn., iv. 14. 

• ix. ii. 100. The passage is from pro Murena, ix. 22. 



462 



BOOK IX. m. 29-32 

my grief still clings to me deep-rooted in my heart), 
the property, I say, of Gnaeus Pompeius put up for 
sale by the cruel voice of the public crier." 1 " You 
still live, and live not to abate your audacity, but to 
increase it." 2 Again, a number of clauses may begin 30 
with the same word for the sake of force and em- 
phasis. " Were you unmoved by the guard set each 
night upon the Palatine, unmoved by the patrolling 
of the city, unmoved by the terror of the people, 
unmoved by the unanimity of all good citizens, un- 
moved by the choice of so strongly fortified a spot 
for the assembly of the senate, unmoved by the looks 
and faces of those here present to-day?" 3 Or 
they may end with the same words. "Who de- 
manded them ? Appius. Who produced them ? 
Appius." 4 This last instance, however, comes under 31 
the head of another figure as well, where both 
opening and concluding words are identical, since 
the sentences open with "who" and end with 
"Appius." Here is another example. "Who are 
they who have so often broken treaties? The 
Carthaginians. Who are they who have waged war 
with such atrocious cruelty? The Carthaginians. 
Who are they who have laid Italy waste ? The 
Carthaginians. Who are they who pray for pardon ? 
The Carthaginians." 5 Again, in antitheses and com- 32 
parisons the first words of alternate phrases are 
frequently repeated to produce correspondence, 
which was my reason for saying a little while back 6 
that this device came under the present topic rather 
than that which I was then discussing. " You pass 
wakeful nights that you may be able to reply to 
your clients ; he that he and his army may arrive 
betimes at their destination. You are roused by 

463 



QUINT1LIAN 

cantus exsuscitat. Tu actionem instUuis ; Me aciem 
instrtdt. Tu caves, ne consultores tui, Me, ne urbes aut 

33 castra capiantur. Sed hac gratia non fuit contentus 
orator, vertit in contrarium eandem figuram : Ille 
tenet et sett, ut hostium copiae, tu, ut aquae pluviae 
arceantur. Ille exercitatus in propagandas finibus, tu in 

34 regendis. Possunt media quoque respondere vel 
primis, ut 

Te nemus Angitiae, vitrea te Fucinus unda ; 

vel ultimis ut Haec navis onusta praeda Siciliensi, cum 
et ipsa esset ex praeda. Nee quisquam dubitabit. 
idem fieri posse iteratis utrinque mediis. Respon- 
dent primis et ultima : Mulli et graves dolores inventi 

35 pareidibus et propinquis mulli. Est et illud repetendi 
genus, quod simul * proposita iterat et dividit : 

Iphitus et Pelias mecum, quorum Iphitus aevo 
lam gravior, Pelias et vulnere tardus Ulixi. 

'E7i-avoSos dicitur Graece, nostri regressionem vocant. 

36 Nee solum in eodem sensu, sed etiam in diverso 
eadem verba contra sumuntur : Prineipum dignitas 

1 simul, Spalding: semel, 3ISS. 

1 Acn. vii. 759 : 

" Thee did Angitia's grove bewail, 
Thee too the glassy waves o' the Fucine lake." 

The correspondence is to be found in te (coming first in 
one and second in the other clause). 

2 Verr. v. xvii. 44. 
8 Verr. v. xlv. 119. 
« Jen. ii. 435. 

464 



BOOK IX. in. 32-3b 

cockcrow, he by the bugle's reveille. You draw up 
your legal pleas, he sets the battle in array. You 
are on the watch that your clients be not taken at a 
disadvantage, he that cities or camps be not so 
taken." But the orator is not content with pro- 33 
ducing this effect, but proceeds to reverse the figure. 
•' He knows and understands how to keep off the 
forces of the enemy, you how to keep off the rain- 
water ; he is skilled to extend boundaries, you to 
delimit them." A similar correspondence may be 34 
produced between the middle and the opening of a 
sentence, as in the line : 

te nemus Angitiae, vitrea te Fucintu unda. 1 

Or the middle may correspond to the end, as in the 
following sentence : " This ship, laden with the spoil 
of Sicily, while it was itself a portion of the spoil." 2 
Nor will it be questioned that a like effect may be 
produced by the repetition of the middle of both 
clauses. Again, the end may correspond with the 
beginning. " Many grievous afflictions were devised 
for parents and for kinsfolk many." 3 There is also 35 
another form of repetition which simultaneously 
reiterates things that have already been said, and 
draws distinctions between them. 

" Iphitus too with me and Pelias came, 
Iphitus bowed with age and Pelias 
Slow-limping with the wound Ulysses gave." 4 

This is styled e7ravoSo5 by the Greeks and regression 
by Roman writers. Nor are words only repeated to 36 
reaffirm the same meaning, but the repetition may 
serve to mark a contrast, as in the following sentence. 

46S 



QUINTILIAN 

erat paene par, non par fortasse eorum qui sequebantur. 
Interim variatur casibus haec et generibus retrac- 
tatio : Magnus est dicendi labor, magna res et cetera ; 
et apud Rutilium longa TrepioSw, sed haec initia 
sententarium sunt : Paler hie tuus ? patrem nunc 

37 appellas ? patris tui filius es ? Fit casibus modo hoc 
schema, quod ttoXvtttwtov vocant. Constat aliis 
etiam modis, ut pro Cluentio : Quod aulem tempus 
veneni dandi ? Mo die ? ilia frequentia ? Per quern 
porro datum ? unde sumptum ? quae porro interceptio 

38 poculi ? cur non de integro autem datum ? Hanc rerum, 

coniunctam diversitatem Caecilius fx.eTa(3o\r]v vocat, 
qualis est pro Cluentio locus in Oppianicum : Ilium 
tabulas publicas Larini censorias corrupisse decuriones 
universi iudicaverunt, cum Mo nemo rationem, nemo rem 
ullam contrahebat, nemo Mum ex tarn multis cognatis 
et adfinibus tutorem unquam liberis suis scripsit, et 

39 deinceps adhuc multa. Ut haec in unum conge- 
runtur, ita contra ilia dispersa sunt, quae a Cicerone 
dissipata dici puto : 

Hie segefes, illic veniunt felicius uvae, 
Arborei fetus alibi, 

40 et deinceps. Ilia vero apud Ciceronem mira figura- 



1 pro Lig. vi. 19. 

8 pro Mureru xiii. 29. 

3 Hiitil. i. x. "Is this your father? Do you still call 
him father? Are you your father's son?" 

* lx. 167. "But what was the time chosen for giving the 
poison ? Was it on that day ? Amid such a crowd ? And 
who was selected to administer it ? Where was it got ? How 
was the cup intercepted 1 Why was it not given a second 
time?" 

466 



BOOK IX. in 36-40 

"The reputation of the leaders was approximately 
equal, but that of their followers perhaps not so 
equal." 1 At times the eases and genders of the 
words repeated may be varied, as in " Great is the 
toil of speaking, and great the task, etc." ; 2 a similar 
instance is found in Rutilius, but in a long period. 
I therefore merely cite the beginnings of the clauses. 
Pater hie tuus ? pat rem nunc appellas ? patris tui filius 
es? z This figure may also be effected solely by 37 
change of cases, a proceeding which the Greeks call 
tto\v7ttwtov. It may also be produced in other ways, 
as in the pro Cluentio : 4 Quod autem tempus veneni dandi ? 
Mo die ? ilia frequentia ? per quern porro datum ? wide 
sumptum ? quae porro interceptio poculi ? cur non de 
integro autem datum ? The combination of different 38 
details is called fxeraftoXy] by Caecilius, and may be 
exemplified by the following passage directed against 
Oppianicus in the pro Cluentio : 5 " The local senate 
were unanimously of opinion that he had falsified the 
public registers at Lariqum ; no one would have any 
business dealings or make any contract with him, 
no one out of all his numerous relations and kinsfolk 
ever appointed him as guardian to his children," 
with much more to the same effect. In this case the 39 
details are massed together, but they may equally be 
distributed or dissipated, as I think Cicero says. For 
example : 

" Here corn, there grapes, elsewhere the growth 
of trees 
More freely rises," 5 

with the remainder of the passage. A wonderful 40 

* xiv. 41. • Georg. i. 54. 

467 



QUINTILIAN 

rum mixtura deprehenditur, in qua et primum 
verbum a longo post intervallo redditum est ultimum 
et media primis et mediis ultima congruunt : Vestrum 
iam hie factum reprehendilur, patres consenpti, non 
meum ; ac pulcherrimum quidem factum, verum, vt dixi, 

41 non meum, sed vestrum. Hanc frequentiorem repeti- 
tionem TrkoKrjv vocant, quae fit ex permixtis figuris, 
ut supra dixi, utque se habet epistola ad Brutum, 
Ego cum in gratiam redierim cum Appio Claudio, et 

42 redierim per Cn. Pompeium, ego ergo cum redierim. Et 
in iisdem sententiis crebrioribus mutata declinationi- 
bus iteratione verborum : ut apud Persium, 

Usque adeone 
Scire tuum nihil est, nisi te scire hoc sciat alter? 

Et apud Ciceronem, Neque e?iim poterant iudicio et 

43 hi damnaii, qui iudicabant. Sed sensus quoque te-ti, 
quemadmodum coeperunt, desinunt : Venit ex Asia. 
Hoc ipsum quam noimm ! Tribunus plebis venit ex 
Asia. In eadem tamen periodo et verbum primum 
ultimum 2 refertur, tertium iam sermone, adiectum 
est enim Verumtamen venit. Interim sententia quidem 
repetitur, sed non eodem 3 verborum ordine : Quid 
Cleomenes facere potuit ? Non enim possum quemquam 
insimulare falso. Quid, inq'uam, magno opere potuit 

1 primum verbum, Halm : primo verbo, MS8. 
8 primum ultimum, suggested by Halm : ultimum primum, 
MSS. 

3 sed non eodem, added by Meister. 

1 From the lost speech against Q. Metellus. 

3 Now lost. * i. 26. The translation is Watson's. 

* Origin unknown. * From the lost in Q. MeUllum. 

468 



BOOK IX. m. 40-43 

mixture of figures may be found in Cicero 1 in the 
following passage, where the first word is repeated 
last after a long interval, while the middle corre- 
sponds with the beginning, and the concluding words 
with the middle. "Yours is the work which we 
find here, conscript fathers, not mine, a fine piece of 
work too, but, as I have said, not mine, but yours." 
This frequent repetition, which, as I have said, is 4] 
produced by a mixture of figures, is called ttXoktj by 
the Greeks: a letter of Cicero 2 to Brutus will pro- 
vide a further example. f * When I had made my 
peace with Appius Claudius and made it through the 
agency of Gnaeus Pompeius, when then I had made 
my peace," etc. The like effect may be produced 42 
in the same sentence by repeating the same words 
in different forms, as in Persius : 

" Is then to know in thee 
Nothing unless another know thou knowest ? " 3 

and in Cicero, 4 where he says, " For it was im- 
possible for the judges as well to be condemned by 
their own judgement." Whole sentences again end 43 
with the phrase with which they began. Take an 
example. " He came from Asia. What a strange 
thing! A tribune of the people came from Asia." 6 
Nay, the first word of this same period is actually re- 
peated at its close, thus making its third appearance : 
for to the words just quoted the orator adds, "Still 
for all that he came." Sometimes a whole clause is 
repeated, although the order of the words is altered, 
as, for example, Quid Cleomenes facere potuit ? non 
enim possum quemquam insimulare faiso, quid, inquam, 

469 



QUINTILIAN 

44 Cleomenes facere ? J Prioris etiam sententiae verbum 
ultimum ac sequentis primum 2 frequenter est idem, 
quo quidem schemate utuntur poetae saepius : 

Pierides, vos haec facietis maxima Gallo, 
Gallo, cuius amor ionium mihi crescit in horas. 

Sed ne oratores quidem raro : Hie tamen vivit ; vivit ? 

45 immo vero etiam in senatum venit. Aliquando, sicut in 
geminatione verboruni diximus, initia quoque et 
clausulae sententiarum aliis, sed non alio tenden- 
tibus verbis inter se consonant. Initia hoc modo : 
Dediderim periculis omnibus, obtulerim insidiis, ohiecerim 
invidiae. Rursus clausulae ibidem statim, Vos enim 
statuistis, vos sententiam dixistis, vos iudicavislis. Hoc 
alii a-vvwvvfXLav, alii disiunctionem vocant, utrumque, 
etiamsi est diversum, recte ; nam est nominum idem 
significantium separatio. Congregantur quoque 
verba idem significantia. Quae cum ita sint, Catilina, 
perge quo coepisli ; egredere aliquando ex urbe, patent 

46 portae, proficiscere. Et in eundem alio libro : Abiit, 
excessit, erupit, evasit. Hoc Caecilio TrXtovao-fios 

1 The text is as given by the best MSS. of Cicero. The best 
MSS. of Quintilian, however, read facere Cleomenes potuit. 
* primum added by Badius. 

l y err . v . xli. 107. " What could Cleomenes have done ? 
For I cannot accuse any one falsely. What, I say, could 
Cleomenes have done to any good effect?" 

1 Eel. x. 72. 

* Cat. I. i. 2. 

* §30. 

* From the lost in Q. Metellum. 
6 i. v. 10. 

47° 



BOOK IX. in. 43-46 

magno operf potuit Cleomeiies facere f 1 The first word 44 
of one clause is also frequently the same as the last 
of the preceding, a figure common in poetry. 

" And ye, 
Pierian Muses, shall enhance their worth 
For Gallus ; Gall us, he for whom each hour 
My love burns stronger." 2 

But it is not uncommon even in the orators. For 
example : " Yet this man lives. Lives ? Why he 
even came into the senate house." 3 Sometimes, as I 45 
remarked in connexion with the doubling of words, 4 
the beginnings and the conclusions of sentences are 
made to correspond by the use of other words with 
the same meaning. Here is an example of corre- 
spondence between the beginnings : " I would have 
faced every kind of danger ; I would have exposed 
myself to treacherous attacks ; I would have delivered 
myself over to public hatred." 5 An example of the 
correspondence of conclusions is provided by another 
passage in the same speech which follows close on 
that just cited : " For you have decided ; you have 
passed sentence ; you have given judgment." Some 
call this synonymy, others disjunction : both terms, 
despite their difference, are correct. For the words 
are differentiated, but their meaning is identical. 
Sometimes, again, words of the same meaning are 
grouped together. For instance, " Since this is so, 
Catiline, proceed on the path which you have entered ; 
depart from the city, it is high time. The gates are 
open, get you forth." 6 

Or take this example from another book of the 46 
orations against Catiline, " He departed, he went 

471 



QUINTILIAN 

videtur, id est, abundans super necessitatem oratio, 
sicut ilia Vidi oculos ante ipse meos. In illo enim 
vidi inest ipse. Verum id, ut alio quoque loco dixi, 
cum supervacua oneratur adiectione, vitium est, 
cum auget aut manifestat sententiam sicut hie, 
virtus. Vidi, ipse, ante ocidos, totidem sunt adfectus. 
il Cur tamen haec proprie nomine tali notarit, non 
video. Nam et geminatio et repetitio et qualiscun- 
que adiectio TrXcovaa fx.es videri potest. Nee verba 
modo, sed sensus quoque idem facientes acervantur : 
Perturbatio istum me?itis el quaedam scelerum offusa 
caligo et ardentes furiarum faces excitarunt. 

48 Congeruntur et diversa : Mulier, tyranni saeva cru- 
delitas, patris amor, ira praeceps, temerilatis dementia. 
Et apud Ovidium : 

Sed grave Nereidum numen, sed corniger Amnion, 
Sed quae viscenbus veniebat belua ponti 
Exsaturanda meis. 

49 Inveni, qui et hoc ttXok^v l vocaret : cui non adsen- 

1 After ttXok^v G folloived by late M88. continues : usque 
deducit et apud nostrum etiam tragicum. love propagatus 
est ut perhibent Tantalus {see sect. 57) per me et investigata, 
etc. 



1 II. i. 1. 2 Aen. xii. 638. 

* vni. iii. 53. * From the lost in Pisonem. 
6 Probably from a declamation. 

• Met. v. 17. 



472 



BOOK IX. in. 46-49 

hence; he hurst forth, he was gone." 1 This is re- 
garded as a case of pleonasm by Caecilius, that is to 
say, as language fuller than is absolutely required, 
like the phrase : 

" Myself before my very eyes I saw " : 2 

for "myself" is already implied by " I saw." But 
when such language is overweighted by some purely 
superfluous addition, it is, as I have also pointed out 
elsewhere, 3 a fault ; whereas when, as in this case, it 
serves to make the sense stronger and more obvious, 
it is a merit. "I saw," "myself," "before my very 
eyes," are so many appeals to the emotion. I cannot 47 
therefore see why Caecilius should have stigmatised 
these words by such a name, since the doubling and 
repetition of words and all forms of addition may like- 
wise be regarded as pleonasms. And it is not merely 
words that are thus grouped together. The same 
device may be applied to thoughts of similar content. 
"The wild confusion of his thoughts, the thick 
darkness shed upon his soul by his crimes and the 
burning torches of the furies all drove him on." 4 

Words of different meaning may likewise be 48 
grouped together, as for instance, " The woman, the 
savage cruelty of the tyrant, love for his father, 
anger beyond control, the madness of blind daring" ; 6 
or again, as in the following passage from Ovid, 6 

" But the dread Nereids' power, 
But horned Ammon, but that wild sea-beast 
To feed upon my vitals that must come." 

I have found some who call this also by the name 49 
of ttXokyj : but I do not agree, as only one figure is 

473 



QUINTILIAN 

tior, cum sit unius figurae, mixta quoqueet idem 
et diversum significantia, quod et ipsum BiaWayijv 
vocant. Quoero ab i?iimicis, sintne haec investigata, 
comperta, 1 pate facta, sublata, deleta, exstincta per me. 
Investigata, comperta, patefacta aliud ostendunt ; 
sublata, deleta, exstincta sunt inter se similia, sed 

50 non etiam prioribus. Et hoc autem exemplum et 
superius aliam quoque efficiunt figuram, quae, quia 
coniunctionibus caret, dissolutio vocatur, apta, cum 
quid instantius dicimus ; nam et singula inculcantur 
et quasi plura fiunt. Ideoque utimur hac figura 
non in singulis modo verbis, sed sententiis etiam, 
ut Cicero dicit contra contionem Metelli : Qui indica- 
bantur, eos vocari, custodiri, ad senatum adduci iussi; 
in senatum sunt introducti, et totus hie locus talis est. 
Hoc genus et /3paxy^oyiav vocant, quae potest esse 
copulata dissolutio. Contrarium illud 2 est schema, 
quod coniunctionibus abundat. Illud davvSerov, hoc 

5 1 tto\v<tvv8(.tov dicitur. Sed hoc est vel iisdem saepius 
repetitis, ut 

1 Be/ore patefacta AfSS. give ide or id est, which, if pate- 
facta be correct, must be deleted. Alternatively Halm deletes id 
est patefacta as a gloss, also expunging deleta. 

» illud, Halm : ut, AG. 

474 



BOOK IX. hi. 49-51 

involved. We may also find a mixture of words, 
some identical and others different in meaning; of 
this figure, which the Greeks style SiaAAay?;, the 
following will provide an example : " I ask my 
enemies whether these plots were investigated, 
discovered and laid bare, overthrown, crushed and 
destroyed by me." 1 In this sentence "investi- 
gated," " discovered" and "'laid bare" are different 
in meaning, while "overthrown," "crushed" and 
"destroyed" are similar in meaning to each other, 
but different from the three previous. But both the 50 
last example and the last but one involve a different 
figure as well, which, owing to the absence of 
connecting particles, is called dissolution (asyndeton), 
and is useful when we are speaking with special 
vigour : for it at once impresses the details on the 
mind and makes them seem more numerous than 
they really are. Consequently, we apply this 
figure not merely to single words, but to whole 
sentences, as, for instance, is done by Cicero in his 
reply 2 to the speech which Metellus made to 
the public assembly : " I ordered those against 
whom information was laid, to be summoned, guarded, 
brought before the senate : they were led into the 
senate," while the rest of the passage is constructed 
on similar lines. This kind of figure is also called 
brachylogy, which may be regarded as detachment 
without loss of connexion. The opposite of this 
figure of asyndeton is polysyndeton, which is character- 
ised by the number of connecting particles employed. 
In this figure we may repeat the same connecting 51 
particle a number of times, as in the following instance : 

1 From the lost speech in Q. Metellum. 
1 Only a few fragments remain. 

475 



QU1NTILIAN 

Tectumque lamnque 
Armaque Amyclaeumque eanem Cressamque pharetram ; 

52 vel diversis: Arma virumque — Mullum Me et tcrris — 

53 Multa quoque. Adverbia quoque et pronomina 
variantur, Hie ilium vidi iuvenem, — Bis senos eui 
nostra dies, — Hie mihi responsum primus dedit Hie petenti. 
Sed utrumque horum acervatio est, 1 tantum iuncta 

54 aut dissoluta. Omnibus scrijitores sua nomina dede- 
runt, sed varia et ut cuique fingenti placuit. Fons 
quidem unus, quia acriora facit et instantiora quae 
dicimus et vim quandam prae se ferentia velut 
saepius erumpentis adfectus. 

Gradatio, quae dicitur kXi/jlci.%, apertiorem habet 
artem et magis adfectatam ideoque esse rarior 

55 debet. Est autem ipsa quoque adiectionis ; repetit 
enim quae dicta sunt et, priusquam ad aliud descen- 
dat, in prioribus resistit. Eius exemplum ex 
Graeco notissimo transferatur : No?i enim dixi quidem 
sed 7io)i 2 scripsi, nee scripsi quidem 2 sed non ohii lega- 
tionem, nee 2 obii quidem legationem 2 sed non persuasi 

56 Thebanis. Sint tamen tradita et Latina : Africano 
virtidem industria, virtus gloriam, gloria aemulos compa- 
ravit. Et Calvi : Non ergo magis pecuniarum repe- 

1 est, Spalding : et, MS8. 
* Omitted by MSB. 



1 Georg. iii. 344. 

8 Jen. i. 1. tqq. 

8 Eel. i. 43. "Here I beheld that youth 

For whom each year twelve days my altars smoke, 
He first gave answer to my supplication." 

* Demosth. de Cor. 179. 
8 Auct. ad Herenn. iv. 25. 

476 



BOOK IX. in. 51-56 

" His house and home and arms 
And Amyclean hound and Cretan quiver" ; l 

or they may be different, as in the case of arma 52 
virumque followed by viultum Me el terris and multa 
quoque* Adverbs and pronouns also may be varied, 5'i 
as in the following instance : 3 Hie ilium vidi iuvenem 
followed by bus senos cui nostra dies and hie mihi 
responsum primus dedit Me petenti. But both these 
cases involve the massing together of words and 
phrases either in asyndeton or polysyndeton. Writers 54 
have given special names to all the different forms, 
but the names vary with the caprice of the inventor. 
The origin of these figures is one and the same, 
namely that they make our utterances more vigorous 
and emphatic andproduce animpression of vehemence 
such as might spring from repeated outbursts of 
emotion. 

Gradation, which the Greeks call climax, necessi- 
tates a more obvious and less natural application of 
art and should therefore be more sparingly employed. 
Moreover, it involves addition, since it repeats what 55 
has already been said and, before passing to a new 
point, dwells on those which precede. I will trans- 
late a very famous instance from the Greek. 4 u I 
did not say this, without making a formal proposal 
to that effect, I did not make that proposal without 
undertaking the embassy, nor undertake the embassy 
without persuading the Thebans." There are, how- 56 
ever, examples of the same thing in Latin authors. 
" It was the energy of Africanus that gave him his 
peculiar excellence, his excellence that gave him 
glory, his glory that gave him rivals." 5 Calvus 
again writes, "Consequently this means the abolition 

477 



QUINTILIAN 

tundarum quam maiestatis, neque maieslatis magis quam 
Plautiae legis, neque Plautiae legis magis quam ambitus, 
neque ambitus magis quam omnium legum indicia perier- 

57 unt. 1 Invenitur apud poetas quoque, ut apud 
Homerum de sceptro, quod a love ad Agamemnonem 
usque deducit, et apud nostrum etiam tragicum : 

love propagatus est, ut perhibent, Tantalus, 
Ex Tantalo ortus Pelops, ex Pelope autem satus 
Atreas, qui nostrum porro propagat genus. 

58 At quae per detractionem fiunt figurae, brevitatis 
novitatisque maxime gratiam petunt ; quarum una 
est ea, quam libro proximo in figuras ex crvveK&oxf] 
distuli, cum subtractum verbum aliquod satis ex 
ceteris intelligitur : ut Caelius in Antonium, Stupere 
gaudio Graecus : simul enim auditur coepit. Cicero 
ad Brutum : Sermo nullum scilicet nisi de te ; quid enim 
potius ? Turn Flavius, Cras, inquit, tabellarii, el ego 

59 ibidem has inter cenam exaravi. Cui similia sunt 
ilia meo quidem iudicio, in quibus verba decenter 
pudoris gratia subtrahuntur : 

Kovimus et qui te, transversa tuentibus kircis, 
Et quo, sedfaciles Nymphae riser e, sacello. 

1 iudicia perierunt, Aquila Romanus: est, MSS. 



1 11. ii. 101. 

2 Unknown. 
8 vni. vi. 21. 

* " The Greek was struck dumb with joy." 

5 Lost. "No talk except of you. What better? Then 
Flavins says, ' Couriers to-morrow,' and I scribbled these lines 
at his house during dinner." 

6 Ed. iii. 8. 

478 



BOOK IX. in. 56-59 

of trials for treason no less than for extortion, for 
offences covered by the Plautian law no less than for 
treason, for bribery no less than for those offences, 
and for all breaches of every law no less than 
for bribery," etc. It is also to be found in poets, «'>7 
as in the passage in Homer 1 describing the sceptre 
which he traces from the hands of Jupiter down to 
those of Agamemnon, and in the following from one 
of our own tragedians : 2 

" From Jove, so runs the tale, was Tantalus sprung, 
From Tantalus Pelops, and of Pelops' seed 
Sprang Atreus, who is sire of all our line." 

As regards the figures produced by omission, they 58 
rely for their charm in the main on conciseness and 
novelty. There is one of these which I mentioned 
in the last book 3 with reference to synecdoche, and 
postponed discussing until such time as I came to 
deal with t figures : it occurs when the word omitted 
may be clearly gathered from the context : an 
example may be found in Caelius' denunciation of 
Antony : stupere gaudio Graecus : 4 for we must clearly 
supply coepit. Or take the following passage from a 
letter of Cicero 5 to Brutus : Ser)no nullus scilicet nisi 
de ie : quid enim potius ? turn Flmius, eras, inquit, 
tabellarii, et ego ibidem has inter cenum exaravi. Of a 59 
similar kind, at any rate in my opinion, are those 
passages in which words are decently omitted to 
spare our modesty. 

"You — while the goats looked goatish — we know 
who, 
And in what chapel — (but the kind Nymphs 
laughed)." 6 

479 



QUINTILIAN 

60 Hanc quidam aposiopesin putant, frustra. Nam 
ilia quid taceat incertum est aut certe longiore 
sermone explicandum, hie unum verbum et mani- 
festum quidem desideratur ; quod si aposiopesis est, 
nihil non, in quo deest aliquid, idem appellabitur. 

61 Ego ne x illud quidem aposiopesin semper voco, in 
quo res quaecunque relinquitur intelligenda, ut ea 
quae in epistolis Cicero : Data Lupercalibus, quo die 
Antonius Caesari ; non enim obticuit sed 2 lusit, quia 
nihil aliud intelligi poterat quam hoc, diadema 

62 imposuit. Altera est per detractionem figura, de qua 
modo dictum, cui coniunctiones eximuntur. Tertia, 
quae dicitur iiri£evyfj.evov, in qua unum ad verbum 
plures sententiae referuntur, quarum unaquaeque 
desideraret illud, si sola poneretur. Id accidit 
aut praeposito verbo, ad quod reliqua respiciant : 
Vicit pudorem libido, timorcm audacia, rationem 
amentia ; aut illato, quo plura cluduntur : Neque 
enim is es, Catilina, ut te aut pudor unquam a 
turpitudine aid metus a periculo aut ratio a furore 

63 revocaverit. Medium quoque potest esse, quod et 
prioribus et sequentibus sufficiat. Iungit autem et 
diversos sexus, ut cum marem feminamque filios 

1 ego ne, Spalding : nego, A G. 
* sed added by Halm. 



1 Lost. The sense is, " Despatched on the day on which 
Antony offered Caesar the crown." 

* § 50. 

* Pro Cluent. vi. 15. "Lust conquered shame, boldness 
fear, madness reason." 

480 



BOOK IX. in. 60-63 

Some regard this as an aposiopesis, but wrongly. 60 
For in aposiopesis it is either uncertain or at least 
requires an explanation of some length to show what 
is suppressed, whereas in the present case only one 
word, and that of an obvious character, is missing. 
If this, then, is an aposiopesis, all omissions will have 
a claim to the title. I would not even allow the 61 
name of aposiopesis to all cases where what is omitted 
is left to be understood, as for example the follow- 
ing phrase from Cicero's letters, 1 Data Lupercalibus 
quo die Antonius Caesari : for there, there is no real 
suppression : the omission is merely playful, for there 
is but one way of completing the sentence, namely 
with the -words diadema imposuit. Another figure 62 
produced by omission is that of which I have just 
spoken, 2 -when the connecting particles are omitted. 
A third is the figure known as €Ve£ei>y/AeVov, in which 
a number of clauses are all completed by the same 
verb, which would be required by each singly if they 
stood alone. In such cases the verb to which the 
rest of the sentence refers may come first, as in the 
following instance : Vicit pudorem libido, timorem 
audacia, rationem amentia? Or it may come last, 
closing a number of clauses, as in the following : 4 
}>e(jue enim is es, Catilina, ut te aut pudor unquam a 
turpitudine aut metus a periculo aut ratio a furore revo- 
caverit. The verb may even be placed in the middle 63 
so as to serve both what precedes and what follows. 
The same figure may join different sexes, as for 
example when we speak of a male and female child 
under the comprehensive term of " sons "; or it may 

4 Cat. 1. ix. 22. " For you are not the man, Catiline, to 
be deterred from vile acts by shame, from peril by fear, or 
from madness by reason." 

481 
VOL. III. R 



QUINTILIAN 

64 dieimus, et singularia pluralibus miscet. Sed haec 
adeo sunt vulgaria, ut sibi artem figurarum adserere 
non possint. Illud plane figura est, qua diversa 
sermonis forma coniungitur : 

Sociis tunc, arma capessant, 
Edico, et dira helium cum genie gerendum. 

Quamvis enim pars bello posterior participio insistat, 
utrique convenit illud edico. Non utique detrac- 
tions gratia factam coniunctionem o-wot/ceiWiv 
vocant, quae duas res diversas colligat : 

Tarn deest avaro, quod habet, quam quod non kabet. 

65 Huic diversam volunt esse distinctionem, cui dant 
noraen irapa&i lo-ToXr/v, qua similia discernuntur 1 : Cum 
te pro astuto sapientem appelles, pro confidente fortem, 
pro illiberali diligentem. Quod totum pendet ex 
finitione, ideoque an figura sit dubito. Cui contra- 
ria est ea, qua fit ex vicino transitus ad diversa ut 
similia : Brevis esse laboro, Obscurus fto, et quae 
sequuntur. 

1 qua similia discernuntur, Regius : quiasimili discernunt, 
AG. 

1 Aen. iii. 234 ; participio = gerundive (gerendum). 

2 Syrus 486 (Ribbeck). 
8 Rutil. i. 4. 

• Hor. A.F. 25. 

482 



BOOK IX. in. 63-65 

interchange singular and plural. But these devices 64 
are so common that they can scarcely lay claim to 
involve the art essential to figures. On the other 
haud it is quite obviously a. figure, when two different 
constructions are combined as in the following case : 

Sociis tunc anna capessant 
Edico et dira helium cum gente gerendum. 1 

(I bid my comrades straight to seize their arms 
And war be waged against a savage race.) 

For although the portion of the sentence following 
helium ends with a participle, both clauses of the 
sentence are correctly governed by edico. Another 
form of connexion, which does not necessarily involve 
omission, is called crwoiicetWis, because it connects 
two different things, for example : 

" The miser lacks 
That which he has no less than what he has not." 2 

To this figure is opposed distinction, which they call 65 
irapahtao-roXri, by which we distinguish between 
similar things, as in this sentence : 3 " When you call 
yourself wise instead of astute, brave instead of rash, 
economical instead of mean." But this is entirely 
dependent on definition, and therefore I have my 
doubts whether it can be called a figure. Its opposite 
occurs when we pass at a bound from one thing to 
something different, as though from like to like ; for 
example : 

" I labour to be brief, I turn obscure," * 

with what follows. 

483 



QUINTILIAN 

66 Tertium est genus figurarurn, quod aut similitudine 
aliqua vocum aut paribus aut contrariis convertit in 
se aures et animos excitat. Hinc est jrapovofiaa-ia, 
quae dicitur adnominatio. Ea non uno modo fieri 
solet : ex vicinia quadam praedicti nominis ducta 
casibus declinat, ut Domitius Afer pro Cloatilla, 
Mulier onmium re rum imperita, in omnibus rebus infelix ; 

67 et cum verbo idem verbum plus significans subiun- 
gitur : Quando homo hostis, homo. Quibus exemplis 
sum in aliud usus, sed in uno lyx^ao-is est et x gemina- 
tio. Uapovofiaa La contrarium est, quod eodem verbo 
quasi falsum arguitur: Quae lex privaiis ho?ninibus 

68 esse lex non videbatur. Cui confinis est drravd/cAao-is, 
eiusdem verbi contraria significatio. Cum Proculeius 
quereretur de filio, quod is mortem suam exspectaret, 
et ille dixisset, se vero non exspectare : Immo, inquit, 
rogo exspectes. Non ex eodem sed ex vicino diver- 
sum 2 accipitur, cum supplicio adficiendum dicas, 

69 quern supplicaiione dignum iudicaris. Aliter quoque 
voces aut eaedem diversa in significatione ponuntur 
aut productione tantum vel correptione mutatae ; 

1 tufyaffis est et, E. Wolfflin : CPACIC est, A : fassis, falsis, 
fallis, other MSS. 

1 vicino diversum, Schutz : di verso vicinum, MSS. 

1 "A woman unskilled in everything and in everything 
unhappy." 

* The meaning is obscure. As punctuated, the sense is 
M since he is a man, the man is an enemy," i. e. the utterance 
of some misanthrope. Or a question-mark may be placed 
after hoino and the meaning will be " since he is a man, can 
he be an enemy ? " 

» In Pis. xiii. 2a 

484 



BOOK IX. in. 66-69 

There is a third class of figures which attracts the 66 
ear of the audience and excites their attention by 
some resemblance, equality or contrast of words. 
To this class belongs paronomasia, which we call 
adnominatio. This may be effected in different ways. 
It may depend on the resemblance of one word to 
another which has preceded, although the words are 
in different cases. Take the following passage from 
Domitius Afer's defence of Cloatilla : Mulier omnium 
rerum imperita,in omnibus rebus infelix. 1 Or the same 67 
word may be repeated with greater meaning, as 
quando homo, hostis homo. 2. But although I have used 
these examples to illustrate something quite different, 
one of them involves both emphasis and reiteration. 
The opposite of paronomasia occurs when one word is 
proved to be false by repetition ; for instance, " This 
law did not seem to be a law to private individuals." 3 
Akin to this is that syled avTavaxkacris, where the 68 
same word is used in two different meanings. When 
Proculeius reproached his son with waiting for his 
death, and the son replied that he was not waiting 
for it, the former retorted, Well then, I ask you to 
wait for it. Sometimes such difference in meaning 
is obtained not by using the same word, but one like 
it, as for example by saying that a man whom you 
think dignus supplicatione (worthy of supplication) is 
supplicio adjiciendus* There are also other ways in 69 
which the same words may be used in different 
senses or altered by the lengthening or shortening of 

4 In old Latin supplicium was used as equivalent to suppli- 
catio, and this use survives in Livy and Sallust. But in 
Augustan and post-Augustan language the normal meaning 
of svpplicium was "punishment," and the natural translation 
would be "worthy of punishment." 

485 



QUINTILIAN 

quod etiam in iocis frigidum equidem tradi inter 
praecepta miror, eorumque exempla vitandi potius 

70 quam imitandi gratia pono : Amari iucundum est, si 
cruretur, ne quid insit amaii. Avium dulcedo ad avium 
ducit ; et apud Ovidium ludentem : 

Cur ego non dicam, Furia, tefuriam ? 

71 Cornificius hanc traductionem vocat, videlicet al- 
terius intellectus ad alterum. Sed elegantius, quod 
est positum in distinguenda rei proprietate : Hanc 
rei publicae pestem paulisper reprimi, non in perpetuum 
comprimi posse. Et quae praepositionibus in con- 
trarium mutantur : Non emissus ex urbe, sed immissus 
in urbem esse videatur. Melius atque acrius, quod 
cum figura iucundum est turn etiam sensu valet : 

72 Emit morte immortalitatem. Ilia leviora : Non Pisonum 
sed pistorum et Ex oratore arator. Pessimum vero : 
Ne patres conscripti oideantur circumscripti ; — Raro 
evenit sed vehementer venit. Sed 1 contingit, ut aliqui 
sensus vehemens et acer venustatem aliquam non 

73 eadem ex voce 2 non dissona accipiat. Et cur me 

1 sed, Halm : sic, MSS. * voce, added by Christ. 



1 Auct. ad Herenn. iv. 14: "It is pleasant to be loved, 
but we must take care that there is no bitterness in that 
love." 

2 " Birds' sweet song leads us into pathless places." 

' Probably from a collection of epigrams: "Furia, why 
should I not call you a fury ? " 

* Cat. J. xii. 30. 

8 Cat. i. ]]. 27: "He would seem not so much to have 
been sent out from, but to have been launched against the 
city." 

6 "By his death he purchased undying fame." 

7 "Not of the Pisos, but of the bakers." 

486 



BOOK IX. in. 69-73 

a syllable : this is a poor trick even when employed 
in jest, and I am surprised that it should be included 
in the text-books : the instances which I quote are 
therefore given as examples for avoidance, not for 
imitation. Here they are : Amari iucundum est, si 70 
curetur ne quid insit amari, 1 and Avium dulcedo ad avium 
ducit ; 2 and again this jest from Ovid, 3 

Cur ego non dicam, Furia, te furiam ? 

Cornificius calls this traductio, that is the trans- 71 
ference of the meaning of one word to another. It 
has, however, greater elegance when it is employed 
to distinguish the exact meanings of things, as in the 
following example : " This curse to the state could 
be repressed for a time, but not suppressed for ever ;" 4 
the same is true when the meaning of verbs is reversed 
by a change in the preposition with which they are 
compounded : for example, Xon emissus ex urbe, sed 
tMMMMt in urbem esse videaiur. b The effect is better 
still and more emphatic when our pleasure is derived 
both from the figurative form and the excellence of 
the sense, as in the following instance : emit morte 
immortalitatem.* A more trivial effect is produced by 72 
the following : Non Pisonum, sed pistorurn, 7 and Ex 
oratore orator, 9 while phrases such as Ne patres con- 
scripti videantur circumscripti, 9 or raro evenit, sed vehe- 
menter venit, 10 are the worst of all. It does, however, 
sometimes happen that a bold and vigorous con- 
ception may derive a certain charm from the contrast 
between two words not dissimilar in sound. I do 73 

8 Phil. in. ix. 22 : " Orator turned ploughman." 
• Auct. ad Herenn. iv. 22. "That the conscript fathers 
be not cheated." 

10 Meaning uncertain. 

487 



QUINTILIAN 

prohibeat pudor uti domestico exemplo ? Pater 
meus contra eum, qui se legationi immoriturura 
dixerat, deinde vix paucis diebus insumptis re in- 
fecta redierat, No?i eodgo, ut immoriaris Legationi; 
immorare. Nam et valet sensus ipse et in verbis 
tantum distantibus iucundc consonat vox, praesertim 
non captata, sed velut oblata, cum altero suo sit 

74 usus, alteram ab adversario acceperit. Magnae 
veteribus curae fuit gratiam dicendi et paribus et 
contrariis acquirere. Gorgias in hoc immodicus, 
copiosus aetate utique prima Isocrates fuit. Delec- 
tatus est his etiam M. Tullius, verum et modum 
adhibuit non ingratae, nisi copia redundet, voluptati 
et rem alioqui levem sententiarum pondere implevit. 
Nam per se frigida et inanis adfectatio, cum in acres 
incidit sensus, innatam gratiam x videtur habere non 
arcessitam. 

75 Similium fere quadruplex ratio est. Nam est 
primum, quotiens verbum verbo aut non dissimile 
valde quaeritur, ut 

Puppesque tuae pubesque tuorum ; 

et Sic hi hac calamitosa fama quasi in aliqua pernicio- 
sissima jiamma, et Non enim iam spes laudanda quam 

1 innatam, 2nd hand of A. : innata, AG. : gratiam added by 
Meister. 

1 " I do not demand that you should die on your embassy ; 
only stay there ! " 

2 Aen. i. 399. " Your ships and the flower of your young 
warriors." 

8 Pro Cluent. i. 4. "In the midst of this disastrous 
defamation, which may be compared to a disastrous 
conflagration." 

488 



BOOK IX. hi. 73-75 

not know that there is any reason why modesty 
should prevent me from illustrating this point from 
my own family. My father, in the course of a de- 
clamation against a man who had said he would die 
on his embassy and then returned after a few days' 
absence without accomplishing anything, said, non 
exigo ut immoriaris legationi : immorare}- For the 
sense is forcible and the sound of the two words, 
which are so very different in meaning, is pleasant, 
more especially since the assonance is not far fetched, 
but presents itself quite naturally, one word being of 
the speaker's own selection, while the other is sup- 
plied by his opponent. The old orators were at 74 
great pains to achieve elegance in the use of words 
similar or opposite in sound. Gorgias carried the 
practice to an extravagant pitch, while Isocrates, at 
any rate in his early days, was much addicted to it. 
Even Cicero delighted in it, but showed some re- 
straint in the employment of a device which is not 
unattractive save when carried to excess, and, further, 
by the weight of his thought lent dignity to what 
would otherwise have been mere trivialities. For 
in itself this artifice is a flat and foolish affectation, 
but when it goes hand in hand with vigour of 
thought, it gives the impression of natural charm, 
which the speaker has not had to go far to find. 

There are some four different forms of play upon 75 
verbal resemblances. The first occurs when we 
select some word which is not very unlike another, 
as in the line of Virgil 

vuppesque iuae pubesque tuorum, 2 

or, sic in hac calamitosa fama quasi in aliqua pernicio- 
sissima flamma* and non enim tarn spes laudanda quam 

4S9 



QUINTILIAN 

res est, aut certe par et extremis syllabis consonans : 

76 Non verbis, sed armis. Et hoc quoque, quotiens in 
sententias acres incidit, pulchrum est : Quantum 
possis, in eo semper experire, ut prosis. Hoc est irapurov, 
ut plerisque placuit. Theo Stoicus Trapicrov existimat, 

77 quod sit e membris non dissimilibus. Secundum, 
ut clausula similiter cadat, syllabis iisdem in ultimam 
partem collatis : ofxoiorekevTov vocant x similem dua- 
rum sententiarum vel plurium flnem : Non modo ad 
salutem eius exstinguendam, sed etiam gloriam per tales 
viros infringendam. Ex quibus fere fiunt, non tamen 
ut semper utique ultimis consonent, quae TpuccoXa 
dicuntur : Vicit pudorem hbido, timorem audacia, 
rationem amentia. Sed in quaternas quoque ac plures 
haec ratio ire sententias potest. Fit etiam singulis 
verbis: Hecuba hoc dolet, pudet, piget ; et Abiit, ex- 

78 cessit, erupit, evasit. Tertium est, quod in eosdem 
casus cadit, o/aoioVtwtov dicitur. Sed neque, quod 
finem habet similem, utique in eundem venit finem 
ofxoioirTWTov, quia ofxoioTrroiTov est tantum casu simile, 
etiamsi dissimilia sint quae declinentur ; nee tantum 
in fine deprehenditur, sed respondentibus 2 vel 

1 vocant, added by Cappcronnur. 

1 respondentibus, Halm: respondent, AG. 



1 From Cic. de Republica. " For it is performance rather 
than promise that claims our praise." 

2 Eutil. ii. xii. "Not with words, but with arms." 

3 " Always try in such cases to make your efforts as useful 
as possible." 

* Pro Mil. ii. 5. "Not merely to destroy his personal 
security, but even to blacken his name by means of such 
ruffians." 

6 See § 62. 

490 



BOOK IX. m. 75-78 

res est. 1 Or at any rate the words selected will be 
of equal length and will have similar terminations, 
as in non verbis, sed armis. 1 A good effect may also 76 
be produced by an artifice such as the following, so 
long as the thought which it expresses be vigor- 
ous : quantum possis, in eo semper experire ut prosis. 3 
The name commonly applied to this is irdpiaov, 
though the Stoic Theon thinks that in cases of 
Trdpurov the correspondence between the clauses must 
be exact. The second form occurs when clauses 77 
conclude alike, the same syllables being placed at 
the end of each ; this correspondence in the ending 
of two or more sentences is called homoeoteleuton. 
Here is an example : Non modo ad salutem eius exslin- 
guendam sed etiam gloriam per tales viros infringendam* 
This figure is usually, though not invariably, found in 
the groups of three clauses, styled TpUioka, of which 
the following may be cited as an illustration : vicit 
pudorem libido, timorem audacia, rationem amentia. 5 
But the device may be applied to four clauses or 
more. The effect may even be produced by single 
words ; for example, Hecuba hoc dolet, pudet, piget, 6 
or abiit, exccssit, erupit, euasit. 7 In the third form the 78 
correspondence is produced by the use of similar 
cases ; it is known as SfioLOTrroyTov. But this name, 
though it implies a certain similarity, does not neces- 
sarily involve identity in termination, since it means 
no more than similarity of case, irrespective of the 
fact that words may be differently declined, and does 
not always occur at the end of a sentence ; the corre- 
spondence may occur at the beginning, middle or 

6 From an unknown tragedian. " This fills Hecuba with 
grief, shame and loathing." 

7 See § 46. 

491 



QUINTILIAN 

primis inter se vel mediis vel extremis vel etiam 
permutatis his, ut media primis et summa mediis 
accommodentur, et quocunque modo accommodari 

79 potest. Neque enim semper paribus syllabis constat, 
ut est apud Afrum, A?tiisso nuper infelicis aulae si non 1 
praesidio inter pericula tamen solacio inter adversa. 
Eius fere videntur optima, in quibus initia senten- 
tiarum et fines, consentiunt, ut hie praesidio solacio, 
pericula adversa, 2 ' paene 3 ut similia sint verbis et 

80 paribus cadant et eodem modo desinant. Etiam ut 
sint, quod est quartum, membris aequalibus, quod 
to-oKwAov dieitur : Si, quantum in agro locisque desertis 
audacia potest, tantum in foro atque iudiciis impudentia 
valeret 1<t6ku>\ov est et o/jloiotttwtov habet ; non minus 
nunc in causa cederet Aulus Caecina Se.xti Aebutii im- 
pudentiae, quam turn in vi facienda cessit audaciae, 
IcroKtoXov, o/xoiotttwtov, ofAoioTzAevTov. Accedit et ex 
ilia figura gratia, qua nomina dixi mutatis casibus 
repeti : Non minus cederet quam cessit. At hoc * 

1 infelicis aulae si non, an early emendation: infelicis 
auleis non, 31SS. Halm conjectures infelicibus ausis non 
modo p.i.p. , sed etiam solacio i.a. 

2 pericula adversa, inserted by G. Laulmann. 

3 paene ut, ed. Aid: pedem et, MSS. 
* at hoc, Halm : ad hue, AG. 

1 The sense of infelicis aulae is uncertain. See Crit. note. 
"This unhappy court having lost, if not all that might pro- 
tect it in the hour of peril, at any rate all that might console 
it in moments of adversity." 

* Cic. pro Caec. i. 1. "If shamelessness carried as much 
weight in the forum and the law courts as daring carries in 
the country and in lonely places, Aulus Caecina would now 
yield no less to the shamelessness of Sextus Aebutius in the 
present case than he yielded to his audacity in the use of 
violence." 

492 



BOOK IX. hi. 78-80 

end of clauses, or may be varied so that the middle 
of one clause corresponds with the beginning of 
another and the end with the middle : in fact, any 
arrangement of correspondences is permissible. Nor 79 
need the words which correspond consist of the 
same number of syllables. For example, we find 
the following sentence in Domitius Afer : Amisso 
nuper infelicis aulae, 1 si non praesidio inter pericula, 
tamen solacio inter adversa. The best form of this 
figure is that in which the beginnings and ends of 
the clauses correspond (as in this case praesidio corre- 
sponds with solacio and pericula with adversa), in such 
a way that there is a close resemblance between the 
words, while cadence and termination are virtually 
identical. It is also desirable that the clauses should 80 
be of equal length, although as a matter of fact this 
forms the fourth figure of this class, and is known as 
laoKwXov. The following will serve as an example, 
being both 'utokwXov and bftoLomiarov : Si, quantum in 
agro locisque desertis audacia potest, tantum injbro atque 
iudiciis impudentia valeret ; continuing, it combines 
uroKwAov, 6/x.oio7tt(otov, and o/xoioTcXevrov : — non minus 
nunc in causa cederet Aldus Caecina Sexti Aebutii impu- 
dentiae, quam turn in vi facienda cessit audaciae? This 
passage derives an additional elegance from the figure 
which I mentioned above 3 as consisting in the repeti- 
tion of words with an alteration of case, tense, mood, 
etc., to be found in this instance in the words non 
minus cederet quam cessit. The following, on the other 

* §§ 36, 66. It must be remembered that casus can be 
applied to verbs as well as nouns. 

493 



QUINTILIAN 

ofioioTfktvTov et Trapovo/xaaia est : Neminem alteri posse 
dare in matrimonium, nisi penes quern sit patrimonium. 

81 Contrapositum autem vel, ut quidam vocant, con- 
tentio (avriOiTov dicitur) non uno fit modo. Nam et 
fit, si singula singulis opponuntur, ut in eo quod 
modo dixi, Vicit pudorem libido, timorem audacia, et 
bina binis : Non nostri ingenii, vestri auxilii est, et 
sententiae sententiis : Dominetur in contionibus, iaceat 

82 in iudiciis. Cui commodissime subiungitur et ea 
species, quam distinctionem diximus : Odit populus 
Romcuius privatam luxuriant, publicam magnificentiam 
diligit ; et, quae sunt simili casu, dissimili sententia 
in ultimo locata : Ut quod in tempore rnali fiat, nihil 

83 obsit, quod in causa boni fuit, prosit. Nee semper 
contrapositum subiungitur, ut in hoc, Est igitur, haec 
iudices, non scripta sed nata lex, verum, sicut Cicero 
dicit, de singulis rebus propositis refertur ad singula, 
ut in eo quod sequitur, Quam non didicimus, accepimus, 
legimus, verum ex natura ipsa arripiumus, hausimus, ex- 

84 pressimus. Nee semper, quod adversum est, contra- 



1 " That no one may bestow the hand of a woman on 
another in matrimony unless he be the possessor of a 
patrimony." 

2 See § 62. 

8 pro Cluent. i. 4. " This is beyond my power ; it is your 
support that is required." 

* pro Cluent. ii. 5. See IX. ii. 51. 

6 pro Muren. xxxvi. 76. "The Roman people hates 
private luxury, but loves public magnificence." Cp. § 65. 

8 pro Cluent. xxix. 80. " So that what was unfortunate in 
the occasion may prove no obstacle, while what was fortu- 
nate in the case may prove a positive advantage." 

494 



BOOK IX. hi. 80-84 

hand, combines homoeoteleuton and paronomasia : 
Seminem ulteri posse dare in mairimonium, nisi penes 
quern sit pairimonium. 1 

Antithesis, which Roman writers call either contra- 81 
positum or contentio, may be effected in more than one 
way. Single words may be contrasted with single, as 
in the passage recently quoted, licit pudorem libido, 
timorem audacia, 2 or the contrast may be between 
pairs of words, as in non nostri ingenii, vestri auxilii est, 3 
or sentence may be contrasted with sentence, as in 
dominetur in conlionibus, iaceat in iudiciisA Next to 82 
this another form may appropriately be placed, 
namely that which we have styled distinction and of 
which the following is an example : Odit populus 
Romanus privatani luxuriant, publicum mugnificentium 
diligit. 5 The same is true of the figure by which 
words of similar termination, but of different 
meaning are placed at the end of corresponding 
clauses, as in ut quod in tempore viali fuit, nihil obsit, 
quod in causa boni fuit, prosit. 6 Nor is the contrasted 83 
phrase always placed immediately after that to 
which it is opposed, as it is in the following 
instance : est igilur huec, iudices, non scriplu, 
sed nala lex : 7 but, as Cicero 8 says, we may have 
correspondence between subsequent particulars and 
others previously mentioned, as in the passage which 
immediately follows that just quoted : quam non 
didicimus, accepimus, legimus, verum ex nuturu ipsu 
urr'vpuimus, huusimus, expressimus. Again the con- 84 

7 pro Mil. iv. 10. ' • This law then, gentlemen, was not 
written, but born. It ia a law which we have not learned, 
received from others or read, but which we have derived, 
absorbed and copied from nature itself." 

• See rx. i. 34. 

495 



QUINTILIAN 

ponitur, quale est apud Itutilium, Nobis primis dii 
immoiiales fruges dederunt ; nos, quod soli accepimus, 

85 in omnes terras distribuimus. Fit etiam adsumpta 
ilia figura, qua verba declinata repetuntur, quod 
avTi/ieTafioXr) dicitur : Non, ut edam, vivo, sed, ut vivam, 
edo. Et quod apud Ciceronem conversum ita est, 
ut, cum mutationem casus habeat, etiam similiter 
desiuat : Ut et sine invidia culpa plectatur et sine culpa 

86 invidia ponatur. Et eodem cluditur verbo : ut quod 
dicit de Sex. Roscio, Etenim, cum artifex eiusinodi est, 
ut solus videatur digitus qui in scena, specletur, turn vir 
eiusinodi est, ut solus dignus esse videatur, qui eo non 
accedat. Est et in nominibus ex diverso collocatis sua 
gratia : Si Consul Antonius, Brutus hostis ; si conservator 
rei publicae Brutus, hostis Antonius. 

87 Olim plura de figuris quam necesse erat, et adhuc 
erunt, qui putent esse figuram : Incredibile est, quod 
dico, sed veruni ; avdvirofyopav vocant ; et Aliquis hoc 
semel tulil, nemo x bis, ego ter, Sie^oSov ; et Longius 

1 nemo, Badius : nego, MSS. 

1 Rutil. ii. 16. "To us first of men the immortal gods 
gave corn, while we have distributed that which we alone 
have received to all the peoples of the earth." 

2 pro Clwnt. ii. 5. "That though there is no prejudice, 
guilt is punished, and if there is no guilt, prejudice is laid 
aside." 

s pro Quintio xxv. 78. "For while he is an artist of such 
talent as to seem the only actor on the stage worth looking 
at, he is also a man of such character as to seem the only 
man worthy of being exempted from appearing on the 
stage." 

* Phil. IV. iii. 8. "If Antony is consul, Brutus is an 
enemy : if Brutus is the saviour of the state, Antony is an 
enemy. 

5 "What I say is incredible, but true." ivduvo<popa = 
answer to imaginary objection. 

496 



BOOK IX. in. 84-87 

trast is not always expressed antithetically, as is 
shown by the following passage from Hutiiius : 
nobis primis dii immorlales jruges dederunt, nos, quod 
soli aecepimus, in omnes terras distribuimus. 1 Anti- 85 
thesis may also be effected by employing that figure, 
known as avrLfxerafioXi], by which words are repeated 
in different cases, tenses, moods, etc., as for instance 
when we say, non ut edam, vivo, sed ut vivam, edo (I do 
not live to eat, but eat to live). There is an in- 
stance of this in Cicero, 2 where he has managed, 
while changing the case, to secure similaritv of ter- 
mination : ul et sine invidia culpa plectalur et sine culpa 
invidia ponatur. Again the clauses may end with 86 
the same word, as when Cicero says of Sextus 
Roscius : etenim cum artifex eiusmodi est ul solus vide- 
atur dignus qui in scena spectetur, turn vir eiusmodi est ut 
solus dignus esse videalur qui eo non accedat. 3 There 
is also a special elegance which may be secured by 
placing names in antithesis, as in the following in- 
stance, Si consul Antonius, Brutus host is ; si conservator 
rei publicae Brutus, hoslis Antonius.* 

I have already said more than was necessarv on the 87 
subject oi figures. But there will still be some who 
think that the following (which they call av(foiro<f>opa) 
is a. figure : Incredibile est, quod dico, sed verum : 6 they 
say the same of Aliquis hoc semel lu.it, nemo bis, ego 
ter 6 (which they style 8u$ohos), and of Longius evectus 
sinn, sed redeo ad propositum, 7 which they call 

• " Some have endured this once, while no one has endured 
it twice, but I have endured it thrice." Sie^oSos = going 
through in detail. 

7 "I have made a long digression, but now return to the 
point." &<poSos strictly = departure, referring to the digres- 
sion, rather than the return to the paint. 

497 



QUINTIL1AN 

88 evectus sum sed redeo ad propositmn, acf>o$ov. Quaedam 
verborum figurae paulum figuris sententiarum de- 
clinantur, ut dubitatio. Nam cum est in re, priori 
parti adsignanda est, cum in verbo, sequenti ; Sive 

89 me malitiam sive stultitiam dicere oportet. Item cor- 
rectionis eadem ratio est ; nam quod illic dubitat, 
hie emendat. Etiam in pex - sonae fictione accidere 
quidam idem putaverunt, ut in verbis esset haec 
figura : Crudelitatis mater est avariiia, et apud Sallus- 
tium in Ciceronem Romule Arpinas, et apud 
Menandrum Oedipus Thriasius. Haec omnia copiosius 
sunt exsecuti, qui non ut partem operis transcurre- 
runt, sed proprie libros huic open dedicaverunt, 
sicut Caecilius, Dionysius, Rutilius, Cornificius, 
Visellius aliique non pauci ; sed non minor erit 

90 eorum, qui vivunt, gloria. Ut fateor autem ver- 
borum quoque figuras posse plures reperiri a quibus- 
dam, ita iis, quae ab auctoribus claris traduntur, 
meliores non adsentior. Nam in primis M. Tullius 
multas in tertio De Oratore libro posuit, quas in 
Oratore postea scripto transeundo videtur ipse 
damnasse ; quarum pars est, quae sententiarum potius 
quam verborum sit : ut imminutio, improvisum, 
imago, sibi ipsi responsio, digressio, permissio, con- 
trarium (hoc enim puto, quod dicitur ivavTionrs), 

1 A net. ad Hcrenn.\v. xxix. 40. 

2 An allusion to some inhabitant of the Athenian village 
of Thrift. 

3 See ix. i. 26. 
* See ix. i. 37. 
« See ix. ii. 25. 

49 8 



BOOK IX. in. 87-90 

d<£oSos. There are some figures of speech which differ 88 
little from figures of thought, as for example that of 
hesitation. For when we hesitate over a thing, it 
belongs to the former class, whereas when we hesi- 
tate over a word, it must be assigned to the latter, 
as for instance if we say," I do not know whether to 
call this wickedness or folly." ] The same consider- 89 
ation applies to correction. For correction emends, 
where hesitation expresses a doubt. Some have 
even held that it applies to personification as well ; 
they think, for example, that Avarice is the mother of 
cruelty, Sallust's Romulus of Arpinum in his speech 
against Cicero, and the Thriasian Oedipus 2 of Men- 
ander are figures of speech. All these points have 
been discussed in full detail by those who have not 
given this subject merely incidental treatment as a 
portion of a larger theme, but have devoted whole 
books to the discussion of the topic : I allude to 
writers such as Caecilius, Dionysius, Rutilius, Corni- 
ficius, Visellius and not a few others, although there 
are living authors who will be no less famous than 
they. Now though I am ready to admit that more 90 
figures of speech may perhaps be discovered by certain 
writers, I cannot agree that such figures are better 
than those which have been laid down by high 
authorities. Above all I would point out that 
Cicero has included a number of figures in the third 
book of the de Oratore, 3 which in his later work, the 
Orator, 4 he has omitted, thereby seeming to indicate 
that he condemned them. Some of these are figures 
of thought rather than of speech, such as meiosis, the 
introduction of the unexpected, imagery, answering 
our own questions, digression, permission, 5 argu- 
ments drawn from opposites (for I suppose that by 

499 



QUINTILIAN 

91 sumpta ex ad verso probatio. Quaedam omnino 
non sunt figurae, sicut ordo, dinumeratio, circum- 
scripta, sive hoc nomine significatur comprehensa 
breviter sententia sive finitio ; nam et hoc Cornifieius 
atque Rutilius schema Ae'^cw? putant. Verborum 
autem concinna transgressio, id est hyperbaton, quod 
Caecilius quoque putat schema, a nobis est inter 

92 tropos 1 posita. Et mutatio, si 2 ea est, quam 
Rutilius aXXoioxriv vocat, dissimilitudinem ostendit 
hominum, rerum, factorum ; quae si latius fiat, figura 
non est, si angustius, in SivtiOctov cadet; si vero 
haec appellatio significat viraWayr/v, satis de ea 

93 dictum est. Quod vero schema est ad propositum 
subiecta ratio, quod Rutilius ahioXoyiav vocat ? nam 
de illo dubitari possit, an schema sit distributis 
subiecta ratio, quod apud eundem primo loco positum 

94 est. npoa-uTToSocriv dicit, quae, ut maxime, servetur 
sane in pluribus propositis, quia aut singulis statim 
ratio subiiciatur, ut est apud C. Antonium, Sed neque 
accusatorem eum metuo, quod sum innocens ; neque com- 
pelitorem vereor, quod sum Antonius ; neque consulem 

95 spei'o, quod est Cicero ; aut positis duobus vel tribus 
eodem ordine singulis continua reddatur, quale apud 

1 tropos, added by Burmann. * si, Halm : etsi, M88. 

1 See IX. i. 33. sqq. If contrarium is what Quintilian 
supposes, its sense must be approximate to that given above. 
Cp. Auct. ad Herenii. iv. 25. contrarium est quod ex diversis 
rebus duabus alteram altera breviter et facile confirmat. But it 
is possible that Cicero meant antithesis. 

a Immutatio in Cicero (ix. i. 35) seems to mean metonymy 
or hypallage (see Orator, xxvii. 92) : The aWolasvis of Rutilius 
(ii. 2) is however "differentiation." 

» vm. 6. 23. 

« ii. 19. 
Opening of Book I. 



6 



500 



BOOK IX. hi. 90-95 

contrarium l he means what is elsewhere styled 
ivavTiorrjs), and proof borrowed from an opponent. 
There are some again which are not figures at all, 91 
such as arrangement, distinction by headings, and 
circumscription, whether this latter term be intended 
to signify the concise expression of thought or 
definition, which is actually regarded by Cornificius 
and Rutilius as a figure of speech. With regard to 
the elegant transposition of words, that is, hyper- 
baton, which Caecilius also thinks is ajigure, I have 
included it among tropes. As for mutation 2 of the 92 
kind which Rutilius calls aAAocWis, its function is to 
point out the differences between men, things and 
deeds : if it is used on an extended scale, it is not a 
figure, if on a narrower scale, it is mere antithesis, while 
if it is intended to mean hupallage, enough has already 
been said on the subject. 3 Again what sort of a 93 
figure is this addition of a reason for what is advanced, 
which Rutilius calls aiTioAoyi'a ? 4 It may also be 
doubted whether the assignment of a reason for each 
distinct statement, with which Rutilius 5 opens his dis- 
cussion of figures, is really a figure. He calls it 94 
7rpoo-a7rdSocris and states 6 that strictly it applies to a 
number of propositions, since the reason is either 
attached to each proposition separately, as in the 
following passage from Gaius Antonius : 7 " But I do 
not fear him as an accuser, for I am innocent ; I do 
not dread him as a rival candidate, for I am 
Antonius ; I do not expect to see him consul, for he 
is Cicero " ; or, after two or three propositions have 95 
been stated, the reasons for them may be given con- 
tinuously in the same order, as for example in the 

• The subj. servttur seems to indicate indirect speech. 
7 Elected consul with Cicero for 63 B.C. 

5° T 



QUINTILIAN 

Brutum de dictatura Cn. Pompeii, Praestat enim 
nemini imperare quam alicui servire ; .sine Mo enim vivere 

96 honeste licet, cum hoc vivendi nulla condicio est. Sed et 
uni rei multiplex ratio subiungitur, ut apud Ver- 
gilium, 

Sive inde occuUas vires et pabula terrae 
Pinguia concipiunt, sive Mis omne per ignem 
Excocpdtur vitium — et totus locus ; 
Sen plures calor Me vias, — Sen durat magis. 

97 Relationem quid accipi velit, non liquet mihi. Nam 
si avd.K\a<Tiv aut €7ravoSov aut avTL/xtTaf^oXrjv dicit, de 
omnibus locuti sumus. Sed quidquid id est, neque 
hoc neque superiora in Oratore repetit. Sola est 
in eo libro posita pariter inter figuras verborum 
exclamatio, quam sententiae potius puto (adfectus 

98 enim est), de 1 ceteris omnibus consentio. Adiicit 
his Caecilius TrepltppaaLv, de qua dixi ; Cornificius 
interrogationem, ratiocinationem, subiectionem, 
transitionem, occultationem, praeterea sententiam, 
membrum, articulos, interpretationem, conclusio- 
nem. Quorum priora alterius generis sunt sche- 

99 mata, sequentia schemata omnino non sunt. Item 
Rutilius praeter ea, quae apud alios quoque sunt, 
irapofioXoyiai', avayKalov, rjOoTrouav, SiKaioXoyiav, Trpo- 

1 de, Halm : et, MSS. 

1 Georg. i. 86. Rhoades' translation. 

* vra. vi 23. 3 ix. iii. 35. 

* ix. iii. 85. 6 vnx vi. 59. 

6 For interpretations of all these terms except occultatw, 
see Aiid. ad Hercnn. iv. 15, 16, 17, 19, 23, 26, 28, 30, 
subjectio is the suggesting of an argument that might be used 
by an opponent ; articulus a clause consisting of one word. 
interpretatio the explanation of one word by subsequent use 
of a synonym. 

5° 2 



BOOK IX. hi. 95-99 

words that Brutus uses of Gnaeus Pompeius : " For 
it is better to rule no man than to be the slave to 
any man : since one may live with honour without 
ruling, whereas life is no life for the slave." But a 96 
number of reasons may also be assigned for one state- 
ment, as in the lines of Virgil : 1 

"Whether that earth therefrom some hidden 
strength 
And fattening food derives, or that the fire 
Bakes every blemish out, etc. 
Or that the heat unlocks new passages. . . . 
Or that it hardens more, etc." 

As to what Cicero means by reference, I am in the 97 
dark : if he means dvaKAacris 2 or iirdvo&os 3 or dvTi/xera- 
/JoA.7/, 4 I have already discussed them. But what- 
ever its meaning may be, he does not mention it in 
the Orator any more than the other terms I have 
just mentioned. The only figure of speech mentioned 
in that work, which I should prefer to regard as a 
figure of thought owing to its emotional character, 
is exclamation. I agree with him about all the rest. 
To these Caecilius adds periphrasis, of which I have 98 
already spoken, 5 while Cornificius 8 adds interrogation, 
reasoning, suggestion, transition, concealment, and 
further, sentence, clause, isolated words, interpre- 
tation and conclusion. Of these the first (down to 
and including concealment) are figures of thought, 
while the remainder are not figures at all. Rutilius 99 
also in addition to the figures found in other 
authors adds, rrapofjioXoyia,' 1 dvayxaiov, 8 r}6oTioua? 

7 The advancement of some stronger argument after the 
concession of some other point to our adversary. 

8 See IX. ii. 106. 
• See IX. ii. 58. 

5*3 



QU1NTILIAN 

Xrjif/LV, )(apaKTr]piafJ.6v, j3 paxvXoyiav, Trapa.ari<i>7rr](riv, 
irapprjcriav, de quibus idem dico. Nam eos quidem 
auctores, qui nullum prope fin em fecerunt exqui- 
rendis nominibus, praeteribo, qui etiam, quae sunt 
argumentorum, figuris ascripserunt. 

100 Ego illud de iis etiam, quae vere sunt, adiiciam 
breviter, sicut ornent orationem opportune positae, 
ita ineptissisimas esse, cum immodice petantur. 
Sunt qui neglecto rerum pondere et viribus sen- 
tentiarum, si vel inania verba in hos modos depra- 
varunt, summos se iudicent artifices ideoque non 
desinant eas nectere, quas sine substantia sectari 
tam est ridiculum quam quaerere habitum ge- 

101 stumque sine corpore. Sed ne eae quidem, quae 
recte fiunt, densandae sunt nimis ; nam et vultus 
mutatio oculorumque coniectus multum in actu 
valet ; sed si quis ducere os exquisitis modis et 
frontis ac luminum inconstantia trepidare non 
desinat, rideatur. Et oratio ] habet rectam quan- 
dam velut faciem, quae ut stupere immobili rigore 
non debebit, ita saepius in ea, quam natura dedit, 

102 specie continenda est. Sciendum vero in primis, 
quid quisque in orando postulet locus, quid per- 
sona, quid tempus ; maior enim pars harum figura- 
rum posita est in delectatione. Ubi vero atrocitate, 

1 oratio, Regius : orator, MSS. 



1 The statement of the justice of our cause in the briefest 
possible form. 

2 See IX. ii. 16. 

3 Description of character or manners. 

4 See IX. iii. 50. 

5 The statement that we refrain from saying something, 
though making it perfectly clear what it is. 

5°4 



BOOK IX. hi. 99-102 

SucouoAoyia, 1 Trp6\r)i(/i<;, 2 xapa*r»7purp.os, 3 fipaxykoyia* 
Trapao-iunnqcris, 5 TrappTjala, 9 of which I say the same. 
I will pass by those authors who set no limit to 
their craze for inventing technical terms and even 
include among figures what really comes under the 
head of arguments. 

With regard to genuine figures, I would briefly 100 
add that, while, suitably placed, they are a real 
ornament to style they become perfectly fatuous 
when sought after overmuch. There are some 
who pay no consideration to the weight of their 
matter or the force of their thoughts and think 
themselves supreme artists, if only they succeed in 
forcing even the emptiest of words into figurative 
form, with the result that they are never tired of 
stringing figures together, despite the fact that it 
is as ridiculous to hunt for figures without reference 
to the matter as it is to discuss dress and gesture 
without reference to the body. But even perfectly 101 
correct figures must not be packed too closely together. 
Changes of facial expression and glances of the eyes 
are most effective in pleading, but if the orator never 
ceases to distort his face with affected grimaces or to 
wag his head and roll his eyes, he becomes a laugh- 
ing-stock. So too oratory possesses a natural mien, 
which while it is far from demanding a stolid and 
immovable rigidity should as far as possible restrict 
itself to the expression with which it is endowed by 
nature. But it is of the first importance that we 102 
should know what are the requirements of time, 
place and character on each occasion of speaking. 
For the majority of these figures aim at delighting the 
hearer. But when terror, hatred and pity are the 
• Freedom of speech. 

5°5 



QUINTILIAN 

invidia, miseratione pugnandum est, quis ferat con- 
trapositis et pariter cadentibus et consimilibus 
irascentem, flentem, rogantem ? cum in his rebus 
cura verborum deroget adfectibus fidem, et ubi- 
cunque ars ostentatur, Veritas abesse videatur. 

IV. De compositione non equidem post M. 
Tullium scribere auderem (cui nescio an ulla 
pars operis huius sit magis elaborata), nisi et 
eiusdem aetatis homines scriptis ad ipsum etiam 
litteris reprehendere id collocandi genus ausi fuis- 
sent, et post eum plures multa ad eandem rem 

2 pertinentia memoriae tradidissent. /taque accedam 
in plerisque Ciceroni atque in iis ero, quae indubi- 
tata sunt, brevior, in quibusdam paulum fortasse 
dissentiam. Nam etiam cum iudicium meum osten- 
dero, suum tamen legentibus relinquam. 

3 Neque ignoro quosdam esse, qui curam omnem 
compositionis excludant, atque ilium horrid um ser- 
monem, ut forte fluxerit, modo magis naturalem, 
modo etiam magis virilem esse contendant. Qui 
si id demum naturale esse dicunt, quod natura 
primum ortum est et quale ante cultum fuit, tota 

4 haec ars orandi subvertitur. Neque enim locuti 
sunt ad hanc regulam et diligentiam primi homines, 

1 Composito in its widest sense means " artistic structure. " 
But in much of what follows it virtually = " rhythm." 

506 



BOOK IX. m. 102-iv. 4 

weapons called for in the fray, who will endure the 
orator who expresses his anger, his sorrow or his 
entreaties in neat antitheses, balanced cadences and 
exact correspondences ? Too much care for our words 
under such circumstances weakens the impression of 
emotional sincerity, and wherever the orator displays 
his art unveiled, the hearer says, " The truth is not 
in him." 

IV. I should not venture to speak of artistic 
structure l after what Cicero has said upon the sub- 
ject (for there is I think no topic to which he has 
devoted such elaborate discussion) but for the fact 
that his own contemporaries ventured to traverse his 
theories on this subject even in letters which they 
addressed to him, while a number of later writers 
have left on record numerous observations on the 
same topic. Accordingly on a large number of 
questions I shall be found in agreement with Cicero 
and shall deal more briefly with those points which 
admit of no dispute, while there will be certain 
subjects on which I shall express a certain amount 
of disagreement. For, though I intend to make my 
own views clear, I shall leave my readers free to 
hold their own opinion. 

I am well aware that there are certain writers 
who would absolutely bar all study of artistic struc- 
ture and contend that language as it chances to 
present itself in the rough is more natural and even 
more manly. If by this they mean that only that 
is natural which originated with nature and has 
never received any subsequent cultivation, there is 
an end to the whole art of oratory. For the first 
men did not speak with the care demanded by that 
art nor in accordance with the rules that it lays 

507 



QUINTILIAN 

nee prooemiis praeparare, docere expositione, argu- 
mentis probare, adfectibus commovere scierunt. 
Ergo his omnibus, non sola compositione caruerunt ; 
quorum si fieri nihil melius licebat, ne domibus 
quidem casas aut vestibus pellium tegmina aut 

5 urbibus montes ac silvas mutari oportuit. Quae 
porro ars statim fuit? quid non cultu mitescit ? cur 
vites coercemus manu ? cur eas fodimus ? rubos 
arvis excidimus, terra et hos generat ; mansuefa- 
cimus animalia, indomita nascuntur. Verum id 
est maxime naturale, quod fieri natura optime pa- 

6 titur. Fortius vero qui incompositum potest esse 
quam vinctum et bene collocatum ? Neque, si 
parvi pedes vim detrahunt rebus, ut Sotadeorum 
et Galliamborum et quorundam in oratione simili 
paene licentia lascivientium, compositionis est 

7 iudicandum. Ceterum quanto vehementior flumi- 
num cursus est prono alveo ac nullas moras obiici- 
ente quam inter obstantia saxa fractis aquis ac 
reluctantibus, tanto, quae connexa est et totis 
viribus fluit, fragosa atque interrupta melior oratio. 
Cur ergo vires ipsa specie solvi putent, quando 
508 



BOOK IX. iv. 4-7 

down. They knew nothing of introducing their 
case by means of an exordium, of instructing the 
jury by a statement of facts, of proving by argument 
or of arousing the emotions. They lacked all these 
qualifications as completely as they lacked all know- 
ledge of the theory of artistic structure. But if 
they were to be forbidden all progress in this 
respect, they ought equally to have been forbidden 
to exchange their huts for houses, their cloaks of 
skin for civilised raiment and their mountains and 
forests for cities. What art was ever born full- 
grown ? What does not ripen with cultivation ? 
Why do we train the vine ? Why dig it ? We clear 
the fields of brambles, and they too are natural pro- 
ducts of the soil. We tame animals, and yet they 
are born wild. No, that which is most natural is 
that which nature permits to be done to the greatest 
perfection. How can a style which lacks orderly 
structure be stronger than one that is welded together 
and artistically arranged ? It must not be regarded 
as the fault of the study of structure that the employ- 
ment of feet consisting of short syllables such as 
characterise the Sotadean and Galliambic metres 
and certain prose rhythms closely resembling them in 
wildness, weakens the force of our matter. Just as 
river-currents are more violent when they run along a 
sloping bed, that presents no obstacles to check their 
course, than when their waters are broken and baffled 
by rocks that obstruct the channel, so a style which 
flows in a continuous stream with all the full develop- 
ment of its force is better than one which is rough 
and broken. Why then should it be thought that 
polish is inevitably prejudicial to vigour, when the 
truth is that nothing can attain its full strength 

5°9 



QUINTILIAN 

res nee ulla sine arte satis valeat et comitetur 

8 semper artem decor ? An non earn, quae missa 
optime est, hastam speciosissime contortam ferri 
videmus, et arcu dirigentium tela quo certior 
manus, hoc est habitus ipse formosior ? lam in 
certamine armorum atque in omni palaestra quid 
satis recte cavetur ac petitur, cui non artifex motus 

9 et certi quidam pedes adsint? Quare mihi com- 
positione velut amentis quibusdam nervisve intendi 
et concitari sententiae videntur. Ideoque erudi- 
tissimo cuique persuasum est, valere earn plurimum 
non ad delectationem modo sed ad motum quoque 

10 animorum, primum quia nihil intrare potest in adfec- 
tus, quod in aure velut quodam vestibulo statim 
offendit ; deinde quod natura ducimur ad modos. 
Neque enim aliter eveniret, ut illi quoque orga- 
norum soni, quanquam verba non exprimunt, in 
alios tamen atque alios motus ducerent auditorem. 

1 1 In certaminibus sacris non eadem ratione concitant 
animos ac remittunt, non eosdem modos adhibent, 
cum bellicum est canendum et cum posito genu 
supplicandum est ; nee idem signorum concentus 
est procedente ad proelium exercitu, idem receptui 

12 carmen. Pythagoreis certe moris fuit, et cum 
evigilassent, animos ad lyram excitare, quo essent 
ad agendum erectiores, et cum somnum peterent, 

5*° 



BOOK IX. iv. 7-12 

without the assistance of art, and that art is always 
productive of beauty? Is it not the fact that grace 8 
always goes with the highest skill in throwing the 
spear, and that the truer the archer's aim, the more 
comely is his attitude ? Again in fencing and all 
the contests of the wrestling school, what one of all 
the tricks of attack and defence is there, that does 
not require movements and firmness of foot such as 
can only be acquired by art ? Consequently in my 9 
opinion artistic structure gives force and direction 
to our thoughts just as the throwing-thong and the 
bowstring do to the spear and the arrow. And 
for this reason all the best scholars are convinced 
that the study of structure is of the utmost value, 
not merely for charming the ear, but for stirring 
the soul. For in the first place nothing can pene- 10 
trate to the emotions that stumbles at the portals of 
the ear, and secondly man is naturally attracted by 
harmonious sounds. Otherwise it would not be the 
case that musical instruments, in spite of the fact 
that their sounds are inarticulate, still succeed in 
exciting a variety of different emotions in the hearer. 
In the sacred games different methods are employed 1 1 
to excite and calm the soul, different melodies are 
required for the war-song and the entreaty sung by 
the suppliant on bended knee, while the war-note 
of the trumpet that leads the army forth to battle 
has no resemblance to the call that sounds the 
retreat. It was the undoubted custom of the Pytha- 12 
goreans, when they woke from slumber, to rouse 
their souls with the music of the lyre, that they 
might be more alert for action, and before they 
retired to rest, to soothe their minds by melodies 
from the same instrument, in order that all restless- 

5" 



QUINTILIAN 

ad eandem prius lenire mentes, ut, si quid fuisset 

13 turbidiorum cogitationum, componerent. Quodsi 
numeris ac modis inesb quaedam tacita vis, in 
oratione ea vehementissima, quantumque interest 
sensus idem quibus verbis efferatur, tantum, verba 
eadem qua compdsitione vel in textu iungantur 
vel in fine claudantur ; nam quaedam et sententiis 
parva et elocutione modica virtus haec sola com. 

14 mendat. Denique quod cuique visum erit vehe- 
menter, dulciter, speciose dictum, solvat et turbet : 
abierit omnis vis, iucunditas, decor. Solvit quae- 
dam sua in Oratore Cicero : Neque me divitiae movent 
quibus omnes Africanos et Laelios multi venalicii merca- 
toresque superarunt. Immuta paululum ut sit ' multi 
superarunt mercatores venaliciique,' et insequentes 
deinceps periodos ; quas si ad ilium modum turbes, 

15 velut fracta aut transversa tela proieceris. Idem 
corrigit quae a Graccho composita durius putat. 
Ilium decet ; nos hac sumus probatione contenti, 
quod in scribendo, quae se nobis solutiora obtuler- 
unt, coinponimus. Quid enim attinet eorum ex- 
empla quaerere, quae sibi quisque experiri potest? 
Illud notasse satis habeo, quo pulchriora et sensu 
et elocutione dissolveris, . hoc orationem magis 



1 Or. 70, 232. " Nor do riches move me, in which many a 
merchant and slave-dealer has surpassed all such great men 
as Africanus and Laelius." 

5" 



BOOK IX. iv. 12-15 

ness of thought might be lulled to orderly repose. 
But if there is such secret power in rhythm and 13 
melody alone, this power is found at its strongest in 
eloquence, and, however important the selection 
of words for the expression of our thoughts, the 
structural art which welds them together in the 
body of a period or rounds them off' at the close, 
has at least an equal claim to importance. For 
there are some things which, despite triviality of 
thought and mediocrity of language, may achieve 
distinction in virtue of this excellence alone. In 14 
fact, if we break up and disarrange any sentence 
that may have struck us as vigorous, charming or 
elegant, we shall find that all its force, attraction 
and grace have disappeared. Cicero in his Orator 
breaks up some of his own utterances in this wav : 
" Neque me divitiae movent, quibus omnes Africanos el 
Laelios multi venalirii mercatoresque superarunt. Change 
the order but a little so that it will run multi saper- 
arunt mercatores venal iciique," 1 and so on. Disarrange 
these periods in such a manner, and you will find 
that the shafts you have hurled are broken or wide 
of the mark. Cicero also corrects passages in the 15 
speeches of Gracchus where the structure appears to 
him to be harsh. For Cicero this is becoming enough, 
but we may content ourselves with testing our own 
power of welding together in artistic form the discon- 
nected words and phrases which present themselves 
to us. For why should we seek elsewhere for 
examples of faults which we may all of us find in 
our own work ? One point, however, it is enough 
simply to notice — that the more beautiful in thought 
and language the sentence which you deprive of 
such structural cohesion, the more hideous will 

513 

VOL. III. c 



QUINTILIAN 

deformem fore, quia negligentia collocationis ipsa 

16 verborum luce deprehenditur. Itaque ut confiteor, 
paene ultimam oratoribus artem compositions, quae 
quidem l perfecta sit, contigisse, ita illis quoque 
priscis habitam inter curas, in quantum adhuc 
profecerant, puto. Neque enim mihi quamlibet 
magnus auctor Cicero persuaserit, Lysian, Herodo- 
tum, Thucydiden parum studiosos eius fuisse. 

17 Genus fortasse sint secuti non idem, quod Demo- 
sthenes aut Plato, quanquam et ii ipsi inter se 
dissimiles fuerunt. Nam neque illud in Lysia 
dicendi textum tenue atque rasum laetioribus 
numeris corrumpendum erat ; perdidisset enim 
gratiam, quae in eo maxima est, simplicis atque 
inadfectati coloris, perdidisset fidem quoque. Nam 
scribebat aliis, non ipse dicebat, ut oportuerit esse 
ilia rudibus et incompositis similia ; quod ipsum 

18 compositio est. Et historiae, quae currere debet 
ac ferri, minus convenissent insistentes clausulae 
et debita actionibus respiratio et cludendi incho- 
andique sententias ratio. In contionibus quidem 
etiam similiter cadentia quaedam et contraposita 
deprehendas. In Herodoto vero cum omnia (ut 
ego quidem sentio) leniter fluunt, turn ipsa SiaA.«Kros 

1 quae quidem, Spalding: qua de, AG. 
5*4 



BOOK IX. iv. 15-18 

be the effect upon the style, for the very brilliance 
of the words at once exposes the carelessness of 
their arrangement. Accordingly, although I admit 16 
that artistic structure, at any rate in perfection, 
was the last accomplishment to be attained by 
oratory, I still hold that even primitive orators 
regarded it as one of the objects of their study, as 
far at least as the rudeness of their attainments 
permitted. For even Cicero for all his greatness 
will never persuade me that Lysias, Herodotus and 
Thucydides were careless in this respect. They 17 
may not perhaps have pursued the same ideals as 
Demosthenes and Plato, and even these latter 
differed in their methods. For it would never have 
done to spoil the fine and delicate texture of Lysias 
by the introduction of richer rhythms, since he 
would thus have lost all that surpassing grace which 
he derives from his simple and unaffected tone, 
while he would also have sacrificed the impression 
of sincerity which he now creates. For it must be 
remembered that he wrote his speeches for others 
to deliver, so that it was right that they should 
suggest a lack of form and artistic structure : indeed 
his success in producing this effect actually shows his 
mastery of structure. Again history, which should 18 
move with speed and impetuosity, would have been 
ill-suited by the halts imposed by the rounding off 
of the period, by the pauses for breath inevitable 
in oratory, and the elaborate methods of opening 
sentences and bringing them to a close. It is how- 
ever true that in the speeches inserted by historians 
we may note something in the way of balanced 
cadences and antitheses. As regards Herodotus, 
while his flow, in my opinion, is always gentle, his 

515 



QUINTILIAN 

habet earn iucunditatem, ut latentes etiam in se 1 

19 numeros complexa videatur. Sed de propositorum 
diversitate post paulum. Nunc, quae prius iis, qui 
recte componere volent, discenda sint. 

Est igitur ante omnia oratio alia vincta atque con- 
texta, soluta alia, qualis in sermone et epistolis, nisi 
cum aliqiiid supra naturam suam tractant, ut de 

20 philosophia, de re publica, similibus. Quod non eo 
dico, quia non illud quoque solutum habeat suos 
quosdam et forsitan difliciliores etiam pedes ; neque 
enim aut hiare semper vocalibus aut destitui tempori- 
bus volunt sermo atque epistola ; sed non fluunt nee 
cohaerent nee verba verbis trail unt, ut potius laxiora 

21 in his vincula quam nulla sint. Nonnunquam in 
causis quoque minoribus decet eadem simplicitas 
quae non nullis, sed aliis utitur numeris, dissimu- 
latque eos et tantum communit occultius. 

22 At ilia connexa series tres habet formas : incisa 
quae ko/x/jKxto, dicuntur, membra quae kwXcl, TrepioSov, 
quae est vel ambitus vel circumductum vel continu- 
atio vel conclusio. In omni porro compositione tria 
sunt genera necessaria : ordo, iunctura, numerus. 

1 in se numeros, Obrecht: innumeros, AG. 

1 See § 122; comma, colon, periofl, now applied to stops, 
originally referred to varying lengths of clauses or sentences. 

5'° 



BOOK IX. iv. 18-22 

dialect has such a sweetness of its own that it even 
seems to contain a certain rhythmical power hidden 
within itself. However I shall speak of the different 19 
ideals a little later : my immediate task is to teach 
the student elementary rules which are essential if 
correctness of structure is to he attained. 

There are then in the first place two kinds of 
style : the one is closely welded and woven together, 
while the other is of a looser texture such as is 
found in dialogues and letters, except when they 
deal with some suhject above their natural level, 
such as philosophy, politics or the like. In saying 20 
this, I do not mean to deny that even this looser 
texture has its own peculiar rhythms which are per- 
haps the most difficult of all to analyse. For 
dialogues and letters do not demand continual 
hiatus between vowels or absence of rhythm, but on 
the other hand they have not the flow or the com- 
pactness of other styles, nor does one word lead up 
so inexorably to another, the structural cohesion 
being loose rather than non-existent. Again in 21 
legal cases of minor importance a similar simplicity 
will be found to be most becoming, a simplicity, 
that is to say, that does not dispense with rhythm 
altogether, but uses rhythms of a different kind, 
conceals them and employs a certain secrecy in their 
construction. 

But the more closely welded style is composed of 22 
three elements : the comma, or as we call it incision, 
the colon, or in Latin membrum, and the period, 1 
which Roman writers call ambitus, circumduction, cou- 
tinuatio or conclusio. Further, in all artistic structure 
there are three necessary qualities, order, connexion 
and rhythm. 

5'7 



QUINTILIAN 

23 Primum igitur de ordine. Eius observatio in 
verbis est singulis et contextis. Singula sunt, quae 
d(rvr8tTa diximus. In his cavendum, ne decrescat 
oratio, et fortiori subiungatur aliquid infirmius, ut 
saerilego fur, aut latroni petulans. Augeri enim 
debent sententiae et insurgere, ut optime Cicero, 
Tu, inquit, istis faucibus, istis lateribus, ista gladiatoria 
totius corporis Jirmitate. Aliud enim maius alii super- 
venit. At si coepisset a toto corpore, non bene ad 
latera faucesque descenderet. Est et alius naturalis 
ordo, ut viros ac feminas, diem ac nociem, ortum et 

24 occasum dicas potius quam retrorsum. Quaedam 
ordine permutato fiunt supervacua, ut fratres gemini ; 
nam si gemini praecesserint, fralres addere non est 
necesse. Ilia nimia quorundam fuit observatio, ut 
vocabula verbis, verba rursus adverbiis, nomina 
appositis et pronominibus essent priora ; nam fit 

25 contra quoque frequenter non indecore. Nee non 
et illud nimiae superstitionis, uti quaeque sint 



1 rhil. ii. xxv. 63. 
5i8 



BOOK IX. iv. 23-25 

Of these we will first discuss order, which must be 23 
considered in connexion with words taken both 
singly and in conjunction. Words taken singly are 
known as asyndeta (unconnected). In dealing with 
them we must take care that our style does not 
diminish in force through the fact that a weaker 
word is made to follow a stronger : as, for example, 
if after calling a man a despoiler of temples we were 
to speak of him as a thief, or after styling him a 
highwayman were to dub him an insolent fellow. 
For sentences should rise and grow in force : of this 
an excellent example is provided by Cicero, 1 where 
he says, " You, with that throat, those lungs, that 
strength, that would do credit to a prizefighter, in 
every limb of your body " ; for there each phrase is 
followed by one stronger than the last, whereas, if 
he had begun by referring to his whole body, he 
could scarcely have gone on to speak of his lungs 
and throat without an anticlimax. There is also 
another species of order which may be entitled 
natural, as for example when we speak of " men and 
women," "day and night," "rising and setting," in 
preference to the reverse order. In some cases a 24 
change in the order will make a word superfluous : 
for example, we write fratres gemini rather than 
gemini fratres (twin-brothers), since if gemini came 
first, there would be no necessity to add fratres. The 
rule which some have sought to enforce that nouns 
should precede verbs, and verbs adverbs, while 
epithets and pronouns should follow their sub- 
stantives, is a mere extravagance, since the reverse 
order is often adopted with excellent effect. Another 25 
piece of extravagant pedantry is to insist that the 
first place should always be occupied by what is first 

519 



QUINTILIAN 

tempore, ea facere etiam ordine priora, non quin fre- 
quenter sit hoc melius, sed quia interim plus valent 
ante gesta, ideoque levioribus superponenda sunt. 

26 Verbo sensum cludere multo, si compositio patiatur, 
optimum est ; in verbis enim sermonis vis est. Si 
id asperum erit, cedet haec ratio numeris, ut fit apud 
summos Graecos Latinosque oratores frequentissime. 
Sine dubio erit omne, quod non cludet, hyperbaton, 
sed x ipsum hoc inter tropos vel figuras, quae sunt 

27 virtutes, receptum est. Non enim ad pedes verba 
dimensa sunt, ideoque ex loco transferuntur in locum, 
ut iungantur, quo congruunt maxime, sicut in struc- 
tura saxorum rudium etiam ipsa enormitas invenit, 
cui applicari et in quo possit insistere. Felicissimus 
tamen sermo est, cui et rectus ordo et apta iunctura 
et cum his numerus opportune cadens contigit. 

28 Quaedam vero transgressiones et longae sunt nimis, 
ut superioribus diximus libris, et interim etiam com- 
positione vitiosae, quae in hoc ipsum petuntur, ut 
exultent atque lasciviant, quales illae Maecenatis, 
Sole et aurora rubent plurima. Liter se 2 sacra movit 
aqua fraxinos. Ke exequias qu'ulem units inter miserri- 
mos viderem meas. Quod inter haec pessimum est, 

1 sed, Spalding : et, A : est, G. 

2 se added by Halm. 

1 See vin. vi. 62 sqq. 

* Only, apparently, in vm. ii. 14. 

8 "They grow red in the sunlight and the fullness of 
dawn." The meaning is uncertain, plur ima might be neut. 
noin. plural. 

4 "The sacred stream ran through the ash-grove." 

520 



book ix. iv. 25 28 

in order of time : such an order is no doubt often the 
best, but merely because previous events are often the 
most important and should consequently be placed 
before matters of more trivial import. If the demands 26 
of artistic structure permit, it is far best to end the 
sentence with a verb : for it is in verbs that the 
real strength of language resides. But if it results 
in harshness of sound, this principle must give way 
before the demands of rhythm, as is frequently the 
case in the best authors of Rome and Greece. Of 
course, in every case where a verb does not end the 
sentence, we shall have an hyperbalon, 1 but hyperbaton 
is an admitted trope or figure, and therefore is to be 
regarded as an adornment. For words are not cut 27 
to suit metrical feet, and are therefore transferred 
from place to place to form the most suitable combi- 
nations, just as in the case of unhewn stones their 
very irregularity is the means of suggesting what 
other stones they will best fit and what will supply 
them with the surest resting-place. On the other 
hand, the happiest effects of language are produced 
when it is found possible to employ the natural 
order, apt connexion and appropriate rhythm. Some 28 
transpositions are too long, as I have pointed out in 
previous books, 2 while at times they involve faulty 
structure, although some writers actually aim at this 
vicious type of transposition, in order to create an 
appearance of freedom and license, as in the follow- 
ing phrases from Maecenas, sole et aurora rubent 
plurima ; 3 inter se sacra movit aqua Jraxinos; 4 ne exequias 
(juidem units inter miserrimos viderem meas. 5 The worst 
feature in these examples, is that he plays pranks 

* " May I never, alone amidst the most miserable of men, 
behold my own funeral rites." 

5-'i . 



QUINTILIAN 

29 quia in re tristi ludit compositio. Saepe tamen est 
vehemens aliquis sensus in verbo, quod si in media 
parte sententiae latet, transire intentionem et obscu- 
rari circumiacentibus solet, in clausula positum 
adsignatur auditori et infigitur, quale illud est Cice- 
ronis, Ut tibi necesse esset in conspectu populi Romani 

30 vomere postridie. Transfer hoc ultimum : minus 
valebit. Nam totius ductus hie est quasi mucro, ut 
per se foeda vomendi necessitas iam nihil ultra 
exspectantibus hanc quoque adiiceret deformitatem, 

31 ut cibus teneri non posset postridie. Solebat Afer 
Domitius traiicere in clausulas verba tantum asper- 
andae compositionis gratia et maxime in prooemiis., 
ut pro Cloatilla, Gratias agam continuo, et pro Laelia, 
Eis utrisque apud te iudicem periclitaiur Laelia. Adeo 
refugit teneram delicatamque modulandi voluptatem, 
ut currentibus per se numeris quod eos inhiberet 

32 obiiceret. Amphiboliam quoque fieri vitiosa locatione 
verborum, nemo est qui nesciat. Haec arbitror, ut 



1 Phil. II. xxv. 63. " That you were compelled to vomit 
the next day in the presence of the Roman people." 

* " I will thank you at once." 

3 "Owing to both of these circumstances Laelia runs the 
risk of being condemned with you for judge." 

522 



BOOK IX. iv. 28-32 

with his structure while dealing with a sad theme. 
It is, however, not infrequently possible to give 29 
special significance to a word by placing it at the 
close of the sentence and thereby stamping and 
impressing it on the mind of the hearer, whereas if 
it were placed in the middle of the sentence, it 
would remain unnoticed, escape the attention and be 
obscured by its surroundings ; the following passage 
from Cicero will illustrate what I mean : ut tibi 
necesse esset in conspectu populi Romani tomere postri- 
die. 1 Transfer the last word to some other position 30 
and the effect will be decreased. For the whole 
passage is made to converge to a point at the end ; 
the disgraceful circumstance of his being forced to 
vomit has been mentioned and the audience expect 
nothing more, when the orator adds yet a further 
revolting feature of the case, namely that he was 
still unable to retain his food the day after the 
carouse. Domitius Afer was in the habit of trans- 31 
ferring words at the cadence of the sentence solely 
for the purpose of harshening his rhythm, more 
especially in his exordia, as, for example, in his 
defence of Cloatilla, where he says gratias agam 
continuo? and in his defence of Laelia, where he 
says, eis utrisque apud te iudicem pericUtatur Laelia. 3 
To such an extent did he avoid the voluptuous 
effect of soft and delicate rhythm, that he actually 
interposed obstacles to break the natural harmonies 
of his language. There is a further drawback result- 32 
ing from the faulty arrangement of words, with 
which we are all familiar, namely, that it leads to 
ambiguity. The above remarks will, I think, suffice 
as a- brief summary of the points which require 
notice in connexion with order. If the order is 

523 



QUINTILIAN 

in brevi, de online fuisse dicenda ; qui si vitiosus est, 
licet et vineta * sit et apte cadens oratio, tamen merito 
incomposita dicatur. 

Iunctura sequitur. Est in verbis, incisis, membris, 
periodis ; omnia namque ista et virtutes et vitia in 

33 complexu habent. Atque, ut ordinem sequar, 
j)rimum sunt quae imperitis quoque ad reprehen- 
sionem notabilia videntur, id est, quae, commissis 
inter se verbis duobus, ex ultima prioris ac prima 
sequentis syllaba deforme aliquod nomen efficiunt. 
Turn vocalium concursus ; quod cum accidit, hiat et 
intersistit et quasi laborat oratio. Pessime longae, 
quae easdem inter se litteras committunt, sonabunt. 
Piaecipuus tamen erit hiatus earum, quae cavo aut 

34 patulo maxime ore efferuntur. E planior littera est, 
i angustior est, ideoque obscurius in his vitium. 
Minus peccabit, qui longis breves subiiciet, et adhuc, 
qui praeponet longae brevem. Minima est in duabus 
brevibus ofFensio. Atque cum aliae subiunguntur 
aliis, proinde asperiores aut leniores 2 erunt prout 

35 oris habitu simili aut diverso pronuntiabuntur. Non 
tamen id ut crimen ingens expavescendum est, ac 
nescio negligentia in hoc an sollicitudo sit peior. 

1 vineta sit et, Obr<cht : vincat ac sit, JO. 

2 ant leniores added by Christ. 

1 See § 22. a rp. vin. iii. 43. s i.e. A, 0, U. 

5^4 



BOOK IX. iv. 32-35 

faulty, our language will be deservedly liable to the 
charge of lacking artistic construction, however 
compact and rhythmical it may be. 

The next point for consideration is connexion, 
that is to say connexion between words, commata, 
cola and periods. 1 For all these have merits and 
defects which turn on the way in which they are 
linked together. I will follow the natural order 33 
and will begin by pointing out that there are some 
blemishes so obvious that even the uneducated 
regard them as worthy of censure ; I refer to occa- 
sions when two consecutive words form some 
unseemly expression by the coalescence of the 
last svllable of the first word and the first of the 
second. 2 Again, there are occasions when vowels 
clash. When this happens, the language is broken 
by gaps and interstices and seems to labour. The 
most unpleasing effects of sound will be produced 
by the juxtaposition of the same long vowels, while 
the worst hiatus occurs between vowels which are 
pronounced hollow- or open-mouthed. 3 E has a 34 
flitter, i a narrower sound, and consequently such 
blemishes are less noticeable where they are con- 
cerned. It is a less serious fault to place short 
vowels after long, a statement which applies even 
more strongly to placing short vowels before long. 
But the least unsatisfactory combination is that of 
two short vowels. And in all conjunctions of vowels, 
the resulting sound will be proportionately soft or 
harsh according as they resemble or differ from each 
other in the method of utterance. On the other 35 
hand, hiatus is not to be regarded as so very terrible 
a crime : in fact I do not know which is the worse 
fault in this connexion, carelessness or a pedantic 

525 



QUINTILIAN 

Inhibeat enim necesse est hie metus impetum dicendi 
et a potioribus avertat. Quare ut negligentiae 
passim 1 hoc pati, ita humilitatis ubique perhorre- 
scere, nimiosque non iminerito in hac cura putant 
omnes Isocraten secutos praecipueque Theopompum. 

36 At Demosthenes et Cicero modice respexerunt ad 
hanc partem. Nam et coeuntes litterae, quae 
<n'vaAcn<£cu dicuntur, etiam leviorem faciunt oratio- 
nem, quam si omnia verba suo fine cludantur, et 
nonnunquam hiulca etiam decent faciuntque ampliora 
quaedam : ut Pulchra oratione ista iacta te 2 cum 
longae per se et velut opimae syllabae aliquid etiam 
medii temporis inter vocales, quasi intersistatur, 

37 adsumunt. Qua de re utar Ciceronis potissimum 
verbis. Habel, inquit, Me tanquam hiatus et concursus 
vocalium molle quiddam, et quod indicet non ingratam 
negligenliam de re honrinis magis quam de verbis laborantis. 

Ceterum consonantes quoque, earumque praecipue 
quae sunt asperiores, in commissura verborum 
rixantur, ut si * ultima cum x proxima confligat, 
quarum tristior etiam, si binae collidantur, stridor 

38 est, ut Ars studiorum. Quae fuit causa et Servio, ut 

1 passim, Christ : pars, MSS. 

2 oratione ista iacta te, Halm ■ oratione acta oratio iactate, 
G : oratione acta oratio actate, A. 



1 " Boast yourself of that fine speech of yours." 

2 Or. xxiii. 77. 



526 



BOOK IX. iv. 35-38 

solicitude for correctness. For anxiety on this score 
is bound to check the flow of our language and to 
divert us from more important considerations. 
Therefore while it is a sign of carelessness to admit 
hiatus here, there and everywhere, it is a symptom 
of grovelling timidity to be continually in terror of 
it, and there is good reason for the view that all the 
followers of Isocrates and more especially Theopompus 
pay accessive attention to the avoidance of this 
defect. On the other hand Demosthenes and Cicero 36 
show a sense of proportion in the way in which they 
face the problem. For the coalescence of two letters, 
known as awa\oi<$>r), may make our language run 
more smoothly than if every word closed with its 
own vowel, while sometimes hiatus may even prove 
becoming and create an impression of grandeur, as 
in the following case, pulchra oratione ista iacta te. 1 
For syllables which are naturally long and rich in 
sound gain something from the time which inter- 
venes between two vowels, as though there were a 
perceptible pause. I cannot do better than quote 37 
the words of Cicero 2 on this subject. Hiatus, he 
says, and the meeting of voivels produce a certain 
softness of effect, such as to suggest a not unpleasing 
carelessness on the part of the orator, as though he were 
more anxious aboid his matter than his words. 

But consonants also are liable to conflict at the 
juncture of words, more especially those letters 
which are comparatively harsh in sound ; as for 
instance when the final s of one word clashes with 
x at the opening of the next. Still more unpleasing 
is the hissing sound produced by the collision between 
a pair of these consonants, as in the phrase ars 
studiorum. This was the reason why Servius, as he 38 

5 2 7 



QUINT1LIAN 

dixit, 1 subtrabendae s litterae, quotiens ultima esset 
aliaque consonante suseiperetur ; quod reprebendit 
Luranius, Messala defendit. Nam neque Lucilium 
putat uti eadem ultima, cum dicit Aeserninus fuit et 
digitus locoque, et Cicero in Oratore plures antiquorum 

39 traditsic locutos. Inde belligerare, pomcridiem, et ilia 
Censorii Catonis Dice hanc, aeque in littera in e 
mollita. Quae in veteribus libris reperta mutare 
imperiti solent, et dum librariorum insectari volunt 

40 inscientiam, suam confitentur. Atqui eadem ilia 
littera, quotiens ultima est et vocalem verbi sequentis 
ita contingit, ut in earn transire possit, etiamsi scri- 
bitur, tamen parum exprimitur, ut Mtdlum Me et 
Quantum erat, adeo ut paene cuiusdam novae litterae 
sonum reddat. Neque enim eximitur, sed obscuratur 
et tantum in bocaliqua inter duas vocales velut nota 

41 est, ne ipsae coeant. Videndum etiam, ne syllabae 
verbi prioris ultimae etprimae sequentis sint eaedem ; 
quod 2 ne quis piaecipi miretur, Ciceroni in epistolis 

1 dixit, Lachmann : dixi, MSS. 

2 syllabae . . . quod, Halm : syllaba verba prioris ultima 
et prima sequentes ide (id -4-, G), nee quod, AG. 



1 From the Fourth Book of the Satires. Servius and 
Luranius canuot be identified. . 

2 Or. xlviii. 161. 

3 i.e. for belligerares, postmeridiem and diem hanc. 

* "A very probable account is that -in was reduced 
through the lips not being closed to pronounce it. If, instead 
of closing the lips all that were done were to drop the uvula, 

528 



BOOK IX. jv. 3S-41 

himself has observed, dropped the final s, whenever 
the next word began with a consonant, a practice 
for which Luranius takes him to task, while Messala 
defends him. For he thinks that Lucilius 1 did not 
pronounce the final s in phrases such as, Aescrninus 
Juit and dignus locoque, while Cicero in his Orator a 
records that this was the practice with many of the 
ancients. Hence we get forms such as belligcrare and 39 
pomeridiem, to which the diee hanc 3 of Cato the Censor, 
where the final m is softened into an e, presents an 
analogy. Unlearned readers are apt to alter such 
forms when they come across them in old books, and 
in their desire to decry the ignorance of the scribes 
convict themselves of the same fault. On the other 40 
hand, whenever this same letter m comes at the end 
of a word and is brought into contact with the open- 
ing vowel of the next word in such a manner as to 
render coalescence possible, it is, although written, 
so faintly pronounced (e.g. in phrases such as nullum 
ille and quantum crat) that it may almost be regarded 
as producing the sound of a new letter. 4 For it is not 
elided, but merely obscured, and may be considered 
as a symbol occurring between two vowels simply 
to prevent their coalescence. Care must also be 41 
taken that the last syllables of one word are not 
identical with the opening syllables of the next. In 
case any of my readers should wonder that I think 
it worth while to lay down such a rule, I may point 
out that Cicero makes such a slip in his Letters, in 

a nasal sound would be given to the following initial vowel, 
so that fincvi onerat would be pronounced jimwonerat with a 
nasalized 0." Lindsay. Lot. Lmnju. p. 62. It is this sound 
which Quintilian describes as almost the sound of a new 
letter. 

5 2 9 



QUINTILIAN 

excidit, Res mihi invisae 1 visae sunt, Brute, et in 
carmine, 

fortunatam natam me Consule Rornam. 

42 Etiam monosyllaba, si plura sunt, male continu- 
abuntur, quia necesse est compositio multis clausulis 
concisa subsultet. Ideoque etiam brevium verborum 
ac nominum vitanda continuatio et ex diverso quoque 
longorum ; adfert enim quandam dicendi tarditatem. 
Ilia quoque vitia sunt eiusdem loci, si cadentia 
similiter et similiter desinentia et eodem modo decli- 

43 nata multa iunguntur. Ne verba quidem verbis aut 
nomina nominibus similiaque his continuari decet, 
cum virtutes etiam ipsae taedium pariant nisi gratia 
varietatis adiutae. 

44 Membrorum incisorumque iunctura non ea modo 
est observanda quae verborum, quanquam et in his 
extrema ac prima coeunt, sed plurimum refert com- 
positionis, quae quibus anteponas. Nam et vomens 
frustis esculentis grenrium suum et totum tribunal im- 
plevit * * * 2 et contra (nam frequentius utar iisdem 
diversarum quoque rerum exemplis, quo sint 
magis familiaria) Saxa atque soliludines voci respondent, 

1 invisae added by Begius. 

8 Something has obviously been lost. Halm suagests "recte 
se habet, cum mains sit qnod tribunal implevit," see transl. 



1 The letter is lost. " The situation seemed hateful to 
me, Brutus." 

2 See xi. i. 24. "0 happy Rome, born in my consulship." 
8 Phil. II. xxv. 63. "By his vomiting he filled his lap and 

the whole judgement seat with fragments of undigested food." 



BOOK IX. iv. 41-44 

the sentence res inihi invisae visae sunt, Brule, 1 and 
in the following line of verse, 

fortunatam natam me consule Romam.* 

Again it is a blemish to have too many mono- 42 
syllables in succession, since the inevitable result is 
that, owing to the frequency of the pauses, the 
rhythm degenerates into a series of jerks. For the 
same reason we must avoid placing a number of 
short verbs and nouns in succession ; the converse 
also is true as regards long syllables, since their 
accumulation makes our rhythm drag. It is a fault 
of the same class to end a number of successive 
sentences with similar cadences, terminations and 
inflexions. It is likewise inartistic to accumulate 43 
long series of verbs, nouns or other parts of speech, 
since even merits produce tedium unless they have 
the saving grace of variety. 

The principles by which the connexion of words 44 
is guided are not sufficient in the case of commata and 
cola, though even here beginnings and ends should 
harmonise ; but our structural effect will very largely 
depend on the relative order of these two types of 
clause. For in the following instance 3 vomens frustis 
esculentis gremium suum el totum tribunal implevit [the 
order is satisfactory, since the fact of his having filled 
the whole judgement seat with his vomiting is the 
more important of the two]. On the other hand 
(for I shall repeat the same illustrations for different 
purposes to make them more familiar) in the following 
passage, 4 saxa atque solitudines voci respondent, bestiae 

* pro Arch. viii. 19. "Rocks and solitude answer to the 
human voice and wild beasts are often pacified and brought 
to a halt by the influence of music." 

531 



QUINTILIAN 

bestiae saepe immanes cantu Jiectuntur atque consistunt 
magis insurgebat, si verteretur; nam plus est saxa 
quam bestias commoveri, vicit tamen compositionis 
decor. Sed transeamus ad numeros. 

45 Omnis structura ac dimensio et copulatio vocum 
constat aut numeris (numeros pvOfiovs accipi volo) aut 
/AcVpois id est dimensione quadam. Quod, etiamsi 
constat utrumque pedibus, habet tamen non simpli- 

46 cem diflerentiam. Nam primum l numeri spatio 
temporum constant, metra etiam ordine, ideoque 
alterum esse quantitatis videtur, alterum qualitatis. 

47 'Pu#//.o5 est aut par ut dactylicus, una enim syllaba 
longa par est duabus 2 brevibus (est quidem vis eadem 
et aliis pedibus, sed nomen illud tenet ; longam esse 
duorum temporum, brevem unius, etiam pueri sciunt) 
aut sescuplex ut paeonicus : is est ex longa et tribus 
brevibus, aut ex tribus brevibus 3 et longa, vel alio quo- 
quo modo ut tempora tria ad duo relata sescuplum 
faciant ; aut duplex, ut iambus (nam est ex brevi et 

48 longa) quique est ei contrarius. Sunt hi et metrici 
pedes, sed hoc interest, quod rhythmo indifferens, 
dactylicusne ille priores habeat breves an sequentes ; 

1 primum, Christ: plurimum, AG. 

2 longa and duabus, added by Halm folloioing Rollin. 

3 aut ex tribus brevibus, added by Halm. 



1 For purely rhythmical purposes the term dactyl is 
arbitrarily used by the rhetoricians to include anapaests as 
well. See below. 



53 2 



BOOK IX. iv. 44-48 

saepe immanes cantu jiectuntur alque consistttnt, the 
gradation would be improved, if it were reversed : 
for it is a greater miracle to move rocks than wild 
beasts : but the claims of structural grace have 
carried the day. However, let us pass to the 
consideration of rhythm. 

All combination, arrangement and connexion of 45 
words involves either rhythms (which we call ntimeti), 
or metres, that is, a certain measure. Now though 
both rhythm and metre consist of feet, they differ in 
more than one respect. For in the first place rhythm 46 
consists of certain lengths of time, while metre is 
determined by the order in which these lengths are 
arranged. Consequently the one seems to be con- 
cerned with quantity and the other with quality. 
Rhvthm may depend on equal balance, as in the case 47 
of dactylic rhvthm, where one long syllable balances 
two short, (there are it is true other feet of which 
this statement is equally true, but the title of 
dactylic has been currently applied to all, 1 while even 
bovs are well aware that a long syllable is equivalent 
to two beats and a short to one) or it may consist of 
feet in which one portion is half as long again as the 
other, as is the case with paeanic rhythm (a paean 
being comj>osed of one long followed by three shorts, 
three shorts followed by one long or with any other 
arrangement preserving the proportion of three beats 
to two) or finally one part of the foot may be twice 
the length of the other, as in the case of the iambus, 
which is composed of a short followed by a long, or 
of the choreus consisting of a long followed by a 
short. These feet are also employed by metre, but 48 
with this difference, that in rhvthm it does not matter 
whether the two shorts of the dactyl precede or 

533 



QU1NTILIAN 

tempus enim solum metitur, ut a sublatione ad 
positionem idem spatii sit. Proinde alia dimensio 
est versuum ; pro dactylico poni non poterit ana- 
paestus aut spondeus, nee paean eadem ratione 

49 brevibus incipiet ac desinet. Neque solum alium 
pro alio pedem metrorum ratio non recipit, sed ne 
dactylum quidem aut forte spondeum alteram pro 
altero. Itaque si quinque continuos dactylos, ut 
sunt in illo 

Panditur interea domus omnipolentis Olympi 

50 confundas, solveris versum. Sunt et ilia discrimina, 
quod rhythmis libera spatia, metris finita sunt, et his 
eertae clausulae, illi, quomodo coeperant, currant 
usque ad /xcTafioXijv, id est transitum ad aliud rhythmi 
genus, et quod metrum in verbis modo, rhythmus 

51 etiam in corporis motu est. Inania quoque tempora 
rhythmi facilius accipient, quanquam haec et in 
metris accidunt. Maior tamen illic licentia est, ubi 
tempora etiam [animo] l metiuntur et pedum et 
digitorum ictu, et intervalla signant quibusdam notis 
atque aestimant, quot breves illud spatium habeat ; 
inde TCTpao-^/xoi, irevrdcrrjixoi deinceps longiores fiunt 
percussiones ; nam cr-q^Zov tempus est unum. 

52 In compositione orationis certior et magis omni- 

1 Bracketed by Christ. 

1 Aen. x. 1. "Meanwhile Olympus' halls omnipotent /Are 
wide unbarred." 

2 i. e. in the musical sense. 
8 i. e. in music. 

534 



BOOK IX. iv. 48-52 

follow the long ; for rhythm merely takes into 
account the measurement of the time, that is to say, 
it insists on the time taken from its rise to its fall 
being the same. The measure of verse on the other 
hand is quite different ; the anapaest (t>o— ) or spondee 
( — ) cannot be substituted at will for the dactyl, nor 
is it a matter of indifference whether the paean 
begins or ends with short syllables. Further, the 49 
laws of metre not merely refuse the substitution of 
one foot for another, but will not even admit the 
arbitrary substitution of any dactyl or spondee for any 
other dactyl or spondee. For example, in the line 

Panditur interea domus ovviipotentis Olympi l 

the alteration of the order of the dactyls would 
destroy the verse. There are also the following 50 
differences, that rhythm has unlimited space over 
which it may range, whereas the spaces of metre are 
confined, and that, whereas metre has certain definite 
cadences, rhythm may run on as it commenced until 
it reaches the point of /jLeTafioXr}, or transition to 
another type of rhythm : further, metre is concerned 
with words alone, while rhythm extends also to the 
motion of the body. Again rhythm more readily 51 
admits of rests • although they are found in metre as 
well. Greater license is, however, admitted when 
the time is measured by the beat of the feet or 
fingers, 3 and the intervals are distinguished by 
certain symbols indicating the number of shorts 
contained within a given space : hence we speak of 
four or five time (reTpao-^/ioi or irevTdcr-qfjLoi) and others 
longer still, the Greek o^/ieiov indicating a single beat. 
In prose the rhythm should be more definite and 52 

535 



QUINTILIAN 

bus aperta servari debet dimensio. Est igitur in 
pedibus et metricis quidem pedibus, qui 1 adeo re- 
periuntur in oratione, ut in ea frequenter non 
sentientibus nobis omnium generum excidant versus ; 
et contra nihil non, quod est prosa scriptum, redigi 
possit in quaedam versiculorum genera vel in membra, 

53 sicut 2 in molestos incidimus grammaticos, quorum 
fuerunt, qui velut 3 lyricorum quorundam carmina 
in varias mensuras coegerunt. At Cicero frequen- 
tissime dicit totum hoc constare numeris, ideoque 
reprehenditur a quibusdam, tanquam orationem ad 

54 rhythmos adliget. Nam sunt numeri rhythmi, ut et 
ipse eonstituit, et secuti eum Vergilius, cum dicit 

Numeros mcmini, si verba tenet em, 



et Horatius 



Numerisque fertur 
Lege solulis. 



55 Invadunt ergo banc inter ceteras vocem : Kecpic entvi 
Demoslhenis fulmina tantopere vihratura dicit, nisi 
numeris contorla ferrentur. In quo si hoc sentit 
rhythms contorta, dissentio. Nam rhythmi, ut dixi, 
neque finem habent certum nee ullam in contextu 

1 qui added by Halm. 
* sicut, Spalding: sint at (ad, G), AG. 
3 quorum an early correction o/"quam, MSS. velut added by 
Burmann. 



1 See Or. xx. 67, sqq. 

* Eel. ix. 45. "I have the numbers, could I but find the 
words." In this case the nearest translation of numeri would 
be "tune." But, strictly speaking, it refers to the rhythm 
of the tune. 



536 



BOOK IX. iv. 52-55 

obvious to all. Consequently, it depends on feet, 
by which I mean metrical feet, which occur in 
oratory to such an extent that we often let slip 
verses of every kind without being conscious of the 
fact, while everything written in prose can be shown 
by analysis to consist of short lines of verse of certain 
kinds or sections of the same. For example, I have 53 
come across tiresome grammarians who attempted to 
force prose into definite metres, as though it were a 
species of lyric poetry. Cicero. 1 indeed, frequently 
asserts that the whole art of prose-structure consists 
in rhythm and is consequently censured by some 
critics on the ground that he would fetter our 
style by the laws of rhythm. For these numeri, 54 
as he himself expressly asserts, are identical with 
rhythm, and he is followed in this by Virgil, who 
writes, 

Numeros memini, si vet ha teuerem 2 

and Horace, who says, 

Xumeriscjue fertur 
Lege so/utis. 3 

Among others they attack Cicero's 4 statement that 55 
the thunderbolts of Demosthenes would not have such 
force but for the rhythm with which they are whirled and 
sped upon their way. If by rhythmis contorta he really 
means what his critics assert, I do not agree with 
him. For rhythms have, as I have said, no fixed 
limit or variety of structure, but run on with the 

8 O'tex. iv. ii. 11. "And sweeps along in numbers free 
from laws.' 
• Or. lxx. 234. 

537 



QUINTILIAN 

varietatem, sed qua coeperunt sublatione ac posi- 
tione, ad finem usque decurrunt ; oratio non descendet 

56 ad crepitum digitorum et pedum. Quod J Cicero 
optime videt ac testatur frequenter se quod nu- 
merosum sit quaerere, ut magis non appvd/xov, quod 
esset inscitum atque agreste, quam tvpv6/j.ov, quod 
poeticum est, esse compositionem velit; sicut etiam 
quos palaestritas esse nolumus, tamen esse nolumus 

57 eos qui dicuntur ct7raA.aio-Toi. Verum ea quae efficitur 
e pedibus apta 2 conclusio nomen aliquod desiderat. 
Quid sit igitur potius quam numerus, sed oratorius 
numerus, ut enthymema rhetoricus syllogismus? 
Ego certe, ne in calumniam cadam, qua ne M. quidem 
Tullius earuit, posco hoc mini, ut, cum de composi- 
tions dixero numero 3 et ubicunque iam dixi,oratorium 
dicere intelligar. 

58 Collocatio autem verba iam probata et electa et 
velut adsignata sibi debet connectere ; nam vel dure 
inter se commissa potiora sunt inutilibus. Tamen 
et eligere quaedam, dum ex iis quae idem significent 
atque idem valeant, permiserim, et adiicere dum 
non otiosa, et detrahere dum non necessaria, et 
figuris mutare casus atque numeros, quorum varietas 

1 et pedum. Quod, Christ: et quae, AG. 
- apta, Spaldinq : aqua, AG. 

3 de compositionis . . numero, Halm : pro composito 
numero, MSS. (numerum, A.). 

1 See v. xiv. 24. 
538 



BOOK IX. iv. 55-58 

same rise and fall till they reach their end, and the 
style of oratory will not stoop to be measured by 
the beat of the foot or the fingers. This fact is 56 
clearly understood by Cicero, who frequently shows 
that the sense in which he desires that prose should 
be rhythmical is rather that it should not lack rhythm, 
a deficiency which would stamp the author as a man 
of no taste or refinement, than that it should be tied 
by definite rhythmical laws, like poetry ; just as, 
although we may not wish certain persons to be pro- 
fessional gymnasts, we still do not wish them to be 
absolutely ignorant of the art of gymnastics. But the 57 
rounding of the period to an appropriate close which 
is produced by the combination of feet requires some 
name ; and what name is there more suitable than 
rhythm, that is to say, the rhythm of oratory, just as 
the enthymeme 1 is the syllogism of oratory? For my 
own part, to avoid incurring the calumny, from which 
even Cicero was not free, I ask my reader, whenever I 
speak of the rhythm of artistic structure (as I have 
done on every occasion), to understand that I refer 
to the rhythm of oratory, not of verse. 

It is the task of collocation to link together the 53 
words which have been selected, approved and handed 
over to its custody. For even harsh connexions are 
better than those which are absolutely valueless. 
None the less I should allow the orator to select 
certain words for their euphony, provided always that 
their force and meaning are the same as those of 
the alternative words. He may also be permitted 
to add words, provided they are not superfluous, and 
to omit them, provided they are not essential to the 
sense, while he may employ figures to alter case and 
number, since such variety is attractive in itself, 

539 



QUINTILIAN 

frequenter gratia compositionis adscita etiam suo 

59 nomine solet esse iucunda. Etiam ubi aliud ratio, 
aliud consuetudo poseet, utrum volet, sumat com- 
positio, vitavisse vel vitasse, deprehendere vel de- 
prendere. Coitus etiam syllabarum non negabo, et 
quidquid sententiis aut elocutioni non nocebit. 

60 Praecipuum tamen in boc opus est, scire quod quo- 
que loco verborum maxiine quadret. Atque is 
optime componet, qui boc non 1 solum componendi 
gratia facit. 

Ratio vero pedum in oratione est multo quam in 
versu difficilior : primum quod versus paucis con- 
tinetur, oratio longiores habet saepe circuitus ; deinde 
quod versus semper similis sibi est et una ratione 
decurrit, orationis compositio, nisi varia est, et 
offendet similitudineetinadfectatione deprebenditur. 

61 Et in omni quidem corpore totoque (ut ita dixerim) 
tractu numerus insertus est ; neque enim loqui pos- 
sumus nisi syllabis brevibus ac longis, ex quibus 
pedes fiunt. Magis tamen et desideratur in clausulis 
et apparet, primum quia sensus omnis babet siuiin 
finem poscitque naturale intervallum, quo a sequentis 
initio dividatur, deinde quod aures continuam vocem 
secutae ductaeque velut prono decurrentis orationis 
flumine turn magis iudicant, cum ille impetus stetit 

1 nun added by llullin. 
540 



BOOK IX. iv. 58-61 

quite apart from the fact that it is frequently adopted 
lor the sake of the rhythm. Again if reason 59 
demand one form and usage another, the claims of 
rhythm will decide our choice between the two, 
e.g. between vilavisse and vitasse or between depre- 
hendere and deprendere. Further I do not object to 
the coalescence of syllables or anything that does no 
injury either to sense or style. The most important 60 
task, however, is to know what word is best fitted to 
any given place. And the most accomplished artist 
will be the man who does not arrange his words 
solely with a view to rhythmic effect. 

On the other hand the management of feet is far 
more difficult in prose than in verse, first because 
there are but few feet in a single line of verse which 
is far shorter than the lengthy periods of prose ; 
secondly because each line of verse is always uniform 
and its movement is determined by a single definite 
scheme, whereas the structure of prose must be 
varied if it is to avoid giving offence by its monotony 
and standing convicted of affectation. Rhythm 61 
pervades the whole body of prose through all its 
extent. For we cannot speak without employing the 
long and short syllables of which feet are composed. 
Its presence is, however, most necessary and most 
apparent at the conclusion of the period, firstly 
because every group of connected thoughts has its 
natural limit and demands a reasonable interval to 
divide it from the commencement of what is to 
follow : secondly because the ear, after following the 
unbroken flow of the voice and being carried along 
down the stream of oratory, finds its best opportunity 
of forming a sound judgement on what it has heard, 
when the rush of words comes to a halt and gives it 

541 



QUINTILIAN 

62 et intuendi tempus dedit. Non igitur durum sit 
neque abruptum, quo animi velut respirant ac re- 
ficiuntur. Haec est sedes orationis, hoc auditor 
exspectat, hie laus omnis declamantium. 1 Proxi- 
mam clausulis diligentiam postulant initia ; nam et 

63 in haec intentus auditor est. Sed eorum facilior 
ratio est, non enim cohaerent aliis nee' 2 praece- 
dentibus serviunt ; exordium sumunt cum clausula 
cum praecedentibus cohaereat : quamlibet sit enim 
composita ipsa, 3 gratiam perdet, si ad earn rupta via 
venerimus. Namque eo fit, ut, cum 4 Demosthenis 
severa videatur compositio, tois 6eoi<; evxofx-ai iracn 
kou 7rao-at? ; et ilia (quae ab uno, quod sciam, Bruto 
minus probatur, ceteris placet) xav fir/Trw /3dX\rj /1.770c 

64 To$evr), Ciceronem carpant in his, Familiaris coeperal 
esse balneatori, et non minus dura arckipiratae. Nam 
balnealori et arckipiratae idem finis est qui 7racri *al 
Trao-ats et qui p-nh\ ro^vy, sed priora sunt severiora. 

65 Est in eo quoque nonnihil, quod hie singulis verbis 
bini pedes continentur, quod etiam in carminibus 
est praemolle ; nee solum ubi quinae, ut in his, 
syllabae nectuntur, Foriissiina Tyndaridarum, sed 
etiam quaternae, cum versus cluditur Appennino et 

1 declamantium, Halm: declamat, AG. 
- nee, Regius : sed, MSS. 

3 The text gives Halm's suggested correction of AG sumunt 
cum ea quamlibet sit enim composita. 

• namque eo fit ut cum, Halm, Spalding: nam quo cum fit 
ut, AG. 

1 Da Cor. 1. "I pray to all gods and goddesses." 

* Phil. iii. 17. " Even though lie neither shoots at me nor 
strikes me as yet." 

3 Fro Cael. xxvi. 62. "He had begun to be intimate with 
the bathkeeper." 

542 



BOOK IX. iv. 61-65 

time for consideration. Consequently all harshness 62 
and abruptness must be avoided at this point, where 
the mind takes breath and recovers its energy. It 
is there that style has its citadel, it is this point that 
excites the eager expectation of the audience, it is 
from this that the declaimer wins all his glory. 
Next to the conclusion of the period, it is the 
beginning which claims the most care : for the 
audience have their attention fixed on this as well. 
But the opening of the sentence presents less diffi- 03 
culty, since it is independent and is not the slave of 
what has preceded. It merelv takes what has pre- 
ceded as a starting point, whereas the conclusion 
coheres with what has preceded, and however care- 
fully constructed, its elegance will be wasted, if the 
path which leads up to it be interrupted. Hence it 
is that although the rhythmical structure adopted by 
Demosthenes in the passage tois 6eoi<; tv^/wii iraa-i kou 
ircwrais * and again in another passage (approved by 
all, I think, except Brutus) nav fj.rpru> fid\\r) /xrjSe 
Tolevy 2 is regarded as severelv correct, Cicero is 64 
criticised for passages such as familiaris coeperat esse 
balneatori a and for the not less unpleasing archipiratae.* 
For although balneatori and archipiratae give exactly 
the same cadence as irao-i ko.\ 7racrats and fJ-rj&i to&i-t], 
the former are more severely correct. There is also 65 
something in the fact that in the passages from 
Cicero two feet are contained in one word, a 
practice which even in verse produces an unduly 
effeminate effect, and that not merely when the line 
ends with a five-syllable word as in fortissimo 
Tyndaridarum* but also in four-syllable endings such 



Verr. v. xxvii. 70. 
ffor. Sat. 1. i 100. 



543 



QUINTILIAN 

66 ar)namentis et Oreione. Quare hoc quoque vitandum 
est, ne plurium syllabarum verbis utamur in fine. 

Mediis quoque non ea modo cura sit, ut inter se 
cohaereant, sed ne pigra, ne longa sint, ne, quod 
nunc maxime vitium est, brevium contextu resultent 
ac sonum reddant paene puerilium crepitaculorum. 

67 Nam ut initia clausulaeque plurimum momenti habent, 
quotiens incipit sensus aut desinit, sic in mediis 
quoque sunt quidam conatus iique leviter insistunt. 
Currentium pes,etiamsi non moratur, tamen vestigium 
facit. Itaque non modo membra atque incisa bene 
incipere atque eludi deeet, sed etiam in iis, quae non 
dubie contexta sunt nee respiratione utuntur, illi 

68 velut occulti gradus sint. 1 Quis enim dubitet, unum 
sensum in hoc et unum spiritum esse ? Animadverti, 
indices, omnein nccvsaloris orationem in duas divisam 
esse partes ; tamen et duo prima verba et tria proxima 
et deinceps duo rursus ac tria suos quasi numeros 
habent et spiritum susti'nemus, sicut apud rhythmi- 

69 cos aestimantur. Hae particulae prout sunt graves, 
acres, lentae, celeres, remissae, exultantes, proinde 
id, quod ex ill is conficitur, aut severum aut luxuriosum 

TO aut quadratum aut solutum erit. Quaedam etiam 

1 velut, ff'dwti vel, MSS. : sint added b§ Ha ,::. 



1 Pers. i. 95. 

* Ov. Met. xi. 456. 
3 Aen. iii. 517. 

* pro Cluevt. i. 1. "I note, gentlemen, that the speech 
for the prosecution falls sharp!}' into two divisions." 

544 



BOOK IX. iv. 65-70 

as Appennino, 1 nrntumeniis - and Oreione. 3 Consequently 66 
we must also avoid ending our periods with words 
containing too many syllables. 

With regard to the middle portions of our periods 
we must take care not merely that they possess 
internal cohesion, but also that the rhythm is neither 
sluggish nor long, and above all that we do not fall 
into the now fashionable fault of placing a number 
of short syllables together with the result that we 
produce an effect not unlike the sound of a child's 
rattle. For while the beginnings and conclusions of 67 
periods, where the sense begins or ends, are the most 
important, it is none the less the fact that the middle 
portion may involve some special efforts which 
necessitate slight pauses. Remember that the feet 
of a runner, even though they do not linger where 
they fall, still leave a footprint. Consequently not 
only must commaia and cola begin and end becom- 
ingly, but even in parts which are absolutely 
continuous without a breathing space, there must be 
such almost imperceptible pauses. Who, for example, 68 
can doubt that there is but one thought in the follow- 
ing passage and that it should be pronounced without 
a halt for breath ? Animadverii, iudices, omnem accusa- 
loris oratiuntm in duas divisam esse paries.* Still the 
groups formed by the first two words, the next three, 
and then again by the next two and three, have each 
their own special rhythms and cause a slight check 
in our breathing : at least such is the opinion of 
specialists in rhythm. And just in proportion as 69 
these small segments of the period are grave or 
vigorous, slow or rapid, languid or the reverse, so 
will the periods which they go to form be severe or 
luxuriant, compact or loose. Again, the conclusions 70 

545 
vol.. in. T 



QUINTILIAN 

clausulae sunt claudae atque pendentes, si relin- 
quantur, sed sequentibus suscipi ac sustineri solent, 
eoque facto vitium, quod erat in fine, continuatione 
emendatur. 1 Non vult populus Romanus obsoletis 
criminibus accusari Verrem durum, si desinas ; sed 
cum sit 2 continuatuin iis quae sequuntur, quanquam 
natura ipsa divisa sunt, Nova poslulat, inaudita de- 
ll siderat, salvus est cursus. Ut adeas, tanlum dabis 
male cluderet, nam et trimetri versus pars ultima 
est ; excipit Ut cibum vestilumque introferre liceat, 
tantum ; praeceps adhuc firmatur ac sustinetur ultimo 
Nemo recusabat. 

72 Versum in oratione fieri multo foedissimum est 
totum, sed etiam in parte deforme, utique si pars 
posterior in clausula deprehendatur aut rursus prior 
in ingressu. Namque idem contra saepe etiam 
decet, quia et claudit interim optime prima pars 
versus, dum intra paucas syllabas, praecipue senarii 

73 atque octonarii. In Africa fuisse initium senarii est, 
primum pro Q. Ligario caput claudit ; Esse videatur, 
iam nimis frequens, octonarium inchoat ; talia sunt 
Demosthenis, iraaL /cat 7racrats et 7racriv vfj.lv, et totum 
paene principium. Et ultima versuum initio con- 

74 veniunt orationis : Etsi vereor, indices, et Animadverti, 
indices. Sed initia initiis non conveniunt, ut T. Livius 

1 emendatur, Meister : mendat, AG. 
* sit, Halm : est, MSS. 

1 Verr. V. xliv. 117. "The Roman people does not wish 
Verres to be accused of obsolete crimes : no, it is new and 
unheard-of crimes that it demands and desires." 

2 Verr. V. xliv. 118. "To see him, you will pay so much, 
and so much to bring in food and clothing. No one refused." 

* senarius = iambic trimeter, octonarius here = trochaic 
tetrameter, not iambic tetrameter. 

546 



BOOK IX. iv. 70-74 

of clauses sometimes seem to halt or hang, if they 
are regarded apart from their context, but are usually 
caught up and supported by what follows, so that 
what seemed a faulty cadence is corrected by the 
continuation. Xo?i vult populus Romanns obsoletis 
criminibus accusari Verrem would be harsh in rhythm, 
if the sentence ended there ; but when it is continued 
with what follows, nova postulat, inaudita desiderat. 1 
although the words are separate in meaning, the 
rhythmical effect is preserved. Ut adeas, tantum 71 
dabis would be a bad conclusion, for it forms the last 
portion of an iambic trimeter : but it is followed by 
ut cibum vestitumque introferre liceat, tantum : ' 2 the 
rhythm is still abrupt but is strengthened and sup- 
ported by the last phrase of all, nemo recusabat. 

The appearance of a complete verse in prose has 72 
a most uncouth effect, but even a portion of a verse 
is ugly, especially if the last half of a verse occurs in 
the cadence of a period or the first half at the be- 
ginning. The reverse order may on the other hand 
often be positively pleasing, since at times the first 
half of a verse will make an excellent conclusion, 
provided that it does not cover more than a few 
syllables. This is especially the case with the 73 
senarius or odonarius. 3 In Africa fuisse is the open- 
ing of a senarius and closes the first clause of the vro 
Ligario : esse videatur, with which we are now only 
too familiar as a conclusion, is the beginning of an 
odonarius. Similar effects are to be found in Demos- 
thenes, as for example iraaL kcu 7ra'o-ais and Traarw v/ilv 
and throughout almost the whole exordium of that 
speech. 4 The ends of verses are also excellently 
suited to the beginning of a period : etsi vereor, 74 
4 De Cor. 1. 

547 



QUINTILIAN 

hexametri exordio coepit : Fadurusne operae pretium 
sim (nam ita edidit, estque melius, quam quo modo 

75 emendatur), nee clausulae clausulis, ut Cieero, Quo 
me vertam, nescio, qui trimetri finis est. Trimetrum 
et senarium x promisee dicere licet, sex enim pedes, 
tres percussiones habet. Peius cludit finis hexa- 
metri, ut Brutus in epistolis : Neque Mi malunt habere 
tutores aid dejensores, quoniam causam 2 sciunt placuisse 

76 Catoni. Illi minus sunt notabiles, quia hoc genus 
sermoni proximum est. Itaque et versus hi fere 
excidunt, quos Brutus ipso componendi durius studio 
saepissime facit, non raro Asinius, sed etiam Cicero 
nonnunquam, ut in principio statim orationis in 
Lucium Pisonem : Pro di immortales, qui hie nunc 

77 illuxit dies ? Non minore autem cura vitandum est 
quidquid est lvpv6p.ov, quale apud Sallustium, Falso 
queritur de natura sua. Quamvis enim vincta sit, 
tamen soluta videri debet oratio. Atqui Plato, 
diligentissimus compositionis, in Timaeo prima statim 

1 senarium, added by Christ. 

a quoniam causam sciunt, Halm : quam consciunt, O : 
quamquam sciunt, A : quam constituunt, codd. Munac. 
Argentor. 

1 pro Mil. i. 1. \ Both quotations give the end of an 

* pro Cluent. i. 1./ iambic trimeter. 

3 MSS. of Livy read sim operae pretium : there is evidence 
to show that this may be due to corruption rather than to 
correction such as Quintilian describes. 

* pro Lig. i. 1, pro Cluent. i. 4. 

B " They ask for no guardians or defenders since they 
know that the cause has won the approval of Cato." 

6 An iambic trimeter. " Immortal gods, what day is this 
has dawned ? " 

548 



BOOK IX. iv. 74-77 

indices, 1 for example and animadverti, iudices.* But 
the opening feet of a verse are not suited to the 
opening phrases of prose : Livy provides an example 
of this in his preface, which begins with the first 
half of a hexameter, ' Faclurusne operae prelium sim : ' 
for these are the words as he wrote them, and they 
are better so than as they have been corrected. 3 
Again, the cadence of a verse is not suitable to the 75 
cadence of a period : compare the phrase of Cicero, 
Quo me vertam, nescio.* which is the end of a trimeter. 
It matters not whether we speak of a trimeter or of 
a senarius, since the line has six feet and three beats. 
The end of a hexameter forms a yet worse conclusion ; 
compare the following passage from the letters of 
Brutus : neque Mi malunt habere tutores aid defensores, 
quoniarn causam sciunt placuisse Catoni. 5 Iambic endings 7 
are less noticeable, because that metre is near akin 
to prose. Consequently such lines often slip from 
us unawares : they are specially common in Brutus 
as a result of his passion for severity of style ; they 
are not infrequent in Asinius, and are sometimes 
even found in Cicero, as for example at the very 
beginning of his speech against Lucius Piso : Pro di 
immortalcs, qui hie nunc illuxil dies ? 6 Equal care must 77 
however be taken to avoid any phrase of a definitely 
metrical character, such as the following passage 
from Sallust : Falso queritur de natura sua. 7 For 
although the language of prose is bound by certain 
laws, it should appear to be free. None the less 
Plato, despite the care which he devotes to his 
rhythm, has not succeeded in avoiding this fault at 

7 Jay. I. "The human race complains of its own nature 
without reason." Last five feet of iambic trimeter ! 

549 



QUINTILIAN 

78 parte vitare ista non potuit. Nam et initium hexa- 
metri statim invenias, et Anacreontion protinus colon 
efficias, et si velis trimetron, et quod duobus pedibus 
et parte ir€v8r]p.ifi€pe<; a Graecis dicitur, et haec omnia 
in tribus versibus ; x et Thucydidi v-wlp r/fxiav Kapcs 
icpavrjcrav ex mollissimo rhythmorum genere excidit. 

79 Sed quia omnem compositionem 2 oratoriam con- 
stare pedibus 3 dixi, aliqua de his quoque ; quorum 
nomina quia varia traduntur, constituendum est, quo 
quemque appellemus. Equidem Ciceronem sequar, 
(nam is eminentissimos Graecorum est secutus) 
excepto quod pes mihi tris syllabas non videtur 
excedere, quanquam ille paeane dochmioque, quorum 
prior in quattuor, secundus in quinque excurrit, 

80 utatur. Nee tamen ipse dissimulate quibusdam 
numeros videri non pedes; neque immerito ; quid- 
quid est enim supra tris syllabas, id est ex pluribus 
pedibus. Ergo cum constent quattuor pedes binis, 
octo ternis, spondeum longis duabus, pyrrhichium, 
quem alii pariambum vocant, brevibus, iambum brevi 
longaque, huic contrarium e longa et brevi choreum, 

81 non ut alii trochaeum nominemus. Ex iis vero, qui 

1 versibus, Daniel : verbis, MSS. 

2 compositionem, added by Spalding. 

3 pedibus, added by ed. Camp. 



1 The phrase is eTs, Sv6, Tpels, 6 5e Srj Teraprus ti/jluiv, S> <piXe. 
tls, 5v6, rpus give the opening of a hexameter, 6 5e b^i 
Tfrapros T)ix5>v the Anacreontic, Zv6 . . . <pi\e the Iambic tri- 
meter and eh . . . 5)/ the veudrifj.ip.epes. 

2 i, 8. Quintilian probably treats this as Sotadean or 
reminiscent of Sotadean rhythm. 

3 Or- ch. lxiv. 7. 

* For paean see § 96. The two varieties with which Quin- 
tilian is concerned are — u o o and u o u — . 

55° 



BOOK IX. iv. 77-81 

the very opening of the Timaeus, 1 where we are met 78 
at the very outset with the opening of a hexameter, 
which is followed by a colon which can be scanned as 
an Anacreontic, or if you like, as a trimeter, while it 
is also possible to form what the Greeks call a 
7rcf6r)iJ.ifx.€ph (that is a portion of the hexameter 
composed of two feet and a part of a third) : and all 
these instances occur within the space of three lines. 
Again Thucydides has allowed to slip from his pen 
a phrase of the most effeminate rhythm in {nrep 77/ucrv 
KSpts icfidvycrav. 2 

But, having stated that all prose rhythm consists 79 
of feet, I must say something on these as well. 
Different names are given to these feet, and it is 
necessary to determine what we shall call each of 
them. For my part I propose to follow Cicero 3 
(for he himself followed the most eminent Greek 
authorities), with this exception, that in my opinion 
a foot is never more than three syllables long, 
whereas Cicero includes the paean 4 and the dochmiac 

(y u — ), of which the former has four and the 

latter as many as five syllables. He does not, how- 80 
ever, conceal the fact that some regard these as 
rhythms rather than feet : and they are right in so 
doing, since whatever is longer than three syllables 
involves more than one foot. Since then there are 
four feet which consist of two syllables, and eight 
composed of three, I shall call them by the following 
names: two long syllables make a spondee; the 
pyrrhic or pariambus, as some call it, is composed 
of two shorts ; the iambus of a short followed by 
a long ; its opposite, that is a long followed by a 
short, is a chorens, for I prefer that term to the 
name of trochee which is given it by others. Of 81 

55i 



QUINTILIAN 

ternas syllabas habent, dactylum longa duabusque 
brevibus, huic temporibus parem, sed retro actum 
appellari constat anapaeston. Media inter longas 
brevis faciet amphimacrum, sed frequentius eius 
nomen est creticus ; longa inter breves, amphi- 

82 brachyn huic contrarium. Duabus 1 longis brevem 
sequentibus bacchius, totidem longis brevem 2 prae- 
cedentibus palimbacchius erit. Tres breves trocha- 
eum, quern tribrachyn dici volunt, qui choreo 
trochaei nomen imponunt ; totidem longae molosson 

83 efficient. Horum pedum nullus non in orationem 
venit, sed quo quique sunt temporibus pleniores 
longisque syllabis magis stabiles, hoc graviorem 
faciunt orationem, breves celerem ac mobilem. 
Utrumque locis utile ; nam et illud, ubi opus est 
velocitate, tardum et segne, et hoc, ubi pondus exigi- 

84 tur, praeceps ac resultans merito damnetur. Sit in 
hoc quoque aliquid fortasse momenti, quod et longis 
longiores et brevibus sunt breviores syllabae, ut, 
quamvis neque plus duobus temporibus neque uno 
minus habere videantur, ideoque in metris omnes 
breves longaeque inter se ipsae 3 sint pares, lateat 
tamen nescio quid quod 4 supersit aut desit. Nam ver-' 
suum propria condicio est, ideoque in his quaedam 

85 etiam communes. Veritas vero quia patitur aeque 

brevem esse vel longam vocalem, cum est sola, quam 

1 amphibrachyn . . . duabus, Spalding -. brachios huic (hinc, 
G) ausis, AG. 

a sequentibus . . . brevem, added by L. Valla. 

3 ipsae, Spalding', obsessae, AG. 

* quid quod, Spalding : quidquid, AG. 

552 



BOOK IX. iv. 81-85 

trisvllabic feet the dactyl consists of a long followed 
by two shorts, while its opposite, which has the 
same time-length, is called an anapaest. A short 
between two longs makes an amphimaeer, although 
it is more often called a cretic, while a long between 
two shorts produces its opposite, the amphibrachys. 
Two long syllables following a short make a bacchius, 82 
whereas, if the long syllables come first the foot is 
called a palimbacchius. Three shorts make a trochee, 
although those who give that name to the choreas 
call it atribrack : three longs make a molossus. Every 83 
one of these feet is employed in prose, but those 
which take a greater time to utter and derive a 
certain stability from the length of their syllables 
produce a weightier style, short syllables being best 
adapted for a nimble and rapid style. Both types 
are useful in their proper place : for weight and 
slowness are rightly condemned in passages where 
speed is required, as are jerkiness and excessive 
speed in passages which call for weight. It may 84 
also be important to remark that there are degrees 
of length in long syllables and of shortness in short. 
Consequently, although syllables may be thought 
never to involve more than two time-beats or less 
than one, and although for that reason in metre all 
shorts and all longs are regarded as equal to other 
shorts and longs, they none the less possess some 
undefinable and secret quality, which makes some 
seem longer and others shorter than the normal. 
Verse, on the other hand, has its own peculiar 
features, and consequently some syllables may be 
either long or short. Indeed, since strict law 85 
allows a vowel to be long or short, as the case may 
be, when it stands alone, no less than when one or 

553 



QUINTILIAN 

cum earn consonantes una pluresve praecedunt, certe 
in dimensione pedum syllaba, quae est brevis, inse- 
quente alia vel longa 1 vel brevi, quae tamen duas 
prinias consonantes habeat, fit longa, ut 

Agreslem tenui musam : 

36 nam A brevis, gres brevis, faciet tamen longam 
priorem ; dat igitur illi aliquid ex suo tempore. 
Quo modo, nisi habet plus quam quae brevissima, 
qualis ipsa esset detractis consonantibus ? Nunc 
unum tempus accommodat priori et unum accipit a 
sequente ; ita duae natura breves positione sunt 
temporum quattuor. 

87 Miror autem in hac opinione doctissimos homines 
fuisse, ut alios pedes ita eligerent aliosque damnarent, 
quasi ullus esset, quem non sit necesse in oratione 
deprehendi. Licet igitur paeana sequatur Ephorus, 
inventum a Thrasymacho, probatum ab Aristotele, 
dactylumque ut temperatos brevibus ac longis, fugiat 

88 spondeum et 2 trochaeum, alterius tarditate nimia, 8 
alterius celeritate damnata, herous, qui est idem 
dactylus, Aristoteli amplior, iambus humilior 4 videa- 
tur, trochaeum ut nimis currentem damnet eique 

1 vel longa, added by Christ. 

2 spondenm et, added by ed. Camp. 
* nimia, Halm: etenim, AG. 

4 humilior, P. Victorias, Pithoeus : humanior, MSS. 



1 Ed. i. 2. But Virgil wrote silvestrem. 

8 This theory involves the allotment of a time-value to 
consonants : gres gives the time-value of gr to a, and itself 
borrows an equivalent time-value from st. This view is 
more explicitly expressed by the tifth-century grammarian 
Pompeius (112. 26k), who allots the value of half a time- 

554 



BOOK IX. iv. 85-88 

more consonants precede it, there can be no doubt, 
when it comes to the measuring of feet, that a short 
syllable, followed by another which is either long 
or short, but is preceded by two consonants, is 
lengthened, as for example in the phrase agrestem 
tenia musam. 1 For both a and gres are short, but 86 
the latter lengthens the former, thereby transferring 
to it something of its own time-length. But how 
can it do this, unless it possesses greater length 
than is the portion of the shortest syllables, to 
which it would itself belong if the consonants st 
were removed ? As it is, it lends one time-length 
to the preceding syllable, and subtracts one from 
that which follows. 2 Thus two syllables which are 
naturally short have their time-value doubled by 
position. 

I am, however, surprised that scholars of the 87 
highest learning should have held the view that some 
feet should be specially selected and others con- 
demned for the purposes of prose, as if there were 
any foot which must not inevitably be found in 
prose. Ephorus may express a preference for the 
paean (which was discovered by Thrasymachus and 
approved by Aristotle) and for the dactyl also, on 
the ground that both these feet provide a happy 
mixture of long and short; and may avoid the 
spondee and the trochee, condemning the one as too 88 
slow and the other as too rapid; Aristotle 3 may 
regard the heroic foot, which is another name for 
the dactyl, as too dignified and the iambus as too 
commonplace, and may damn the trochee as too 

length to each consonant. Therefore to a (= one time-length) 
are added the two half time-lengths represented by gr (see 
Lindsay, Lat. iAingiiage, p. 129). * TJid,. iii. 8. 

555 



QUINTILIAN 

cordacis nonien imponat, eademque dicant Theodectes 
ac Theophrastus, similia post eos Halicarnasseus 

89 Dionysius : irrumpent etiam ad invitos, nee semper 
illis heroo aut paeane suo, quem, quia versum raro 
facit, maxime laudant, uti licebit. Ut sint tamen 
aliis alii crebriores, non verba facient, quae neque 
augeri nee minui nee sicuti toni l modulatione pro- 
duci aut corripi possint, sed transmutatio et collocatio. 

90 Plerique enim ex commissuris eorum vel divisione 
fiunt pedes ; quo fit ut iisdem verbis alii atque alii 
versus fiant, ut memini quendam non ignobilem 
poetam talem exarasse: 2 

Astra tenet caelum, mare classes, area messem. 

Hie retrorsum fit sotadeus ; itemque e sotadeo retro 
trimetros : 

Caput exeruit mobile pinus repetita. 

91 Miscendi ergo sunt, curandumque, ut sint plures qui 
placent, et circumfusi bonis deteriores lateant. Nee 
vero in litteris syllabisque natura mutatur, sed refert, 
quae cum quaque optime coeat. Plurimum igitur 

1 toni, added by Christ. 

2 talem exarasse, Halm : taielarasse, O : taliter lusisse, A. 
(iter lus by corrector). 

1 " The heaven holds the stars, the sea the fleets, and the 
threshing-floor the harvest." nussem area, classes mare, 
caelum tenet astra is identical in scansion with the Sotadean 
which follows, save that it opens with a spondee instead of an 
anapaest. 

a The sense is uncertain. It appears to refer to a pine 
beam or trunk floating half-submerged. "The pine-beam 
caught afresh put forth its nimble head." 

556 



BOOK IX. iv. 88-91 

hasty and dub it the cancan ; Theodectes and Theo- 
phrastus may agree with him, and a later critic, 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, may adopt a similar 
view; but for all they say, these feet will force 89 
themselves upon them against their will, and it will 
not always be possible for them to employ the dactyl 
or their beloved paean, which they select for special 
praise because it so rarely forms part of a verse- 
rhythm. It is not, however, the words which cause 
some feet to be of more common occurrence than 
others ; for the words cannot be increased or 
diminished in bulk, nor yet can they, like the notes 
in music, be made short or long at will ; everything 
depends on transposition and arrangement. For a 90 
large proportion of feet are formed by the connexion 
or separation of words, which is the reason why 
several different verses can be made out of the same 
words : for example, I remember that a poet of no 
small distinction writing the following line : 

Astra tenet caelum, mare classes, area messem, 1 

a line which, if the order of the words be reversed, 
becomes a Sotadean ; again, the following Sotadean, 
if reversed, reads as as an iambic trimeter : 

caput exeruit mobile pinus repetita. 2 

Feet therefore should be mixed, while care must be 91 
taken that the majority are of a pleasing character, 
and that the inferior feet are lost in the surrounding 
crowd of their superior kindred. The nature of 
letters and syllables cannot be changed, but their 
adaptability to each other is a consideration of no 
small importance. Long syllables, as I have said, 

557 



QUINTILIAN 

auctoritatis, ut dixi, et ponderis habent longae, 
celeritatis breves ; quae si miscentur quibusdam 

92 longis, currunt, si continuantur, exultant. Acres, 
quae ex brevibus ad longas insurgunt ; leniores, quae 
a longis in breves descendunt. Optime incipitur a 
longis, recte aliquando a brevibus, ut Novum crimen ; 
lenius a duabus, ut Animadverti iudices ; sed hoc pro 
Cluentio recte, quia initium eius partitioni simile est, 

93 quae celeritate gaudet. Clausula quoque e longis 
firmissima est ; sed venit et in breves, quamvis 
habeatur indifferens ultima. Neque enim ego 
ignoro, in fine pro longa accipi brevem, quia videtur 
aliquid vacantis temporis ex eo, quod insequitur, 
accedere ; aures tamen consulens meas, intelligo 
multum referre, verene longa sit, quae cludit, an pro 
longa. Neque enim tam plenum est Dicere incipi- 

94 entem timere, quam illud Ausus est confiteri. Atqui si 
nihil refert, brevis an longa sit ultima, idem pes erit ; 
verum nescio quo modo sedebit hoc, illud subsistet. 
Quo moti quidam longae ultimae tria tempora 

1 pro Lig. i. 1. 

8 pro Oluent. i. 1. The speech, begins : "I note, gentle- 
men of the jury, that the whole speech of the accuser falls 
into two parts, of which one," etc. It is this which is 
described as " similar to partition." lenius a duabus Cap- 
peronnier for levibus (AG). 

s pro Mil. i. 1. " To show fear when beginning to speak." 

558 



BOOK IX. iv. 91-94 

carry the greater dignity and weight, while short 
syllables create an impression of speed : if the latter 
are intermixed with a few long syllables, their gait 
will be a run, but a gallop if they are continuous. 
When a short syllable is followed by a long the effect 92 
is one of vigorous ascent, while a long followed by a 
short produces a gentler impression and suggests 
descent. It is therefore best to begin with long 
syllables, though at times it may be correct to begin 
with short, as in the phrase novum crimen : l a gentler 
effect is created, if we commence with two shorts, 
as in the phrase animadverti indices : but this open- 
ing, which comes from the pro Cluentio, is perfectly 
correct, since that speech begins with something 
similar to partition, which requires speed. 2 Similarly 93 
the conclusion of a sentence is stronger when long 
syllables preponderate, but it may also be formed 
of short syllables, although the quantity of the final 
syllable is regarded as indifferent. I am aware that 
a concluding short syllable is usually regarded as 
equivalent to a long, because the time-length which 
it lacks appears to be supplied from that which 
follows. But when I consult my own ears I find 
that it makes a great difference whether the final 
syllable is really long or only treated as the equiva- 
lent of a long. For there is not the same fullness 
of rhythm in dicere incipient cm timere* as there is in 
ausus est confiteri. 1 But if it makes no difference 94 
whether the final syllable be long or short, the con- 
cluding feet in these two instances must be identical : 
and yet somehow or other one gives the impression 
of sitting down and the other of a simple halt. 
This fact has led some critics to allow three time- 
beats for a final long syllable, adding the extra 

559 



QUINTILIAN 

dederunt, ut illud tempus, quod brevis ex loco 1 
accipit, huic quoque aecederet. Nee solum ret'ert, 
quis pes claudat, sed claudentem 2 quis antecedat. 

95 Uetrorsum autem neque plus tribus, iique, si non 
ternas syllabas habebunt, repetendi erunt (absit 
enim 3 poetica observatio), neque minus duobus ; 
alioqui pes erit, non numerus. Potest tamen vel 
unus esse dichoreus, si unus est, qui constat e duobus 

96 choreis. Itemque paean, qui est ex choreo et 
pyrrhichio, quern aptum initiis putant, vel contra, 
qui est e tribus brevibus et longa, cui clausulam 
adsignant ; de quibus fere duobus scriptores buius 
artis loquuntur. Alii omnes, in 4 quocunque sit loco 
longa, 5 temporum quod ad rationem pertinet,paeanas 

97 appellant. Est et doebmius, qui fit ex baccbio et 
iambo vel ex iambo et cretico, stabilis in clausulis 
et severus. Spondeus quoque, quo plurimum est 
Demostbenes usus, non eodem modo semper se b 
babet. Optime praecedet eum creticus, ut in hoc, 
De qua ego nihil, dicam, nisi depellendi criminis causa. 
Non nihil 7 est, quod supra dixi multum referre, unone 
verbo sint duo pedes comprehensi an uterque liber. 

1 loco, Spaldim: longo, AG. 

8 quis pes claudat sed claudentem quis, llalm : quis clauda- 
icin quis, G : quis claudat et quis, A. 
3 absit enim, Christ: sit tarn, AG. 
* in, Halm : ut, MSS. 

5 longa, added by Halm. 

6 non eodem modo . . . se, Halm : neodem . . . per se, 
AG. 

' causa non nihil, Halm : causam nihil, AG. 



1 pro Cad. xiii. 31. " Concerning which I will say nothing 
except for the purpose of refuting the charge." 

560 



BOOK IX. iv. 94 97 

time-lengt'h which a short syllable derives from its 
position at the end of a sentence to the long syllable 
as well. And it not merely makes a difference with 
what foot a sentence ends, but the penultimate 
foot is also of importance. It is not, however, 95 
necessary to go back further than three feet, and 
only that if the feet contain less than three syllables, 
for we must avoid the exactitude of verse : on the 
other hand, we must not go back less than two : 
otherwise we shall be dealing with a foot and not 
with rhythm. But in this connexion the dichorcus 
may be regarded as one foot, if indeed a foot consist- 
ing of two chorei can be considered as a single foot. 
The same is true of the paean composed of the 96 
choreus and a pi/rrhic, a foot which is regarded as 
specially suitable to the beginning of a sentence, or 
of the other paean, formed of three shorts followed 
bv a long, to which the conclusion is specially 
dedicated. It is of these two forms that writers on 
rhvthm generally speak. Some, however, call all 
feet containing three short syllables and a long by 
the name of paean, irrespective of the position of 
the long syllable, and merely taking into account the 
total number of time-lengths that it contains. The 97 
duchmiac, a^ain, which consists of a bacchius and an 
iambus, or of an iambus and a cretic, forms a solid and 
severe conclusion. The spondee, so frequently em- 
ployed in this position by Demosthenes, is used with 
varying effect. It is most impressive when preceded 
bv a cretic, as in the following instance : De qua ego 
nihil dicam, nisi depellendi criminis causa. 1 Again there 
is a point, of the importance of which I spoke above, 
namely that it makes a considerable difference 
whether two feet are contained in a single word 

561 



QUINTILIAN 

Sic enim fit forte Criminis causa ; molle Archipiratae, 
mollius, si tribrachys praecedat, facilitates, temeritates. 

98 Est enim quoddam ipsa divisione verborum latens 
tempus, ut in pentametri medio spondeo, qui nisi 
alterius verbi fine, alterius initio constat, versum non 
efficit. Potest, etiamsi minus bene, praeponi ana- 
paestos : Muliere non solum nobili, verum etiam nota. 

99 Cum anapaestus et ereticus, iambus quoque, qui est 
utroque syllaba minor (praecedet enim tres longas 
brevis), sed et spondeus iambo recte praeponitur : 
[iisdem mi] x armis fui. Cum spondeus, et bacchius, sic 

100 enim fiet ultimus doclimius : In armis fui. Ex iis 
quae supra probavi apparet molosson quoque clau- 
sulae convenire, dum habeat ex quocunque pede 
ante se brevem : Illud scimus ubicunque sunt, esse pro 

101 nobis. Minus gravis erit spondeus, praecedenti- 
bus palimbacchio et pyrrhichio, ut ludicii luniani? 
et adhuc peius priore paeane, ut Brute, dubitavi ; 
nisi potius hoc esse volumus dactylum et bacchium. 

1 Bracketed by Regius. 

1 praecedentibus et, G : praecedenti . . . A. I have 
added palimLacchio. 



1 See § 64. 

2 pro Oath xiii. 31. "A woman, not only of noble birth, 
but even notorious." 

8 pro Lig. iii. 9. " I was in arms." 

* The text is clearly corrupt as it stands, since the first 
syllable of luniani is long. Further, if iudici be read with 
the best texts of Cicero, there is no pyrrhic (uo) in the 
phrase, which is identical in rhythm with ausus est confiteri, 
praised just above. If iudicii is read the final spondee might 
be said to be preceded by a pyrrhic and a palimbacchius (i. e. 
iud/lcl/i lunl/dni). The fact that the termination of both 
words is the same would account for the disappearance of 

562 



BOOK IX. iv. 97-101 

or whether they are both detached. Thus crindnis 
causa makes a strong and archipiratae 1 a weak end- 
ing, while the weakness is still further increased if 
the first foot be a tribrach, as for instance in words 
like facilitates or temeritates. For the mere fact that 98 
words are separated from each other involves an 
imperceptible length of time : for instance, the 
spondee forming the middle foot of a pentameter must 
consist of the last syllable of one word and the first 
of another, otherwise the verse is no verse at all. 
It is permissible, though less satisfactory, for the 
spondee to be preceded by an anapaest : e.g. muliere 
non solum nobili, venom etiam nota. 2 And it may also, in 99 
addition to the anapaest and cretic, be preceded by 
the iambus, which is a syllable less in length than 
both of them, thus making one short syllable pre- 
cede three long. But it is also perfectly correct to 
place a spondee before an iambus, as in armis fui, or 
it may be preceded by a bacchius instead of a spondee, 
e.g. in armis fui, 3 thereby making the last foot a 
dochmiac. From this it follows that the molossus also 100 
is adapted for use in the conclusion provided that it 
be preceded by a short syllable, though it does not 
matter to what foot the latter belongs : e.g. illtul 
scimus, ubicunque sunt, esse pro nobis. The effect of 101 
the spondee is less weightv, if it be preceded by a 
palimbacckius and pyrrhic, as in iudicii luniani.* Still 
worse is the rhythm when the spondee is preceded 
by a paean, as in Brute, dubitavi, 5 although this 
phrase may, if we prefer, be regarded as consisting 

one of them. The corruption may easily lie deeper still. 
But as the words quoted come from an actual speech of 
Cicero, the error is not likely to lie in the quotation, pro 
Cluent. i. 1. • Or. i. I. "I hesitated, Brutus." 

5 6 3 



QUINTILIAN 

Duo spondei non fere se iungi patiuntur, quae 
in versu quoque notabilis l clausula est, nisi cum 
id fieri potest ex tribus quasi membris : Cur de 
perfugis nostris copias comparat is contra nos ? una 

102 syllaba, duabus, una. Ne dactylus quidem spondeo 
bene praeponitur, quia finem versus damnamus in 
fine orationis. Bacchius et claudit et sibi iungitur : 
Venerium timeres ; vel choreum et spondeum ante se 
amat : Vt venerium timeres. Contrarius quoque qui 
est, cludet, nisi si ultimam syllabam longam esse 
volumus, optimeque habebit ante se molosson : Civis 
Romanus sum ; aut bacchium, Quod hie potest, nos 

103 possemus. Sed verius erit claudere choreum prae- 
cedente spondeo, nam hie potius est numerus, Nos 
possemus et Romanus sum. Claudet et dichoreus, id 
est idem pes sibi ipse iungetur, quo Asiani sunt usi 
plurimum ; cuius exemplum Cicero ponit, Patris 

104 dictum sapiens temeritas filii comprohavit. Accipiet 
ante se choreus et pyrrhichium : Omnes prope cives 
virtute, gloria, dignitate superabat. Cludet et dactylus, 
nisi eum observatio ultimae creticum facit : Muliercula 
nixus in litore. Habebit ante se bene creticum et 

1 notabilis, early edd. : nobis, AG. 



i " Why does he collect forces against us from our 
deserters?" L. Crassus quoted in Or. lxvi. 223. 

2 pro Cael. xiv. 33. "That you should fear poison." 

8 Verr. v. lxii. 162. 

4 pro JJa. iv. 10. 

a Orat. Ixiii. 214. " The wise temerity of the son confirmed 
the statement of the father." 

• pro Cael. xiv. 34. " He surpassed almost all other citizens 
in virtue, glory and honour." 

5 6 4 



BOOK IX. iv. 101-104 

of a dactyl and a bacchias. As a rule, endings com- 
posed of two spondees, a termination which causes 
comment even in a verse, are to be deprecated, 
unless the phrase is composed of three separate 
members, as in air de perfugis nostris copias comparat 
is contra ?ios ? I where we have a word of two syllables 
preceded and followed by a monosyllable. Even the 102 
dactyl ought not to precede a final spondee, since we 
condemn verse-endings at the period's close. The 
bacchius is employed at the conclusion, sometimes in 
conjunction with itself as in venerium timeres, 2 while it 
is also effective when a choreus and spondee are placed 
before it as in ut venenum timeres. Its opposite, the 
palitnbacchius, is also employed as a conclusion (un- 
less, of course, we insist that the last syllable of a 
sentence is always long), and is best preceded by a 
molossus, as in civis Romanus sum, 3 or by a bacchius, as 
in quod hie potest, nos possemus* It would, however, 103 
be truer to say that in such cases the conclusion con- 
sists of a choreus preceded by a spondee, for the rhythm 
is concentrated in nos possemus and Romanus sum. The 
dichoreus, which is the repetition of one and the same 
foot, may also form the conclusion, and was much 
beloved by the Asiatic school : Cicero illustrates it by 
Patris dictum sapiens temeritas filii comprobavit. 6 The 104 
choreus may also be preceded by a pyrrhic, as in omnes 
prope dies virtute, gloria, dignitate superabat. 6 The 
dactyl also may come at the close, unless indeed it be 
held that, when it forms the final foot, it is transformed 
into a cretic: e.g. muliercula ?iirus in litote. 7 The 
effect will be good if it is preceded by a cretic or an 
iamlms, but unsatisfactory if it is preceded by a 

7 Verr. v. xxxiii. 86. " Leaning on a worthless woman on 
the shore." 

505 



QUINTILIAN 

105 iambum, spondeum male, peius choreum. Cludit 
amphibrachys : Q. Ligarium in Africa fuisse, si non 
eum malumus esse bacchium. Non optimus est 
ti'ochaeus, si ulla est ultima brevis, quod certe sit 
necesse est ; alioqui quomodo claudet, qui placet 
plerisque, dichoreus? Ilia observatione ex trochaeo 

106 fit anapaestus. Idem trochaeus praecedente longa 
fit paean, quale est Si potero et Dixit hoc Cicero, Obstat 
invidia. Sed hunc initiis dederunt. Cludet et 
pyrrhichius choreo praecedente, nam sic paean est. 
Sed omnes hi, qui in breves excidunt, minus erunt 
stabiles, nee alibi fere satis apti, quam ubi cursus 
orationis exigitur et clausulis non intersistitur. 

107 Creticus et initiis optimus: Quod precatus a dm 
immortalibus sum, et clausulis : In conspeclu populi 
Romani vomere postridie. Apparet vero, quam bene 
eum praecedant vel anapaestos vel ille, qui videtur 
fini aptior, paean. Sed et se ipse sequitur : Servare 
quam plurimos. Sic melius quam choreo praecedente, 
Qids non turpe duceret ? si ultima brevis pro longa sit ; 

108 sed fingamus sic, Non turpe duceres. Sed hie estillud 



1 pro Lig. i. 1. 

2 It must be remembered that for Quintilian a trochee is 
the same as a tribrach (uuu). See § 82. 

8 As he has in the preceding clause stated that this form 
of paean is regarded as specially adapted to the opening of 
a sentence, it cannot be supposed that he commends this 
employment of the pyrrhic. He mentions it only to illustrate 
another method of forming the paean (e.g. multa bene) by two 
words, the first a choreus, the second a pyrrhic. His view 
about the employment of this form of paean is that it is 
sometimes used at the end, but that such a position is not 
advisable. 

4 pro Muren. i. 1. 

5 Phil. II. xxv. 63. 

566 



BOOK IX. iv. 104-108 

spondee, and worse still if by a choreus. The amphi- 105 
brachys may close the cadence, as in Q. Ligarimn in 
A frica fuisse, 1 although in that case some will prefer 
to call it a bacchius. The trochee 2 is one of the less 
good endings, if any final syllable is to be regarded 
as short, as it undoubtedly must be. Otherwise 
how can we end with the dichoreus, so dear to many 
orators ? Of course, if it be insisted that the final 
syllable is long, the trochee becomes an anapaest. If 106 
preceded by a long syllable, the trochee becomes a 
paean, as is the case with phrases such as si polero, or 
dixit hoc Cicero, or obstat invidia. But this form of 
paean is specially allotted to the beginnings of 
sentences. The pyrrhic may close a sentence if 
preceded by a choreus, thereby forming a paean. 3 
But all these feet which end in short syllables will 
lack the stability required for the cadence, and 
should as a rule only be employed in cases where 
speed is required and there is no marked pause at 
the ends of the sentences. The cretic is excellent, 107 
both at the beginning (e.g. quod precatus a diis im- 
mortalibus su?n*) and at the close (e.g. in conspectu 
populi Romani vomere postridie). b The last example 
makes it clear what a good effect is produced when 
it is preceded by an anapaest or by that form of paean 
which is regarded as best suited to the end of a 
sentence. But the cretic may be preceded by a 
cretic, as in servare quam plurimos.* It is better thus 
than when it is preceded by a choreus, as in quis non 
turpe duceret ? 7 assuming that we treat the final short 
syllable as long. However, for the sake of argument, 
let us substitute duceres for duceret. Here, however, 108 

6 pro Lirj. xii. 38. ' Pliit. II. xxv. 63. 

567 



QU1NTILIAN 

inane, quod dixi : paulum enim morae damus inter 
ultimum ac proximum verbum et turpe illud intervallo 
quodara producimus ; alioqui sit exultantissimum et 
trimetri finis : Quis non turpe duccret ? Sicut illud 
Ore excipere liceret, si iungas, lascivi carminis est ; 
sed interpunctis quibusdam et tribus quasi initiis fit 

109 plenum auctoritatis. Nee ego, cum praecedentes 
pedes posui, legem dedi ne alii essent, sed quid fere 
accideret et quid in praesentia videretur optimum, 
ostendi. Non x quidem optime est sibi iunctus ana- 
paestos, ut qui sit pentametri finis, vel rhythmos qui 
nomen ab eo traxit : Na?n ubi libido dominatur, inno- 
centiae leve praesidium est ; nam synaloepbe facit, ut 

110 duae ultimae syllabae pro una sonent. Melior fiet 
praecedente spondeo vel baechio, ut si idem mutes 
leve innocentiae praesidium est. Non me capit (ut a 
magnis viris dissentiam) paean, qui est ex tribus 
brevibus et longa. Nam est et ipse una plus brevi 
anapaestos facilitas et agilitas. Quid 2 ita placuerit 
is, non video, nisi quod ilium fere probaverunt, 
quibus loquendi magis quam orandi studium fuit. 

111 Nam et ante se brevibus gaudet pyrrhichio vel 

1 non, added by Spalding. 

2 quid, Halm: quidquid, AG. 

1 §51. 

* Ferr. v. xlv. US. The licentious metre is Sotadean. 
8 Crassus in Cic. Or. lxv. 219. "For where lust holds 
sway, there is but small protection for iuuoceuce." 

568 



BOOK IX. iv. 108-111 

we get the rest of which I spoke : 1 for we make a 
short pause between the last word and the last 
but one, thus slightly lengthening the final syllable 
of turpe ; otherwise quis non lurpe duceret ? will 
give us a jerky rhythm resembling the end of 
an iambic trimeter. So, too, if you pronounce ore 
excipere liceret 2 without a pause, you will reproduce 
the rhythm of a licentious metre, whereas if triply 
punctuated and thus provided with what are practi- 
cally three separate beginnings, the phrase is full of 
dignity. In specifying the feet above-mentioned, I 109 
do not mean to lay it down as an absolute law that 
no others can be used, but merely wish to indicate 
the usual practice and the principles that are best 
suited for present needs. I may add that two con- 
secutive anapaests should be avoided, since they form 
the conclusion of a pentameter or reproduce the rhythm 
of the anapaestic metre, as in the passage, nam ubi 
libido dominatur, innocentiae leve praesidium est, 3 where 
elision makes the last two syllables sound as one. 
The anapaest should preferably be preceded by a 110 
spondee or a bacchius, as, for instance, if you alter the 
order of words in the passage just quoted to leve 
innocentiae praesidium est. Personally, although I 
know that in this I am in disagreement with great 
writers, I am not attracted by the paean consisting 
of three shorts followed by a long : for it is no more 
than an anapaest with the addition of another short 
syllable (e.g. facilitas, agilitas). Why it should have 
been so popular, I cannot see, unless it be that those 
who gave it their approval were students of the 
language of common life rather than of oratory. 
It is preferably preceded by short syllables, such 111 
as are provided by the pyrrhic or the choreus (e.g. 

569 



QUINTILIAN 

choreo, mea facilitas, nostra facililas ; ac praecedente 
spondeo tamen plane finis est trimetri, cum sit per 
se quoque. Ei contrarius principiis merito laudatur, 
nam et primam stabilem et tres celeres habet. 
Tamen hoc quoque meliores alios puto. 

112 Totus vero hie locus non ideo tractatur a nobis, ut 
oratio, quae ferri debet ac fluere, dimetiendis pedibus 
ac perpendendis syllabis consenescat ; nam id cum 

113 miseri, turn in minimis occupati est, neque enim, qui 
se totum in hac cura consumpserit, potioribus vacabit, 
si quidem relictorerum pondere ac nitore contempto 
tesserulas, ut ait Lucilius, struet et vermiculate inter se 
lexis committet. Nonne ergo refrigeretur sic calor 
et impetus pereat, ut equorum cursum delicati minutis 

114 passibus frangunt? Quasi vero numeri 1 non sint 
in compositione deprehensi, sicut poema nemo dubita- 
verit impetu 2 quodam initio fusum et aurium mensura 
et similiter decurrentium spatiorum observatione esse 
generatum, mox in eo repertos pedes. Satis igitur 
in hoc nos componet multa scribendi exercitatio, ut 

115 ex tempore etiam similia fundamus. Neque vero 
tarn sint intuendi pedes quamuniversa comprehensio, 

1 numeri non, Regius : fecerint, MSS. 
8 impetu, Halm: peritu, AG. 

1 In Or. xliv. 149, the lines are actually quoted "quam 
lepide lexeis compostae ut tesserulae omnes | arte pavimento 
atque emblemate venniculato." "How neatly his phrases 
are put together, like a cunningly tesselated pavement with 
intricate inlay." 

57° 



BOOK IX. iv. 111-115 

mea facilitas, nostra facilitas) ; on the other hand, if 
it be preceded by a spondee, we have the conclusion 
of an iambic trimeter, as indeed we have in the paean 
considered alone. The opposite form of paean is 
deservedly commended as an opening : for the first 
syllable gives it stability and the next three speed. 
None the less I think that there are other feet 
which are better suited for this purpose than even 
this paean. 

My purpose in discussing this topic at length is 112 
not to lead the orator to enfeeble his style by 
pedantic measurement of feet and weighing of 
syllables : for oratory should possess a vigorous 
flow, and such solicitude is worthy only of a 
wretched pedant, absorbed in trivial detail: since 113 
the man who exhausts himself by such painful dili- 
gence will have no time for more important con- 
siderations ; for he will disregard the weight of his 
subject matter, despise true beauty of style and, as 
Lucilius says, will construct a tesselated pavement of 
phrases nicely dovetailed together in intricate patterns. 1 
The inevitable result will be that his passions will 
cool and his energy be wasted, just as our dandies 
destroy their horses' capacity for speed by training 
them to shorten their paces. Prose-structure, of 114 
course, existed before rhythms were discovered in 
it, just as poetry was originally the outcome of a 
natural impulse and was created by the instinctive 
feeling of the ear for quantity and the observation of 
time and rhythm, while the discovery of feet came 
later. Consequently assiduous practice in writing will 
be sufficient to enable us to produce similar rhythmical 
effects when speaking extempore. Further it is not so 1 15 
important for us to consider the actual feet as the 

57i 



QUINTILIAN 

ut versum facientes totum ilium decursum non sex 
vel quinque partes, ex quibus constat versus, aspi- 
ciunt. Ante enim carmen ortum est quam observatio 

116 carminis, ideoque illud Fauni vatesque canebant. Ergo 
quern in poemate locum habet versificatio, eum in 
oratione compositio. 

Optime autem de ilia iudicant aures, quae plena 
sentiunt et parum expleta desiderant et fragosis 
offenduntur et levibus mulcentur et contortis exci- 
tantur et stabilia probant, clauda deprehendunt, 
redundantia ac nimia fastidiunt. Ideoque docti 
rationem componendi intelligunt, etiam indocti vo- 

117 luptatem. Quaedam vero tradi arte non possunt. 
Mutandus est casus, si durius is, quo coeperamus, 
feratur. Num, in quem transeamus ex quo, praecipi 
potest? Figura laboranti compositioni variata saepe 
succurrit. Quae ? cum orationis, turn etiam sen- 
tentiae ? Num praescriptum eius rei ullum est? 
Oe< asionibus utendum et cum re praesenti deliber- 

118 andum est. lam 1 vero spatia ipsa, quae in hac 
quidem parte plurimum valent, quod possunt nisi 

1 est iani, Halm: etiam, MSS. 

1 Enn. Ann. 213. 
572 



BOOK IX. iv. 115-118 

general rhvthmical effect of the period, just as the 
poet in writing a verse considers the metre as a 
whole, and does not concentrate his attention on the 
six or five individual feet that constitute the verse. 
For poetrv originated before the laws which govern 
it, a fact which explains Ennius' statement l that 
Fauns and prophets sang. Therefore rhythmical 116 
structure will hold the same place in prose that is 
held by versification in poetrv. 

The best judge as to rhythm is the ear, which 
appreciates fullness of rhythm or feels the lack of it, 
is offended by harshness, soothed by smooth and 
excited by impetuous movement, and approves 
stability, while it detects limping measures and 
rejects those that are excessive and extravagant. 
It is for this reason that those who have received a 
thorough training understand the theory of artistic 
structure, while even the untrained derive pleasure 
from it. There are some points, it is true, which are 117 
beyond the power of art to inculcate. For example 
if the case, tense or mood with which we have 
begun, produces a harsh rhythm, it must be changed. 
But is it possible to lay down any definite rule as to 
what the change of case, tense or mood should be ? 
It is often possible to help out the rhythm when it 
is in difficulties by introducing variety through the 
agency of a Jigure. But what is this ^figure to be? 
A figure of speech or a Jigure of thought ? Can we 
give any general ruling on the subject ? In such 
cases opportunism is our only salvation, and we must 
be guided by consideration of the special circum- 
stances. Further with regard to the time-lengths, 118 
which are of such importance where rhvthm is con- 
cerned, what standard is there by which they can be 

573 



QUINTILIAN 

aurium habere indicium ? Cur alia paucioribus verbis 
satis plena vel nimium, alia pluribus brevia et abscisa 
sunt? Cur in circumductionibus, etiam cum sensus 

119 finitus est, aliquid tamen loci vacare videatur? Ne- 
minem vestrum ignorare arbitror, iudices, hunc per hosce 
dies sermonem vulgi atque hanc opinionem populi Ronuuii 
fuisse. Cur hosce potius quam hos ? Neque enim 
erat asperum. Rationern fortasse non reddam, sentiam 
tamen x esse melius. Cur non satis sit, sermonem 
vulgi fuisse, (compositio enim patiebatur) ignorabo ; 
sed ut audio hoc, animus accipit plenum sine hac 

120 geminatione non esse. Ad sensum igitur referenda 
sunt. Et si qui non 2 satis forte, quid severum, quid 
iucundum sit, intelligent, facient quidem natura duce 
melius quam arte; sed naturae ipsi ars inerit. 

121 Illud prorsus oratoris, scire ubi quoque genere 
compositionis sit utendum. Ea duplex observatio 
est : altera, quae ad pedes refertur ; altera, quae 
ad comprehensiones, quae efficiuntur ex pedibus. 

122 Ac de his prius. Dicimus igitur esse incisa, membra, 
circuitus. Incisum (quantum mea fert opinio) erit 
sensus non expleto numero conclusus, plerisque pars 

1 sentiam tamen, Halm : sententiam, A{?)G : sent am, Utter 
MSS. 
* Et si qui non, Halm: necquis,. AG. 



1 Verr. i. i. 1. "I think that none of you, gentlemen, are 
ignorant that during these days such has been the talk of the 
common folk and such the opinion of the Roman people." 

574 



BOOK IX. iv. 1 18-122 

regulated save that of the ear? Why do some 
sentences produce a lull rhvthmical effect, although 
the words which thev contain are few, whereas others 
containing a greater number are abrupt and short in 
rhythm ? Why again in periods do we get an 
impression of incompleteness, despite the fact that 
the sense is complete? Consider the following 119 
example : neminem vestrum ignorare arbitror, iudices, 
hunc per hosce dies sermonem vulgi atque hanc opinionem 
populi Romani fuisse. 1 Why is hosce preferable to hos, 
although the latter presents no harshness? I am 
not sure that I can give the reason, but none the 
less I feel that hosce is better. Why is it not enough 
to say sermonem vulgi fuisse, which would have satisfied 
the bare demands of rhythm ? I cannot tell, and yet 
niv ear tells me that the rhythm would have lacked 
fullness without the reduplication of the phrase. The 120 
answer is that in such cases we must rely on feeling. 
It is possible to have an inadequate understanding of 
what it is precisely that makes for severity or charm, 
but yet to produce the required effect better by 
taking nature for our guide in place of art : none 
the less there will always be some principle of art 
underlying the promptings of nature. 

It is, however, the special duty of the orator to 121 
realise when to employ the different kinds of 
rhythm. There are two points which call for 
consideration if he is to do this with success. The 
one is concerned with feet, the other with the 
general rhythm of the period which is produced 
by their combination. I will deal with the latter 
first. We speak of commata, cola and periods. 122 
A comma, in my opinion, may be defined as the 
expression of a thought lacking rhythmical com- 

575 



QUINT1LIAN 

membri. Tale est enim, quo Cicero utitur : Damns 
tibi deerat ? ut habebas. Pecunia superabat ? at egebas. 
Fiunt autem etiam singulis verbis incisa ; Diximus, 

123 testes dare volumus ; incisum est diximus. Membrum 
autem est sensus nunieris * conclusus, sed a toto 
corpore abruptus et per se nihil efficiens. callidos 
homines perfectum est, sed remotum a ceteris vim 
non habet, ut per se manus et pes et caput : et 
rem excogitatam. Quando ergo incipit corpus esse ? 
cum venit extrema conclusio : Quern, quaeso, nostrum 
fefellit, id vos ita esse facturos? quam Cicero brevissi- 
mam putat. Itaque fere incisa et membra mutila 2 

124 sunt et conclusionem utique desiderant. Periodo 
plurima nomina dat Cicero, ambitum, circuitum, com- 
prehensionem, conlinuationem, circumscriptionem. Genera 
eius duo sunt, alterum simplex, cum sensus unus 
longiore ambitu circumducitur, alterum, quod constat 
membris et incisis, quae plures sensus habent : 
Aderat ianitor carceris, carnifex praetoris, reliqua. 

125 Habet periodus membra minimum duo. Medius 
numerus videntur quattuor, sed recipit frequenter 
et plura. Modus eius a Cicerone aut quattuor 
senariis versibus aut ipsius spiritus modo terminatur. 
Praestare debet ut sensum concludat ; sit aperta, 

1 numeris, Regius: membris, AG. 

1 mutila, Christ : mixta, MSS. : multa, Diomedes. 

1 Or. lxvii. 223. See ix. ii. 15. 

2 From the lost pro Cornelio. " the cunning of those 
men ! what careful forethought ! I ask you did one of us 
fail to note that such would be vour action ? " 

» Orat. lxi. 204. 

4 Verr. v. xlv. 118. " There stood the jailer, the praetor's 
executioner." 

8 Or. lxvi. 222. Cicero says hexameters, not senarii. 

576 



BOOK IX. iv. 122-125 

pleteness ; on the other hand, most writers regard it 
merely as a portion of the colon. As an example I 
may cite the following from Cicero: Domus libi 
deerat? at habebas : pecunia superabat ? at egebas. 1 
But a comma may also consist of a single word, as in 
the following instance where diximus is a comma : 
Diximus, testes dare volumus. A colon, on the other 123 
hand, is the expression of a thought which is 
rhythmically complete, but is meaningless if de- 
tached from the whole body of the sentence. For 
example callidos homines 2 is complete in itself, but 
is useless if removed from the rest of the sentence, 
*s the hand, foot or head if separated from the 
bodv. He goes on, rem excogitatam. At what 
point do the members begin to form a body ? Only 
when the conclusion is added : quern, quaeso, nostrum 
fefeU.il, id vos ita esse fact tiros ? a sentence which Cicero 
regards as unusually concise. Thus as a rule commata 
and cola are fragmentary and require a conclusion. 
The period is given a number of different names bv 124 
Cicero, 3 who calls it ambitus, circuitus, comprehensio, 
conlinuatio and circumscripiio. It has two forms. The 
one is simple, and consists of one thought expressed 
in a number of words, duly rounded to a close. The 
other consists of commata and cola, comprising a 
number of different thoughts : for example, aderat 
ianitor carceris, carnifex praeloris i and the rest. The 125 
period must have at least two cola. The average 
number would appear to be Jour, but it often contains 
even more. According to Cicero, 5 its length should 
be restricted to the equivalent of four semap* or to 
the compass of a single breath. It is further essential 
that it should complete the thought winch it ex- 
presses. It must be clear and intelligible and must 

577 

VOL. III. 



QUINTILIAN 

ut intelligi possit, non immodica, ut memoria con- 
tineri. Membrum longius iusto tardum ; brevius 

126 in stabile est. Ubicunque acriter erit, instanter, 
pugnaciter dicendum,membratim caesimque dicemus, 
nam hoc in oratione plurimum valet ; adeoque rebus 
accommodanda compositio, ut asperis asperos etiam 
numeros adhiberi oporteat et cum dicente aeque 

127 audientem inhorrescere. Membratim plerumque 
narrabimus, aut ipsas periodos maioribus intervallis 
et velut laxioribus nodis resolvemus, exceptis quae 
non docendi gratia, sed ornandi narrantur, ut in 
Verrem Proserpinae raptus. Haec enim lenis et 

128 fluens contextus decet. Periodos apta prooemiis 
maiorum causarum, ubi sollicitudine, commendatione, 
miseratione res eget, item communibus locis et in 
onmi amplificatione ; sed poscitur 1 turn austera, si 
accuses, turn fusa, si laudes. Multum et in epilogis 

129 pollet. Totum autem hoc adhibendum est, quod 
sit amplius compositionis genus, cum iudex non 
solum rem tenet, sed etiam captus est oratione et 
se credit actori et voluptate iam ducitur. Historia 
non tarn finitos numeros quam orbem quendam con- 
textumque desiderat. Namque omnia eius membra 

1 poscitur, Regius: poscit, A. : possit, G. 

1 Verr. iv. xlviii. 106. 
578 



BOOK IX. iv. 125-129 

not be too long to be carried in the memory. A 
colon, if too long, makes the sentence drag, while on 
the other hand, if it be too short it gives an impression 
of instability. Wherever it is essential to speak with 126 
force, energy and pugnacity, we shall make free use 
of commata and cola, since this is most effective, and 
our rhythmical structure must be so closely con- 
formed to our matter, that violent themes should be 
expressed in violent rhythms to enable the audience 
to share the horror felt by the speaker. On the 127 
other hand we shall employ cola by preference when 
narrating facts, or relax the texture of our periods 
bv considerable pauses and looser connexions, always 
excepting those passages in which narration is 
designed for decorative effect and not merely for 
the instruction of the audience, as for example the 
passage in the Verrines where Cicero 1 tells the story 
of the Rape of Proserpine : for in such cases a smooth 
and flowing texture is required. The full periodic 128 
style is well adapted to the exordium of important 
cases, where the theme requires the orator to express 
anxietv, admiration or pity : the same is true of 
commonplaces and all kinds of amplification. But it 
should be severe when we are prosecuting and 
expansive in panegyric. It is also most effective in 
the peroration. But we must only employ this form 129 
of rhythmical structure in its full development, when 
the judge has not merely got a grasp of the matter, 
but has been charmed by our style, surrendered 
himself to the pleader and is ready to be led whither 
we will, by the delight which he experiences. 
History does not so much demand full, rounded 
rhythms as a certain continuity of motion and con- 
nexion of style. For all its cola are closely linked 

579 
U 2 



QU1NTILIAN 

connexa sunt et, quoniam lubrica est, hac atque 
iliac 1 fluit, ut homines, qui manibus invicem appre- 
hensis gradum firmant, continent et continentur. 

130 Demonstrativum genus omne fusiores habet liberio- 
resque numeros ; iudiciale et contionale, ut materia 
varium est, sic etiam ipsa collocatione verborum. 

Ubi iam nobis pars ex duabus, quas modo fecimus, 
secunda tractanda est. Nam quis dubitat alia lenius, 
alia concitatius, alia sublimius, alia pugnacius, alia 

131 ornatius, alia gracilius esse dicenda ; gravibus, sub- 
limibus, ornatis longas magis syllabas convenire ? ita 
ut lenia spatium, sublimia et ornata claritatem quoque 
vocalium poscant ; his contraria magis gaudere 2 
brevibus, argumenta, partitiones, iocos et quidquid 

132 est sermoni magis simile. Itaque componemus 
prooemium varie atque ut sensus eius postulabit. 
Neque enim accesserim Celso, qui unam quandam 
huic parti formam dedit, et optimam compositionem 
esse prooemii, ut est apud Asinium, dixit, Si, Caesar, 
ex o?n?iibus mortalibus, qui sunt ac fuerunt, posset huic 
causae disceptalor legi, non quisquam te potius optandus 

133 nobis fuit. Non quia negem hoc bene esse com- 
positum, sed quia legem hanc esse componendi in 
omnibus principiis recusem. Nam iudicis animus 

1 atque iliac added hy Spalding. 

2 gaudere, Spalding : laudere, AG. 

1 Se t. 121. 

* " If, Caesar, one man of all that are or have ever been could 
be chosen to try this case, there is none whom we could 
have preferred to you." 

5 8o 



BOOK IX. iv. 129-133 

together, while the fluidity of its style gives it great 
variety of movement ; we may compare its motion 
to that of men, who link hands to steady their steps, 
and lend each other mutual support. The demon- ISO 
strative type of oratory requires freer and more 
expansive rhythms, while forensic and deliberative 
oratory will vary the arrangement of their words in 
conformity with the variety of their themes. 

I must now turn to discuss the first of the two 
points which I mentioned above. 1 No one will deny 
that some portions of our speech require a gentle 
flow of language, while others demand speed, 
sublimity, pugnacity, ornateness or simplicity, as 
the case may be, or that long syllables are best 131 
adapted to express dignity, sublimity and ornateness. 
That is to say, while the gentler form of utterance 
requires length of vowel sounds, sublime and ornate 
language demands sonority as well. On the other 
hand, passages of an opposite character, such as those 
in which we argue, distinguish, jest or use language 
approximating to colloquial speech, are better served 
by short syllables. Consequently in the exordium 132 
we shall vary our structure to suit the thought. 
For I cannot agree with Celsus, when he would 
impose a single stereotyped form upon the exordium 
and asserts that the best example of the structure 
required for this purpose is to be found in Asinius : 
e. g., si, Caesar, ex omnibus mortalibus, qui sunt ac 
fuerunt, posset hide causae disceptator legi, non quisquam 
te potius optandus nobis fint? I do not for a moment 133 
deny that the structure of this passage is excellent, 
but I refuse to admit that the form of rhythmical 
structure which it exemplifies should be forced on all 
exordia. For there are various ways in which the 

58i 



QUINTILIAN 

varie praeparatur : turn miserabiles esse volumus, 
turn modesti turn acres, turn graves, turn blandi, 
turn flectere, turn ad diligentiam hortari. Haec ut 
sunt diversa natura, ita dissimilem componendi quo- 
que rationem desiderant. An similibus Cicero usus 
est numeris in exordio pro Milone, pro Cluentio, 

134 pro Ligario ? Narratio fere tardiores atque, ut sic 
dixerim, modestiores desiderat pedes ex omnibus 
maxime mixtos. Nam et verbis, ut saepius pressa 
est, ita interim insurgit ; sed docere et infigere 
animis res semper cupit, quod minime festinantium 
opus est. Ac mihi videtur tota narratio constare 

135 longioribus membris, brevioribus periodis. Argu- 
menta acria et citata pedibus quoque ad hanc naturam 
commodatis utentur, non tamen l ita ut trochaeis 
quoque celeria quidem, sed sine viribus sint, verum 
iis, qui sint brevibus longisque mixti, non tamen 

136 plures longas quam breves habent. 2 Ilia sublimia 
spatiosas clarasque voces habentia 3 amant ampli- 
tudinem dactyli quoque ac paeanis, etiamsi maiore 
ex parte syllabis brevibus, temporibus tamen satis 
pleni. Aspera contra iambis maxime concitantur, 

1 non tamen, ed. Ven : nondum, MS8. 

2 habent, Halm : habentia, O. 

3 habentia, Christ: habent, MSS. 



1 Trochee (u u v). 



582 



BOOK IX. iv. 133-136 

judge's mind may be prepared for what is to come: 
at times we appeal for pity, at others take up a 
modest attitude, while we may assume an air of 
energy or dignity, flatter our audience, attempt to 
alter their opinions and exhort them to give us their 
best attention, according as the situation may demand. 
And as all these methods are different by nature, so 
each requires a different rhythmical treatment. Did 
Cicero employ similar rhythms in his exordia to the 
pro Milone, the pro Cluentio and the pro Ligario ? 
The statement of fact as a rule requires slower and 134. 
what I may be allowed to call more modest feet ; 
and the different kinds of feet should, as far as 
possible, be intermixed. For while the style of this 
portion of our speech is generally marked by restraint 
of language, there are occasions when it is called 
upon to soar to greater heights, although on the 
other hand its aim will at all times be to instruct the 
audience and impress the facts upon their minds, a 
task which must not be carried out in a hurry. Indeed 
my personal opinion is that the statement of fact 
should be composed of long cola and short periods. 
Arguments, inasmuch as they are characterised by 135 
energy and speed, will employ the feet best adapted 
to these qualities. They will not however acquire 
rapidity at the expense of force by employing 
trochees, 1 but will rather make use of those feet which 
consist of a mixture of long and short syllables, 
though the long should not outnumber the short. 
Lofty passages, which employ long and sonorous 136 
vowels, are specially well served by the amplitude of 
the dactyl and the paean, feet which, although they 
contain a majority of short syllables, are yet not 
deficient in time-length. On the other hand, where 

583 



QUINTILIAN 

non solum quod sunt e duabus modo syllabis eoque 
frequentiorem quasi pulsum habent, quae res lenitati 
contraria est, sed etiam quod omnibus pedibus insur- 
gunt et e brevibus in longas nituntur et crescunt, 
ideoque meliores choreis, qui ab longis in breves 

137 cadunt. Summissa, qualia in epilogis sunt, lentas 
et ipsa, sed minus exclamantes exigunt. 

Vult esse Celsus aliquam et superbiorem x composi- 
tionem, quam equidem si scirem, non docerem ; sed 
sit necesse est tarda et supina, verum nisi ex verbis 
atque sententiis. Per se si id quaeritur, satis odiosa 
esse non poterit. 

138 Denique, ut semel finiam, sic fere componendum 
quomodo pronuntiandum erit. An non in prooemiis 
plerumque summissi, (nisi cum in accusatione con- 
citandus est iudex aut aliqua indignatione com- 
plendus) in narratione pleni atque expressi, in 
argumentis citati atque ipso etiam motu celeres 
sumus, in locis ac descriptionibus fusi ac fluentes, 

139 in epilogis plerumque deiecti et infracti ? Atqui 
corporis quoque motui sunt 2 sua quaedam tempora 
et ad signandos 3 pedes non minus saltationi quam 
modulationibus adhibetur musica ratio numerorum. 
Quid ? non vox et gestus accommodatur naturae 



1 superbiorem, Spalding : superiorem, 0. 

2 motui sunt Spalding : motus, G. 
9 signandos, Halm : signos, O. 



584 



BOOK IX. iv. 136-139 

violence is required, the requisite energy will be 
best secured by the employment of the iambus, not 
merely because that foot contains but two syllables, 
with the result that its beat is more frequent, making 
it unsuited to gentle language, but also because ev ery 
foot gives the effect of an ascent, as they climb and 
swell from short to long, a fact which renders them 
superior to the choreus, which sinks from long to 
short. Subdued passages, such as occur in the 137 
peroration, also require slow syllables, which must, 
however, be less sonorous. 

Celsus insists that there is a special form of rhyth- 
mical structure which produces a particularly stately 
effect : I do not know to what he refers and, if I did, 
should not teach it, since it must inevitably be slow 
and flat, that is to say unless this quality is derived 
from the words and thoughts expressed. If it is to 
be sought for its own sake, independent of such 
considerations, I cannot sufficiently condemn it. 

But, to bring this discussion to a close, I would 138 
remark that our rhythm must be designed to suit 
our delivery. Is not our tone subdued as a rule in 
the exordium, except of course in cases of accusation 
where we have to rouse the judge or fill him with 
indignation, full and clear in the statement of fact, 
in argument impetuous and rapid not merely in our 
language, but in our motions as well, expansive and 
fluent in commonplaces and descriptions and, as a rule, 
submissive and downcast in the peroration ? But the 139 
motions of the body also have their own appropriate 
rhythms, while the musical theory of rhythm deter- 
mines the value of metrical feet no less for dancing 
than for tunes. Again, do we not adapt our voice 
and gesture to the nature of the themes on which 

585 



QUINTILIAN 

ipsarum, de quibus dicimus, rerum ? Quo minus 
id mirere in pedibus orationis, cum debeant sublimia 
ingredi, lenia duci, acria currere, delicata fiuere. 

140 Itaque tragoediae, ubi necesse est, adfectamus etiam 
tumorem ex spondeis atque iambis quibus 1 maxime 
continetur : 

En impero Argis, sceplra mi liqidt Pelops. 

At ille comicus aeque senarius, quern trochaicum 
vocant, pluribus trochaeis, qui tribrachi 2 ab aliis 

141 dicuntur, pyrrhichiisque decurrit ; sed quantum 
acci])it celeritatis, tantum gravitatis amittit : 

Quid igitur faciam ? non earn ne nunc quidcm ? 

Aspera vero et maledica, ut dixi, etiam in carmine 
iambis grassantur : 

Quis hoc potest videre, quis potest pati, 
Nisi impudicus et vorax et aleo ? 

142 In universum autem, si sit necesse, duram potius 
atque asperam compositionem malim esse quam 
effeminatam et enervem, qualis apud multos et 
cotidie magis lascivissimis syntonorum modis saltat. 
Ac ne tarn bona quidem ulla erit, ut debeat esse 

1 quibus, added by Spalding. 

' trochaeis . . tribrachi, Spalding: choreis . . trochaei, 
MSS. 

1 From an unknown tragedian. "Lo, I am lord at Argos, 
where to me I Pelops the sceptre left." 

2 Ter. Eun. I. i. 1. " What shall I do then ? Not go even 
now?" The pyrrhic never forms a separate foot, but does 
form part of the anapaest, tribrach and dactyl and it is in this 
connexion that it is mentioned by Quintilian. 

586 



BOOK IX. iv. 139-142 

we are speaking ? There is, therefore, all the less 
reason for wonder that the same is true of the feet 
employed in prose, since it is natural that what is 
suhlime should have a stately stride, that what is 
gentle should seem to be led along, that what 
is violent should seem to run and what is tender to 
How. Consequently, where necessary, we must 140 
borrow the pompous effect produced by the spondees 
and iambi which compose the greater portion of the 
rhythms of tragedy, as in the line, 

En, impero Argis, sceptra mi liquit Pelops. 1 

But the comic senarius, styled trochaic, contains a 
number of pyrrhics and trochees, which others call 
iribrachs, but loses in dignity what it gains in speed, 141 
as for example in the line, 

quid igitur faciam ? non earn, ne nunc quid em ?* 

Violent and abusive language, on the other hand, 
even in verse, as I have said, employs the iambic for 
its attack : e. g., 

Quis hoc potest videre, quis potest pali, 
nisi impudicus et voraa: et aleo ? 3 

As a general rule, however, if the choice were forced 142 
upon me, I should prefer my rhythm to be harsh and 
violent rather than nerveless and effeminate, as it is 
in so many writers, more especially in our own day, 
when it trips along in wanton measures that suggest 
the accompaniment of castanets. Nor will any 
rhythm ever be so admirable that it ought to be 

* Cat. xxix. 1. " Who save a lecherous gambling glutton 
can endure to gaze on such a sight as this ? " 

587 



QUINTILIAN 

143 continua et in eosdem semper pedes ire. Nam et 
versificandi genus est unam legem omnibus sermoni- 
bus dare ; et id cum manifestae adfectationis est 
(cuius rei maxime cavenda suspicio est), turn etiam 
taedium ex similitudine ac satietatem creat ; quoque 
est dulcius, magis perditamittit que 1 et fidem et ad- 
fectus motusque omnes, qui est in hac cura deprehen- 
sus. Nee potest ei credere aut propter eum dolere et 

144 irasci iudex, cui putat hoc vacare. Ideoque interim 
quaedam quasi solvenda de industria sunt ; et quidem 
illamaximi laboris, ne laborata videantur. Sed neque 
longioribus, quam oportet, hyperbatis compositioni 
serviamus ne, quae eius rei gratia fecerimus, propter 
earn fecisse videamur; et certe nullum aptum atque 

145 idoneum verbum permutemus gratia levitatis. Neque 
enim ullum erit tarn difficile, quod non commode 
inseri possit, nisi quod in evitandis eiusmodi verbis 
non decorem compositionis quaerimus, sed facili- 
tatem. Non tamen mirabor Latinos magis indulsisse 
compositioni quam Atticos, cum minus 2 in verbis 

146 habeant severitatis 3 et gratiae ; nee vitium duxerim, 
si Cicero a Demosthene paulum in hac parte descivit. 

1 amittit que, Regius: atque, MSS. 

* cum minus, G. Meyer : quominus, G : quamvis, quamvis 
minus, later 3ISS. 

3 severitatis, Spalding: veritatis, G: varietatis, Regius. 

1 Transpositions. See viii. vi. 62. 
588 



BOOK IX. iv. 142-146 

continued with the same recurrence of feet. For we 
shall really be indulging in a species of versification 
if we seek to lav down one law for all varieties of 
speech : further, to do so would lay us open to the 
charge of the most obvious affectation, a fault of 
which we should avoid even the smallest suspicion, 
while we should also weary and cloy our audience by 
the resulting monotony ; the sweeter the rhythm, 
the sooner the orator who is detected in a studied 
adherence to its employment, will cease to carrv 
conviction or to stir the passions and emotions. The 
judge will refuse to believe him or to allow him to 
excite his compassion or his anger, if he thinks that 
he has leisure for this species of refinement. It will 
therefore be desirable from time to time that in 
certain passages the rhythm should be deliberately 
dissolved : this is a task of no small difficulty, if the 
appearance of effort is to be avoided. In so doing 
we must not come to the assistance of the rhythm 
by introducing hyperbata 1 of extravagant length, for 
fear that we should betray the purpose of our action : 
and we should certainly never in our search for 
smoothness abandon for another any word that is 
apt and appropriate to our theme. As a matter of 
fact no word will be so intractable as to baffle all our 
attempts to find it a suitable position ; but it must 
be remembered that when we avoid such words, we 
do so not to enhance the charm of our rhythm, but 
to evade a difficulty. I am not, however, surprised 
that Latin writers have paid more attention to 
rhythmical structure than the Athenians, since Latin 
words possess less correctness and charm. Nor again 
do I account it a fault in Cicero that, in this respect, 
he diverged to some extent from the practice of 

589 



QUINTILIAN 

Sed quae sit differentia nostri Graecique sermonis, 
explicabit summus liber. 

Compositio (nam finem imponere egresso desti- 
nation modum volumini festino) debet esse honesta, 
147 iucunda, varia. Eius tres partes: ordo, coniunctio, 
numerus. Ratio in adiectione, detractione, muta- 
tione ; usus pro natura rerum, quas dicimus : cura 
ita magna, ut sentiendi atque eloquendi prior sit ; 
dissimulatio curae praecipua, ut numeri sponte 
fluxisse, non arcessiti et coacti esse videantur. 



59o 



BOOK IX. iv. 146-147 

Demosthenes. However, my final book will explain 
the nature of the difference between our language 
and that of Greece. 

But I must bring this book to a conclusion without 
more delay, since it has already exceeded the limits 
designed for it. To sum up then, artistic structure 
must be decorous, pleasing and varied. It consists 
of three parts, order, connexion and rhythm. The 
method of its achievement lies in addition, subtraction 
and alteration of words. Its practice will depend 
upon the nature of our theme. The care which it 
demands is great, but, still, less than that demanded 
by expression and thought. Above all it is necessarv 
to conceal the care expended upon it so that our 
rhythms may seem to possess a spontaneous flow, not 
to have been the result of elaborate search or 
compulsion. 



59i 



INDEX 



(Only those names are included which seem to re/juire some explanation , 
complete index will be contained in Vol. I V.) 



Aeacida, vn. ix. 6. Pyrrhus, King of 
Epirus, who claimed descent from 
Aeacus. 

Aeschines, vn. i. 2. Athenian orator, 
famous as opponent of Demos- 
thenes. 

Airicanus, Julius, vm. v. 15. Orator 
of the reign of Nero. 

Antonius, M. (i), vn. iii. 16. Great 
orator, earlier contemporary of 
Cicero. 

Antonius, M. (ii), vn. iii. 18. The 
triumvir. 

Antonius, Gains, rx iii. 94. Cicero's 
colleague in the consulship. 

Apollodorus, IX. i. 12. Distinguished 
rhetorician from Pergamus of the 
Augustan age. 

Appius Pulcher, vm. iii. 35. Cicero's 
predecessor as governor of Cilicia : 
the whole of Bk. IIL of the Epis- 
tolae ad Familiares is addressed to 
him. 

Asinius, see Pollio. 

Bostar, vn. ii. 10. A man of Punic 
origin alleged to have been mur- 
dered by Scaurus in Sardinia. 

Brutus, M.. IX. iii. 95: IX. iv. 75 sq. 
Orator of the Attic school : mur- 
derer of Julius Caesar. 

Caecilius, vm. iii. 35; ix. i. 12; ix. 
iii. 38, 46, 89, 91, 98. Sicilian 
rhetorician who taught at Rome in 
the reign of Augustus. 

Caecilius, Q., vn. ii. 2. Sought to 
accuse Verres, whose quaestor he 
had been, with a view to securing 
his acquittal by collusion. 



Caelius, IX. ii. 59. Younger contem- 
porary of Cicero, distinguished as 
an orator. 

Calvus,IX. ii.25; IX. iii. 56. Younger 
contemporary of Cicero, poet and 
orator of the Attic school. 

Cassius Severus, vm. ii. 2 ; vm. iii. 
89. Orator of the reign of Augustus. 

Cato the censor, vm. iii. 29; vm. v. 
33; vm. vi. 9; IX. ii. 21; IX. iv. 
39. The famous opponent of Car- 
thage; one of the most distin- 
guished writers and orators of his 
day (234-149 B.C.). 

Cato Uticensis, vm. ii. 9; IX. iv. 75. 
Contemporary of Cicero and among 
the most ardent opponents of 
Caesar. 

Celsus, Cornelius, vn. i. 10; vn. ii. 
19; vm. iii. 35, 47; IX. i. 18; IX. 
ii. 22, 40, 102, 104, 106; IX. iv. 
137. Encyclopaedic writer of the 
reign of Tiberius. His works on 
rhetoric are lost; a treatise on 
medicine survives. 

Cornelius, vm. iii. 3. Defended by 
Cicero on a charge of Use-majestK 

Oomificius, ix. ii. 27; ix. iii. 71, 89, 
98. Rhetorician, contemporary of 
Cicero, probably author of rhetorical 
treatise ad Herennium. 

Crassus, L., vn. vi. 9; vm. Pr. 14. 
Great orator : earlier contemporary 
of Cicero. 

Ctesiphon, vn. i. 2. Accused by 
Aeschines and defended by Demos- 
thenes (de Corona). 

Curius, vn. ii. 38. Famous general, 
victorious over Pyrrhus : surnamed 
Dentatus. 

593 



INDEX 



Dionysius of Halicarnassus, IX. iii. 89 ; 

IX. iv. 88. Famous rhetorician and 

historian of the Augustan age. 
Dolabella, via. ii. 4. Son-in-law of 

Cicero. 
Domitius Aier, vm. v. 4 and 16; 

IX. ii. 20; IX. iii. 66, 79; IX. iv. 

31. Famous orator of the reign of 

Tiberius. 

Ephorus, IX. iv. 87. Famous Greek 
historian (fourth century B.C.) : 
wrote a history of Greece from the 
earliest times to 341 B.C. 

Fabricius, vn. i i. 38. Famous general, 
victorious over Samnites and Luca- 
nians, 282 B.C. 

Fannius, vn. ix. 12. Consul 122 B.C. 

Flavus, see Verginius. 

Gallio, IX. ii. 91. Orator and friend 

of Ovid. 
Gorgias (i), IX. iii. 74. Sophist and 

rhetorician of Leontini, latter half 

of fifth century B.C. 
Gorgias (ii), IX. ii. 102, 106. Athenian 

rhetorician, teacher of Cicero's son. 

Hermagoras, vn. iv. 4; IX. ii. 106. 
Famous rhetorician of the Rhodian 
school, contemporary with Cicero. 

Hirtius, viii. iii. 54. Supporter of 
Caesar. Consul 43 B.C. Killed at 
Mutina while fighting Mark 
Antony. 

Horatius, vn. iv. 8. Survivor of the 
three Horatii who fought the three 
Curiatii : slew his sister for bewail- 
ing the death of one of the Curiatii 
to whom she was betrothed. 

Hortensius vm. iii. 35. Cicero's chief 
rival at the bar. 

Isocrates, IX. iii. 74; IX. iv. 35. 
Famous Athenian orator, founder 
of the science and technique of 
Greek rhetoric (436-338 B.C.). 

Labienus, IX. iii. 13. Orator and 

historian under Augustus. 

Mancinus, vn. iv. 12. Consul 137 B.C. 
Defeated by the armies of the town 
of Numantia, with whom he con- 



cluded a shameful peace, which 
Rome refused to acknowledge. 

Manlius, vn. ii. 2. Saved Rome from 
the Gauls, but later, suspected of 
aiming at supreme power, was 
hurled from the Tarpoian rock, 
384 B.C. 

Marrucini, vn. ii. 26. A people on 
the Adriatic slopes of the Abruzzi. 

Messala. vm. iii. 34; IX. iv. 38. Dis- 
tinguished orator and philologist of 
the Augustan age. 

Mithridates, vm. iii. 82. King of 
Pontus, finally conquered by Pora- 
pey. 

Pisaurum, vn. ii. 26. The modern 

Pesaro. 
Piso, IX. ii. 61. Praetor in Spain, 

113 B.O. 
Pollio, Asinius, vn. ii. 26; vm. i. 3; 

IX. ii. 9 and 34; IX. iii. 13; IX. iv. 

132. Famous orator, poet and his- 
torian of the Augustan age. 
Pomponius Secundus, vm. iii. 31. A 

writer of tragedy under the Empire. 
Proculeius, IX. iii. 68. Friend of 

Augustas. 
Proculus, 0. Artorius, IX. i 2. A. 

grammarian of unknown date. 
Prodicus, IX. ii. 36. Sophist of the 

fifth century B.C. 
Pyrrhus, vn. ii. 6. King of Epirus; 

invaded Italy in the opening years 

of the third century B.C. 

Rabirius, vn. i. 9 and 16. Killed 
Saturninus, and was indicted for 
the murder many years afterwards 
by Caesar. 

Roscius, vn. ii. 2. Accused of parri- 
cide and defended by Cicero. 

Rullus, vm. iv. 28. As tribune, pro- 
posed an agrarian law in 63 B.C. 

Rutilius, IX. ii. 102 and 106 ; IX. iii. 
84, 89 sqq. 99. Rhetorician of the 
reign of Augustus, translated the 
works of Gorgias of Athens (q.v.). 

Scaevola, Q. (i), vn. ix. 12. Consul 
117 B.C. 

Scaevola (ii), vn. vi. 9. Famous 
jurist. Consul 95 B.C. 

Scaurus, vn. ii. 10. Praetor 56, Pro- 
praetor in Sardinia 55 B.C. Accused 



594 



INDEX 



of extortion in his province, lie was 
defended by Cicero and acquitted. 

Sisenna, vm. iii. 35. Historian and 
man of letters with a passion for 
rare words : elder contemporary of 
Cicero. 

Sulpicius, Servius, vn. iii. 18. Dis- 
tinguished orator, contemporary 
with Cicero, died on embassy to 
Mark Antony. 

Theo, IX iii. 76. Stoic and rhetorician 

of the reign of Augustus. 
Theodectes, IX. iv. 83. Rhetorician 

of first half of fourth century B.C. 
Theophrastus, VDL i. 2 ; IX. iv. 83. 
Theopompus, IX. iv. 35. Famous 

Greek historian of the latter half of 

fourth century B.C. 
Thrasybulus, vn. iv. 44. Overthrew 

the thirty tyrants of Athens 4U4 B.C. 



Thrasyniachus, IX iv. 87. Rhetorician 
contemporary with Plato. 

Traehalus, VUL v. 19. A distin- 
guished orator, consul 68 A.D. See 
X i. 119. 

Tatinius, IX ii. 25. Turbulent poli- 
tician of the worst character : oppo- 
nent of Cicero : accused of bribery 
by Calvns, 54 B.C. 

Verginius Flavos, vn. iv. 24 and 40; 
vm. iii. 33. Famous rhetorician, 
flourished under Xero. 

Vibius Crispus, vm. v. 15 and 17. 
Orator contemporary with Quin- 
tilian : notorious as an informer. 

Zoilus, IX. i. 14. Grammarian and 
rhetorician: fourth or third century 
B.C., date uncertain. 



595 



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Aristotle: Art of Rhetoric. J. H. Freese. (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Athenian Constitution, Eudemian Ethics, 

Vices and Virtues. H. Rackham. ( 3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle.- Generation of Animals. A. L. Peck. (2nl 

Imp.) 
Aristotle: Metaphysics. H. Tredennick. 2 Vols. (4th Imp.) 
Aristotle: Meteoroloqica. H. D. P. Lee. 
Aristotle: Minor Works. W. S. Hett. On Colours, On 

Things Heard, On Physiognomies, On Plants, On Marvellous 

Tilings Heard, Mechanical Problems, On Indivisible Lines, 

On Situations and Names of Winds, On Melissus, Xenophanes, 

and Gorgias. (2nd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. • H. Rackham. (6th Imp. 

revised. ) 
Aristotle: Oeconomica and Magna Moralia. G. C. Arm- 
strong; (with Metaphysics, Vol. II.). (4th Imp.) 
Aristotle: On the Heavens. W. K. C. Guthrie. (3rd Imp. 

revised. ) 
Aristotle: On the Soul. Parva Naturalia, On Breath. 

W. S. Hett. (2nd Imp. revised.) 



Aristotle: Organon — Categories, On Interpretation, Prior 

Analytics. H. P. Cooke and H. Tredennick. (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Organon — Posterior Analytics, Topics. H. Tre- 
dennick and E. S. Forster. 
Aristotle: Organon — On Sophistical Refutations. 

On Coming to be and Passing Away, On the Cosmos. E. S. 

Forster and D. J. Furley. 
Aristotle: Parts of Animals. A. L. Peck; Motion and 

Progression of Animals. E. S. Forster. (4th Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Physics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Cornford. 

•2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Poetics and Longintjs. W. Hamilton Fyfe; 

Demetrius on Style. W. Rhys Roberts. (5th Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Politics. H. Rackham. (4th Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Problems. W.S. Hett. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Rhetorica Ad Alexandrum (with Problems. 

Vol. II.). H. Rackham. 
Arrian: History of Alexander and Indica. Rev. E. Iliffe 

Robson. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Athenaeus: Deipnosophistae. C. B. Gulick. 7 Vols. 

(Vols. I.-IV., VI. and VII. 2nd Imp., Vol. V. 3rd Imp.) 
St. Basil: Letters. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Callimachus: Fragments. C. A. Trypanis. 
Callimachus, Hymns and Epigrams, and Lycophron. A. \Y. 

Mair; Abattjs. G. R. Mair. (2nd. Imp.) 
Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. (3rd Imp.) 

CoLLUTHUS. Cf. OPPIAN. 

Daphnis and Chloe. Thornley's Translation revised by 

J. M. Edmonds; and Parthentus. S. Gaselee. (4Jh Imp.) 
Demosthenes I.: Olynthiacs, Philippics and Minor Ora- 
tions. I.-XVII. and XX. J. H. Vince. (2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes II.: De Corona and De Falsa Legatione. 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Demosthenes III.: Meldias, Androtion, Aristocrates, 

Timocrates and Aristogeiton, I. and II. J. H. Vince 

(2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes IV .-VI.: Private Orations and In Neaeram. 

A. T. Murray. (Vol. IV. 3rd Imp., Vols. V. and VI. 2nd 

Imp.) 
Demosthenes VII. : Funeral Speech, Erotic Essay, Exordia 

and Letters. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt. 
Dio Casstcs: Roman History. E. Cary. 9 Vols. (Vols. I. 

and II. 3rd Imp., Vols. III.-LX. 2nd Imp.) 
Dio Chbysostom. J. W. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. 6 Vols. 

(Vols. I.-IV. 2nd Imp.) 
Diodobus Siculus. 12 Vols. Vols. l.-VI. C. H. Oldfather. 

Vol. VII. C. L. Sherman. Vols. IX. and X. R. M. Geer. 

Vol. XI. F.Walton. (Vol. 1. 3rd Imp., Vols. II.-IV. 2nd Imp.) 
Diogenes Laerttcs. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. (5th Imp.). 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man : s translation revised by E. Cary. 7 Vols. (Vols. I.-V. 

2nd Imp.) 

6 



Epictetus. VV. A. Oldfather. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. ( Vols. I. and IV. 1th Imp., Vol. 

II. 8th Imp., Vol. III. 6th Imp.) Verse trans. 
Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and 

J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 5th Imp.) 
Galen: On the Natural Faculties. A. J. Brock. (4th Imp.) 
The Greek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. (Vols. I.-IV. 

5th Imp., Vol. V. 3rd Imp.) 
Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontea. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
The Greek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

J. M. Edmonds. (1th Imp. revised.) 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. (3rd 

Imp.) 
Herodes. Cf. Theophrastus : Characters. 
Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vols. 

II. and III. 5th Imp., Vol. IV. 3rd Imp.) 
Hesiod and The Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 

(llh Imp. revised and enlarged.) 
Hippocrates and the Fragments of Hfi acleitus. W. H. S. 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. (Vol. 1. 4tli Imp., 

Vols. II.-IV. 3rd Imp.) 
Homer: Iliad. A.T.Murray. 2 Vols. (1th Imp.) 
Homer: Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. (8th Imp.) 
Isaeus. E. W. Forster. (3rd Imp.) 
Isocrates. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 

(2nd Imp.) 
St. John Damascene: Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Josephus. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I.-VH. (Vol. V.4th Imp., Vol. VI. 3rd Imp., Vols. I.-IV. 

and VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Julian Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 

3rd Imp., Vol. III. 2nd Imp.) 
Lucian. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. (Vols. I. and 

II. 4th Imp., Vol. III. 3rd Imp., Vols. IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp. 

Vol. II revised and enlarged, and III. 4th Imp.) 
Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. (3rd Imp.) 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell: Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. (3rd Imp.) 
Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines. (4th Imp. revised.) 
Menander." F. G. Allinson. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Minor Attic Orators (Antiphon, Andocides, Lycurgus, 

Demades, Dinarchus, Hypereides). K. J. Maidment and 

J. 0. Burrt. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
Nonnos: Dionysiaca. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. (2nd imp.) 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. A. W. Mair. {2nd Imp.) 
Papyri. Non-Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) Literary Selections. 

(Poetry). D. L. Page. (3rd Imp.) 
6 



Parthenius. Cf. Daphnis and Chloe. 

Pausanias: Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jonas. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 

(Vols. I. and III. 3rd Imp., Vols. II., IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Phtlo. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V.; F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker Vols. VI.-IX.; F. H. Colson. (Vols. I-II.. V— 

VII., 3rd Imp., Vol. IV. Hh Imp., Vols. III., VIII., and IX. 

2nd Imp.) 
Philo: two supplementary Vols. (Translation only.) Ralph 

Marcus. 
Philostratus : The Life op Appollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 

PHILOSTRATUS : IMAGINES ; CALLISTRATU3 : DESCRIPTIONS. 

A. Fairbanks. (2nd Imp.) 

Philostratus and Eunapius: Lives of the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave Wright. (2nd Imp.) 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. (8th Imp. revised.) 
Plato: Chabmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The Lover-*. 

Theaces, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. (2nd 

Imp.) 
Plato: Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hippias, Lesser 

Hippias. H. N. Fowler. (1th Imp.) 
Plato: Edthyphro, Apolooy, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. 

H. N. Fowler. ( 1 Ith Imp.) 
Plato: Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Edthydemus. W. R. M. 

Lamb. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Plato: Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Plato: Lysis, Symposium Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. (5th 

Imp. revised.) 
Plato: Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., 

Vol. II. 4th Imp.) 
Plato: Statesman, Phtlebus. H. N. Fowler; Ion. W. R. M. 

Lamb. (4th Imp.) 
Plato: Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. (4th Imp.) 
Plato: Ttmaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epistulab. 

Rev. R. G. Bury. (3rd Imp.) 
Plutarch: Moralia. 14 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt. 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold. Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 

B. Einareon. Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. Vol. XII. H. 
Chernis8 and W. C Helmbold. (Vols. I.-VI. and X. 2nd Imp.) 

Plutarch: The Parallel Lives. B. Pen-in. 11 Vols. 

(Vols. I., II., VI., VII., and XI. 3rd Imp., Vols. III.-V. an J 

VIII.-X. 2nd Imp.) 
Polybius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Pbocopius: History of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 VoU. 

(Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vols. II.-VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. Cf. Manetho. 

Qunrrus Smyrnaeus. A. S. Way. Verse trans. (3rd Imp.) 
Sextus Emptricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. (Vol. L ith 

Imp^ Vols. EL and HI. 2nd Imp.) 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 10th Imp. Vol. II. 6th 

Imp.) Verse trans. 

7 



Strabo: Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. (Vols. I., V., 

and VIII. 3rd Imp., Vols. II., III., IV., VI., and VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds. Herodes, 

etc. A. D. Knox. (3rd Imp.) 
THEOrHRASTUs : Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort, 

Bart. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. Bth Imp., Vols. 

II. and IV. 4th Imp., Vol. III., 3rd Imp. revised.) 
Tryphiodorus. Cf. Oppian. 
Xenophon: Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

4th Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon: Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Symposium. 

C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. ( Vols. I. and III 

3rd Imp., Vol. II. 4th Imp.) 
Xenophon: Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Marchant 

(3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon: Scripta Minora. E. C. Marchant. (3rd Imp.) 



IN PREPARATION 



Greek Authors 

Aristotle: History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus: A. H. Armstrong. 



Latin Authors 

Babrics and Phaedrus. Ben E. Perry. 
DESCRIPTIVE PROSPECTUS OX APPLICATION 



London WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

Cambridge, Mass. HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 




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